Poster Session P27. Pesticides The chlorophenoxy herbicides showed different accumulation in case of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA) and (2,4dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D). The 2,4-D was not detected within the wheat tissues at all. The highest concentration of MCPA was found within the wheat tissues 2 hours after treatment and was declined. After next twelve hours the level of the herbicides was undetectable. The MCPA accumulation within the wheat tissues was clearly related to applied doses of the studied herbicide.
effects, but parameters of such effects were more expressed in the level of small doses than in high doses. Therefore we suppose that it is necessary to develop the new approaches for testing of GRP instead of traditional, which are used for all pesticides. First of all, such tests have to include more widely range of low doses and additional tests for study of target-organs. 557
SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF PHENOXY HERBICIDES RESIDUES FROM AQUEOUS SAMPLES
R. Krzyzanowski, B. Leszczynski. Department of Biochemistry, University of Podlasie, Siedlce, Poland Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is one of the most promising method in analyzing of the herbicide residues. However, an application of the SPME method requires determination of the proper analytical conditions. In the present paper we report on standarization of the solid phase microextraction of the phenoxy herbicides: 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP), (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), 2-(2,4dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid (2,4-DP), (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D). Carbowax/PDMS fiber was used to study: time, temperature and ionic strength of the extraction and temperature and time of the herbicides desorption. The adsorption profile was studied by monitoring the area counts as a function of exposure time in the range from 5 to 30 min. The temperature and time required to completely desorption all the analytes from the coating fiber was determined for 10 min with temperature programmed from 140°C to 240°C. The obtained results showed the highest absorption of the MCPA after 20 min, the concentration of 0.0035–0.0072 µg/l and 0.0052– 0.0110 µg/l for the MCPP and MCPA, respectively. The best absorption time for the 2,4-DP and 2,4-D was after 15 min, when the concentration was 0.0007 µg/l 2,4-DP and 0.0110 µg/l of the 2,4-D. Standard condition for desorption of MCPP and MCPA was as follow: desorption temperature 180°C and desorption time 6 min, instead desorption time from 2,4-DP and 2,4-D between 4–8 min. The performed standarization procedure showed that SPME is an useful method for extraction of the phenoxy herbicide residues. 556
EVALUATION OF CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY OF PLANTS GROWN REGULATES
O. Reshavska, E. Bagliy, N. Nedopytanska. Medved’s Institute of Ecohygiene and Toxicology, Kyiv, Ukraine The grown regulates of plants (GRP) are perspective biological active chemicals which are widely used in an agriculture to increase of productivity, to increase of disease resistance. GRP have combined such good qualities as high biological activity, low toxicity for experimental animals and low use rates. Thus, GRP considerably reduce a chemical pressure on an environment. At the same time, the remote effects of its action, including carcinogenicity is not clear until now. It may be because from one hand it is well known, that the chemical structure of many synthesized GRP looks structural similarly to natural compounds of a metabolism, from other hand, the levels of their residues in an environment very low. In Ukraine some effective GRP of different chemical classes have been synthesized and widely use in an agriculture. We have studied carcinogenic activity some of them by means of the different models and tests. Sulphonylurea derivatives (“Ellips” – chlorsulfoxym-methyl diethylethanolamine, “Krug” - sulphonylurea diethanolamine salt), N-oxid-piridines (“Ivin” – N-oxid2,6-dimethylpiridine, “Triman-1” - aqua-N-oxid-2-methylpiridine marganec-2-chloride) and amidines (“Simarp” – dichlorhydrate N(3-dimethylamino) propylthrycloracetamidine) had studied by means of micronuclear test, alkaline unwinding assay DNA in different cells, NDEA-partial hepatectomy model, lung tumors induction in strain BALBc mice assays and traditional chronic experiments in rodents. All of testing substances did not cause genotoxic and oncogenic
BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF ESFENVALERATE TOXICITY ON THE LIVER OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS
Elif Oruç, Nevin Üner, Tüzin Aytekin, Yusuf Sevgiler. University of Çukurova, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology, Balcalı, Adana, Turkey The aim of the present study was to determine the LC50 value and the mode of action of the endocrine disrupter pyrethroid esfenvalerate and to find out the level of liver damage caused by this insecticide and its relation with oxidative stress in Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to different concentration of the insecticide over three periods and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase together with the activities of acetylcholinesterase, sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and the content of malondialdehyde were determined by using spectroscopic techniques. The 96 hour LC50 value of esfenvalerate was found as 5.06 ppb for the first time in the present study. At high concentrations of esfenvalerate superoxide dismutase activity increased and that of glutathione peroxidase decreased with time. Esfenvalerate did not affect the activities of catalase, acetylcholinesterase, sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and the content of malondialdehyde. It was determined that esfenvalerate has a high toxicity toO. niloticus. Its chronical effect in high concentration might have caused oxidative stress. It was not a neurotoxic agent for O. niloticus and did not cause liver damage. 558
TOXICOLOGICAL CRITERIA IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF NONLETHAL PESTICIDES POISONINGS
N. Prodanchuk, P. Zhminko, S. Sergeyev, A. Kravchuk. L.I. Medved Institute of Ecohygiene and Toxicology, Kiev, Ukraine Nonlethal poisonings is the most frequently meeting displays of pesticides toxic action on agricultural workers. As example is an acute group poisoning of 58 workers, which was exposed of 2,4-Ddimethylammonium herbicide aerosol when neighboring field was sprayed. Initial symptoms of a poisoning were shown as headache, dizziness, weakness in extremities, nausea, vomiting, burning of a face skin and mucous membranes, in the subsequent - asthenovegetative syndrome, vegetosensory polyneuropathy of upper and lower extremities, toxic cardiomyopathy, hepatopathy. 2,4-D-dimethylammonium herbicide formulation did not cause death of laboratory animals at inhalation (investigated concentrations up to 2000 mg/m3 ) and dermal (up to 2000 mg/kg) exposure. It is established that concentration of substance in air of a breath zone at the moment of a poisoning could exceed 2,4D-dimethylammonium maximum concentration limit in working zone air (1 mg/m3 ) in 2.5 times. This concentration corresponded theoretically to a range of chronic action threshold for similar a.i. (from 10 up to 15 mg/m3 ), which is lower than an acute action threshold, at least in 2–3 times. If to take into account these data the poisoning was poorly probable, however it has taken place. The received data testify, that an estimation of pesticides formulations, even with well-known a.i., taking into account only lethal effects at inhalation and dermal exposure, does not allow to reveal functional disorder of organs and systems and to predict an opportunity of nonlethal poisonings. The outlines of toxicological experiment, which allows to reveal functional disorder of organs and systems at single and repeated exposure of pesticides at nonlethal doses level, active ingredient and pesticides formulations toxicodynamics distinctions, to establish criteria for risk assessment of acute, subacute and chronic poisoning at inhalation and dermal exposure of pesticides are offered.