18 ENERGY CONVERSION RECYCLING
96lQ4560 Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey with a downflow-upfiow hybrid factor Malas ina, F. et al., Bioresource Techrrology, Feb. 1996, 55, (2), 131-1 s 9. ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology for the Energy and for the Environment) have done research on anaerobic treatment of raw cheese whey with the objective of developing a technology suitable for mediumsize cheese factories that have growing disposal problems and cannot afford high investment costs for whey valorisation technologies. In the paper, results of laboratory experiences started in 1990 are reported. Research was first carried out on a hybrid upflow reactor, later on a twophase system and finally on a downflow-upflow hybrid reactor, a new concept that was specifically developed for raw cheese whey treatment. 96104561 Biogas plant-effluent as an organic fertilizer in Mossambicusl monosex. monoculture of fish l0reochromi.q Balasubramanian, P. R. and Bai, R: K. Bioresource Techrrology, Feb. 1996, 55, (21, 119-124. Effluent collected from a KVIC model bionas olant fed on cattle dune was utilised in monosex (all male), monoculturi ai the fish Oreochromis”Mossambicus. Biogas-plant effluent was suplied at 3 day intervals. No supiementary feed was given for the fishes grown in biogas plant effluent. Total maximum fish production was 4826 kg ha” in 125 days. 96104562 Consumer non-energy benefits as a motivation for making energy-efficiency improvements Mills, E. and Rosenfeid, A. Energy, Jul.-Aug. 1996, 21, (7), 707-720. Few benefits (e.g. employment) are provided by electric power plants, coal mines, oil pipelines, or other energy-supply systems aside from the energy they produce. Technologies to improve energy end-use efficiency, however, frequently offer non-energy benefits beyond those provided by supply-side options. One class of such benefits accrues at the national level (improved competitiveness, energy security, net job creation, environmental protection) while another relates to consumers and their decision making processes. From a consumer perspective, it is often the non-energy benefits that motivate or can be used to promote decisions to adopt energyefficient technologies. Specific technical examples are provided for highly efficient windows, energy-efficient lighting, space conditioning, ventilation and indoor air quality. The economics of energy conservation policy 96104563 Sutherland, R. J. Energy Policy, Apr. 1996, 24, (4), 361-370. Energy conservation proponents have recently attempted to provide a more rigorous economics justification for both energy appliance standards and utility energy conservation programmes. A tenable case cannot however, be made; market failures do not produce a consistent bias towards energy use; conservation programmes do not reduce the cause of the market failure, and more typically exacerbate market or regulatory failures; and there is no evidence that such programmes make consumers better off in the relevant sense that consumers are willing to pay for them. The development of competitive electricity and gas commodity markets at the end-use level will produce an efficient disposition of utility sponsored programmes. Energy engineering software directory update 1995, 92, (5). 72-76. The update gives details of six software packages available in the USA concerned with energy conservation in various fields.
Heat transfer characteristics in low-temperature 96104565 latent heat storage systems using salt-hydrates at heat recovery stage Chan Choi, J. er al., Solar Energy Mafemls & Solar Cells. Mar. 1996, 40, (l), 71-87. The heat transfer characteristics of a low temperature latent heat storage system have been determined for circular finned and unfinned tubes using sodium acetate trihydrate as a phase change material (PCM). In the heat recovery stage, supercooling of PCM in the finned-tube system is larger than that in the unfinned-tube system. The heat transfer coefficient between the PCM and the heat-transfer tube surface can be predicted from the steady-state heat conduction equation except the beginnmg of freezing with some degree of supercooling. The heat transfer is significantly reduced b> the void cavities upon shrinkage of PCM in the finned-tube system.
96104566 z’_;t26. S.
industrial processes and waste characterization Resources, Conservation & Recycling, Apr. 1996, 16, (l),
Specific industrial processes and its waste characteristics should be known for proper management and control of the wastes produced from industries, Some industrial processes and waste characteristics are introduced to explain how to deal with the wastes for waste characterization. Evaluation methods of biodegradability of industrial wastewater were introduced in order for environmental engineers to be able to decide the proper treatment method of the industrial wastewaters. Industrial processes and characterization discussed in this section might be useful for the selection of suitable methods to prevent pollutant discharge from industrial processes, initial experiments on dew collection in Sweden 96104567 and Tanzania Nilsson, T. Solar Etrergy Materials & Solar Cells, Mar. 1996, 40, (l), 23-32. Moisture in the air can be condensed as dew and used for drinking and irrigation. The radiative cooling properties of polymer foils can enhance the performance of dew collecting surfaces. The main restrictions in condensing water in warm and arid locations are climatic factors, the dew collector design, and the optically selective and adhesive properties of the condensing surface itself. The paper concerns observations of dew formation on radiatively cooled pigmented polyethylene foils. The experiments were carried out in Sweden and in arid Dodoma, Tanzania. The results are in agreement with thermodynamical calculations, though the variation is large in the daily measured dew water volumes. The results are compared with earlier outdoor observations in Tanzania. Part L and energy rating applied to UK housing 96104566 Tod, S. Strucrural Survey, 1995, 13, (2), 26-32. Examines the new Approved Document Part L, which came into force on 1 July 1995 in the UK. This means that all UK dwellings will have to meet stricter energy conservation regulations. Publications on indoor environment and energy conservation Yoshino, H. Tohoku Lluiversiry, 1995. Presents 34 papers from various publications dealing with the indoor environment and energy conservation.
Solid waste treatment within the framework of life96lQ4590 cycle assessment Finnveden, G. er al., J. Clearrer Prod., 1995, 3, (4), 189-199. Traditionally, treatment of solid waste has been given limited attention in connection with life-cycle assessments (LCAs). Often, only the amounts of solid wastes have been noted. This is unsatisfactory since treatment of solid waste, e.g. by landfilling or incineration, is an operation, requiring inputs and producing outputs, which should be described in the inventory of an LCA, in parallel to other operations. However, there are difficulties in describing emissions from solid waste treatments and there is a need for incineration and landfilling is outlined. Methodological questions concerning the time-frame and allocation principles are discussed. Thermal energy storage using a phase central material Solar Energy, Feb. 1996, 56, (2), Hamdan, M. A. and Elwerr, F. A. 183-189. A two-dimensional melting process of a solid phase change material is investigated theoretically. The material contained in a rectangular enclosure heated from one side, while all the other sides are assumed to be adiabatic ones. In this study convection mode was considered to be the dominant mode of heat transfer within the melted region, except within the region very close to the solid surface at the bottom where conduction mode was only taken into consideration. It was found that the obtained results are in good agreement with previous ones. Finally the present analysis was used to predict the melted fraction of the phase change material and hence the amount of stored energy.
Thermochemical liquidization of anaerobically 96104592 digested and dewatered sludge and anaerobic retreatment Bioresource Techtlology, Feb. 1996, 55, (2). Sawayama. S. cr al., 141-144. The pretreatment effect of thermochemical liquidization for the anaerobic retreatment of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge was studied.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts