17 Energy (suppfies, policy, economics, forecasts) 06•00479 Impact assessment of the Electricity Act 2003 on the Indian power sector Thaknr, T. et al. Energy Policy, 2005, 33, (9), 1187 1198. This paper analyses the likely impacts of the major policy reforms unveiled by the Government of India for revamping the country's power sector. The provisions of the new enactment have recently come into force and seek a paradigm policy shift in the form of the Electricity Act 2003. The paper details out the key features of the Act and the likely power industry changes being brought about in the new regime. These changes comprise the structural changes in the power industry as well as the policy issues related to generation, transmission and distribution of power. Also discussed are the other major areas where transformation is sought and impacts are expected: power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, empowerment of the consumers and the environmental issues.
06/00480 Implementation of the EU legislation on Romanian power industry, Romanian legislation: achievements and shortcomings Cruceru, M. et al. Energy, 2005, 30, (8), 1365 1376. In the last decade, Romania drew up specific integration and EU directives implementation programs for main economy sectors. The paper aims to present: (1) structural changes of power sector; (2) main pieces of Romanian legislation regarding the interaction between energy conversion technologies and environment; (3) evolution trends of the pollution generated by thermal power units; (4) difficulties encountered in the process of alignment to the EU provisions.
06/00481 Implementing a double dividend: recycling ecotaxes towards lower labour taxes Manresa, A. and Sancho, F. Energy Policy, 2005, 33, (12), 1577 1585. This paper follows the tradition of applied general equilibrium modelling of the Walrasian static variety to study the empirical viability of a double dividend (green, welfare, and employment) in the Spanish economy. The authors consider a counterfactual scenario in which an ecotax is levied on the intermediate and final use of energy goods. Under a revenue neutral assumption, the authors evaluate the real income and employment impact of lowering payroll taxes. To appraise to what extent the model structure and behavioural assumptions may influence the results, The authors perform simulations under a range of alternative model and policy scenarios. The paper concludes that a double dividend-better environmental quality, as measured by reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and improved levels of employmentmay be an achievable goal of economic policy.
06•00482 Implementing building energy codes in Hong Kong: energy savings, environmental impacts and cost Chart, A. T. and Yeung, V. C. H. Energy and Buildings, 2005, 37, (6), 631 642. A significant proportion of the total energy produced in Hong Kong is consumed by the building stocks, which account for nearly half of the total energy consumption. Due to expanding economy and substantial improvement in living standards over the past decade, the demand of electricity generation has remarkably increased. This rising trend of energy use will inevitably lead to increasing environmental problems. In this respect, a comprehensive set of codes of practice for energy efficiency in building services installation were drawn up by Energy Efficiency Office (EEO) in 1998 in Hong Kong. The codes represent a performance-based approach, which set maximum allowable energy consumption levels for various installations with statements of requirements and evaluation methods. This work evaluates the codes and their improvements on the environment by considering the energy saving, reduction of fuel use and pollutants emission from the power plants if the building energy code programmes become statutory. A group of pilot buildings selected from the commercial sector is used in an evaluation study. In particular, the potential reduction of greenhouse gases emission to the environment has been predicted for the justification of the usefulness of the energy codes. It is found that the application of building energy codes on these buildings has achieved a substantial reduction of energy consumption and an accompanied reduction of greenhouse gas emission. A simple benefit-cost analysis is also performed to evaluate the economics behind the codes and the results fully justify its enactment.
06•00483 Implementing participatory approaches in formulating regional forest policy Ananda, J. Int. J. Sustainable Development, 2004, 7, (4), 398~409. Forest policy-makers increasingly recognize the importance of public participation in planning and policy-making endeavours. In many countries public participation has been institutionalized into national forest policy. Despite the stated policy assurances, implementing participatory approaches has been a challenging task. This paper examines the public involvement in forest policy-making, particularly focusing on the Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) programme in Australia. The RFA is regarded as the most ambitious, expensive and
comprehensive resource planning exercise ever undertaken in the country. The evidence suggests that various participatory and deliberative approaches have been used under the RFA to allow for a plurality of environmental values, but that the integration of public values into final decision-making has been unsatisfactory. Process design, commitment and inadequate attention paid to conflict resolution can be attributed as reasons for sub-optimal outcomes.
Input-output analysis of energy use in agriculture
Karkacier, O. and Goktolga, G. Energy Conversion and Management, 2005, 46, (9 10), 1513 1521. The purpose of this study is to analyse the structural interdependency of the agricultural sector and energy sectors in Turkey. The analysis done in this study used the input-output technique. An input-output model is an accounting system showing economic transactions. The relationships between agriculture and energy can be expressed in concept. The data of this study comes from the State Institute of Statistics Prime Ministry, Republic of Turkey databases for the I n p u t Output Structure of the Turkish Economy.
06•00485 Integrated resource planning (IRP) and power sector reform in developing countries D'Sa, A. Energy Policy, 2005, 33, (10), 1271 1285. The integrated resource planning (IRP) approach is one that considers both supply and demand-side options to meet the need for a resource, while minimizing the costs accruing to the firm and to society. This paper focuses on IRP as a tool for the power sector in the light of the existing problems and the ongoing reforms in developing countries. It looks at the advantages that IRP would afford, juxtaposing these with the barriers to such a planning process-those encountered in the past as well as the possibilities in view of structural changes. It then discusses the policies that would enable the IRP approach to be usefully employed to mitigate the problems of the power sector. Although IRP has receded in importance in some areas of the world, there are perceptible benefits for developing countries; these could adopt such planning methods through the agents and the instruments suggested.
06100486 IT substitution for energy leads to a resilient structure for a survival strategy of Japan's electric power industry Watanabe, C. et al. Energy Policy, 2005, 33, (8), 1069 1084. The dramatic surge in information technology (IT) around the world, and an evolving global economy, are subjecting firms to megacompetition. This is the case, particularly in Japan's electric power industry, where the power rate is one of the highest in the world; hence it is noted that Japan's industry has lost its price competitiveness in the world market, resulting in stagnation of production, hence leading to stagnation in power demand. In addition, an increase in trends of customer's preferences and the variety of participants in the power supply race, have put electric power companies at the mercy of customers with alternative supply sources. Given that uncertainty with respect to energy security, as well as power generation and distribution systems safety increases, as strongly cautioned by the recent blackout in the US and Canada, a dramatic conversion of existing strategies would be indispensable for electric power companies. A conversion from a high-demand-elasticity dependent, supply structure to a resilient structure is required. While the former aims at constructing a highdemand-elasticity supply structure, based on the myth of high growth of demand, the latter aims at maintaining profit, while minimizing the elasticities of factors with high uncertainty, such as energy resources and costly capital investment linked to a fluctuating power demand. This paper demonstrates the significance of IT substitution for energy through consortia structure, thereby utilizing IT spillover and leading to resilience and leveraging consortia structure as Japan's electric power industry survival strategy. An empirical analysis using Japan's nine leading electric power companies over the last quarter century has been conducted.
06/00487 Learning from history or from nature or both?: recycling networks and their metaphors in early industrialisation Desrochers, P. Progress in Industrial Eco#)g.l' An International Journal, 2005, 2, (1), 19 34. Despite widespread current beliefs to the contrary, much evidence indicates that past entrepreneurs, managers, and technicians were often able to create recycling networks between firms, in the process generating both economic and environmental benefits. The author shows that the basic insight of the industrial ecology metaphor, that is, using nature as a model or inspiration for creativity in loop-closing, was well understood in the second half of the nineteenth century. New evidence is presented to support these assertions, along with some speculations as to why the past industrial ecology perspective had to be independently rediscovered and popularized in recent years.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts