03 Gaseous fuels (derived gaseous fuels)
00102439 Effect of the preparation technique on the adsorption and catalytic properties of cobalt catalysts for hydrocarbons synthesis from CO and H2 Savost’yanov, A. P. el (II. I-v. VL.SS/I. Uchehn. Zovrd.. .Ser,.-Kwk. Reg., T&h. Nnuki, 1998. 3. 74-78. (In Russian) A study was made into the effect of the chemical nature of the tntttal cobalt compounds used for the preparation of a cobalt oxide catalyst on the properties of the oxide catalysts. The specific properties of the catalyst examined were the reducibility of the catalyst and its CO adsorption capacity. It is assumed that these two properties determine the catalytic properties of the oxide. The initial cobalt compounds studied were cobalt carbonate, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt nitrate, cobalt oxalate, and COO,. These had a significant effect on the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. It is possible to change the composition of the products of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by using different salts of the active component in the catalyst preparation 00102440 Energy efficient conversion of methane to syngas over NiO-MgO solid solution Choudhary, V. R. Mamman, A. S. Applied Energy, 2000, 66, (2). 161-175. Methane-to-CO and Hz conversion reactions, involving partial oxidation by 02, oxy-steam reforming, oxy-CO2 reforming, CO? reforming, simultaneous steam and CO* reforming, over a NiO-MgO solid solution (Ni/Mg = 0.5) have been investigated. The calcination (up to 1200°C) temperature of the catalyst has a small but significant effect on its activity/selectivity in the oxidative conversion of methane to syngas. The reduction (by H,) temperature of the catalyst has no significant effect on the catalyst’s performance. The catalyst shows high activity and selectivity in the oxysteam reforming and oxy-CO; reformilg reactions, at 800-850°C and high space velocity [(40-50) x 10. cm3 g h ‘I. These two processes involve coupling of the exothermic oxidative conversion and endothermic steam or COa reforming reactions, making both the processes highly energy efficient and also safe to operate. The catalyst also shows high methane conversion activity (nearly 95% conversion) with 100% selectivity for both CO and Ha in the simultaneous steam and CO, reforming of methane at (SOO-850°C) at a high space velocity (3.6 x 10” cm’ g ’ h- ). 00102441 Gasification and thermochemical studies on bio and waste fuels with particular reference to hazelnut shells Olgun, H. et al. Energy Environ.. Proc. Trrcrhzon Inr. Energy Environ. Symp., 2nd 1998, 1999, 309-313. Edited by Dincer 1. and Ayhan T. The decomposition behaviour of a range of biofuel and waste feedstocks during gasification in a downdraft gasifier was investigated. A laboratory scale large sample thermogravimetric analyser (LSTA) was used which allowed the data on burn-out characteristics of different fuel particles to be measured under agitated conditions. The conditions chosen simulate the combustion behaviour in a gasifier for a range of biofuels and wastes, namely hazelnut, pistachio, peanut shells, wood chips and sewage sludge pellets. From this data the activation energy was calculated for a heating rate of 2O”Cimin. It was found that the activation energy decreased as the weight loss increased. In addition, the influence of a range of gasification air/N2 levels on constituents of the gas released during hazelnut shell decomposition was observed. It was found that the composition of the product gases consisted of CHI, Ha, CO, COa, CzHl and CaH,,. This was analysed as a function of time for hazelnut shells showing that the primary products were Ha, CO, CH4 and COa. 00/02442 Gasification method of cellulose-type biomass Minowa, T. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 11 172,262 [99 172,262) (Cl. ClOJ3/ 00) 29 Jun 1999, Appl. 19971339,555, 10 Dee 1997. 5. (In Japanese) Presented is the method for the gasification of cellulose-type biomass, which includes organic solid wastes and wood wastes. The process comprises of solubilizing the biomass in an aqueous medium, if necessary, using alkali materials under high temperature and high pressure conditions. The resultant aqueous solution is gasified when it is contacted with a hydrogenating metal catalyst. 00102443 Gasification of coal Davey, W. L. E. PCT Int. Appl WO 99 25,792 (Cl. ClOJ3/46), 27 May 1999, ZA Appl. 9811,385, 19 Feb 1998. 35. A gasification process for coal comprises pneumatically conveying pulverized coal along a coal feed line, and feeding it into a gasification chamber through a burner connected to the coal feed line. Simultaneously, a gasification agent comprising oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas is fed into the gasification chamber through the burner. The pulverized coal is gasified by allowing it to burn with a less than stoichiometric amount of oxygen inside the gasification chamber at atmospheric pressure to form a hot gaseous component comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gaseous component comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is then withdrawn from the gasification chamber. 00102444 Gasification of substitute fuels and use of synthesis gas in available energy-producing installations Bernstein, W. and Koppe, K. Beirr. Ahfa//wir/sch, 1999, 9, 283-292. (In German) After a mechanical-biological preparation of the wastes, with the aim of mass and volume reduction and separation, the resultant homogenized alternative fuel is fed to a gasification installation and thermally upgraded. The obtained synthesis gas from the process was purified and by use of
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
available infrastructure (combination of available energy producing installations with residue utilization) fed to natural gas-fuelled and twofuel burner-equipped gas and steam turbines for the generation of heat and electricity. Thus, synthesis gas is used as a substitute for conventional natural gas. Alternatively, the synthesis gas can be co-combusted in a gas engine or in an available boiler. The two main targets for this technology is to reduce cost and at the same time maintain the ecological criteria. 00102445 GTL syngas generation using Synetix GHR technology Abbott, J. Gus Liy. Process. ‘99. Intertrch’s Inl. Bus. Drv. Conf.. 2nrl, 1999, 12/l-12/lI. Described in this report are the principles and development of Synetix gas heated reforming (GHR) technology. In addition, details are provided on optimal syngas production for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology, synthesis components from different generation routes and GHR integration in GTL flow-sheet for Fischer-Tropsch process. 00102446 Hydrogen production alternatives in an IGCC plant Kwon, S.-H. e/ al. Hydrocarbon Process.. In!. Ed., 1999, 78, (4) 73-76. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) unit of SK Corporation, ULSAN, South Korea, is discussed in terms of its ability to combine membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption in the production of pure hydrogen. 00102447 Hydrogen production from methane through catalytic partial oxidation reactions Freni, S. Journal of Power Sourct=s, 2000, 87, (l-2) 28-38. This paper reviews recent developments in syn-gas production processes used for partial methane oxidation with and/or without steam. In particular, different process charts (fixed bed, fluidized bed, membrane, etc.), kinds of catalysts (powders, foams, monoliths, etc.) and catalytically active phases were examined. The explanation of the various suggested technical solutions accounted for the reaction mechanism that may selectively lead to calibrated mixtures of CO and Ha or to the unwanted formation of products of total oxidation (CO2 and HaO) and pyrolysis (coke). Moreover, the new classes of catalysts allow the use of small reactors to treat large amounts of methane (monoliths) or separate hydrogen in situ from the other reaction products (membrane). This leads to higher conversions and selectivity than could have been expected thermodynamically. Although catalysts based on rhodium are extremely expensive, they can be used to minimize Ha0 formation by maximising Hz yield. Industrialization prospect for the catalytic 00/02448 gasification of Fijian pulverized anthracite Zhang, J. Meiran Zhttunhuu. 1999, 22, (2) 28-32. (In Chinese) Pulverized anthracite was gasified catalytically in an experimental fluidized bed, which exhibited the exciting and satisfactory results of having a higher gas yield (>3 ma/kg coal) and a higher gas heating value (~9 MJ/m3 even under a moderate condition, i.e. normal pressure, temperature ranging 850-900” and alkali catalyst content only 8%. The key problems, such as a cheap source of catalyst, the synthetic utilization of containing-alkali slag, the cost of produced gas and a suitable configuration of the gasifier, etc., were also considered. 00102449 JTL-1 fine desulfur process for synthesis gas of alcohol fuels Wang, G. ei (II. Adv. Alcohol Fuels World, Proc. Inr. SJWI~. Alcohol Fuels. 12rh. 1998, 110-l 15. Since 1991, the novel JTL-1 ambient temperature fine sulfur removal process involved with the T504 COS hydrolysis catalyst and one of the TlOl, T102 and T103 special activated carbon desulfurizers has been applied in more than one hundred methanol or united methanol and ammonia plants, The amounts of COS and HaS in purified gas are less than 0.03 x lOme. After the material gas was desulfurized, the lifetime of the methanol catalysts could be prolonged by more than four times and a notable increase could be seen in the output of methanol. 00102450 JTL-4 fine desulfur process for synthesis gas of alcohol fuel Huang, X. et (II. Adv. Alcohol Fuels World, Proc. Ini. Swnp. Alcohol Fuels. I2rh, 1998, 104-109. Edited by Zhu Q. In the synthesis gas of alcohol fuels, a small amount of sulfur can destroy the methanol synthesis catalyst. In China, many middle and small methanol units exhaust large amounts of methanol catalyst every year because of sulfur impurity. Many small ammonia plants can obtain additive methanol production while purifying CO material gas. The problem of sulfur poison is more evident in these plants. Generally, most desulfuration processes are based on hydrogenation conversion at high temperature or methanol scrubbing at low temperature, these methods are only suitable for large methanol units because they need considerable investment capital. The popular processes which fit into middle and small methanol units are organic sulfur hydrolysis combining ambient temperature. However, the disadvantages of the above processes are that the catalyst is expensive along with the desulfurizing sorbent and equipment. A novel EZX absorbent on organic sulfur (COS, CSa) removal is presented.