preferred technology for this clean-up. A development programme on hot ga\ filtration has been carried out at CTDD in order to ensure that this component of the cycle can be used with minimum risk. Information has heen generated detailing the effect of filtration velocity and temperature. cleaning gas requirements, changing dust and gas composition, and for design of critical components such as fast opening valves. venturi ejectors and sealing mechanisms. The effect of different operating conditions on filter clement strength has been evaluated for a range of filter elements.
Direct application of quantum effects generated -,-ray from 13’Cs in high level waste Kitamoto. A. Ru//. Rr.7. Lrrh. NW/. React. (Tokyo Inst. Tc~hnnl.). 1996, 20,
97/01859 by massive
72. In the study of gasification or liquefaction of natural coal, quantum effects generated hy massive ?-rays from ‘77Ca in high level radioactive waste have direct application.
mild coal gasification
White. L. C. and Frederick, J. P. Proc. Anuu. Irft. Pittsburgh C’ou/ Conf., 1995. 12, ISI-156. The FNCOAL demonstration plant has been in the testing and operations mode for more than 3 years. This paper describes the process. reviews the commercialization efforts and explains the operational modifications and performance rcquircd for the successful production, transportation testing of Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquid (CDL) technology.
Energy-chemical coal processing. 3. Fischer97fO1861 Tropsch synthesis of light and heavy hydrocarbon fuels from coal gasification products Anikeev. V. 1. C/rem. Stt.stainah/e hr., IYYh. 4, (2), 119-129. The calculation of the Fischer-Tropsch technology scheme to synthesize light and heavy hydrocarbon fuels from coal gasification products was undertaken. Statistical revision of the experimental kinetic data is reported. New approaches to process kinetics understanding are discussed. A group kinetics methodology was used to analyse the synthesis of hydrocarbons helped to find rate constants for the synthesis of individual hydrocarbons and their groups. Productivity and process selectivity are given as the functions of coal gasification and hydrocarbon synthesis parameters.
Exergy analysis with a flowsheeting simuiatorii. synthesis gas production from natural gas
Hinderink, A. P. C/rem. Eq. Sci., 1996, 51, (20), 4701-4715. The exergy method was implemented to analyse several processes, producing synthesis gas from natural gas, showing exergy analysis as a valuable diagnostic tool. In addition, a generally applicable and systematic way of performing exergy analyses and dealing with their results is illustrated. Exergy calculations were carried out by user-defined suhroutines. which are integrated with a flowsheeting simulator.
Gasification of material containing combustible in circulating fiuidized bed Vostan, P. er al. Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 725,127 (Cl. ClOJ3i 54). 7 Aug 1996,
DE Appl. 19.503.438, 3 Feb 1995; 7 pp. (In German) The gasification of the material takes place in a circulating fluidized bed by using an oxygen-containing gas at 600-1000”. A gas-solid mixture is withdrawn from the top of the gasification reactor and passed through a separator to separate solids from the dust-containing gas. The solids can be recycled to the bottom of the gasifier either directly or after cooling in a fluidized-bed cooling apparatus The dust-containing gas is charged into a combustion chamber and burned at 120(1-1900”. Molten slag is withdrawn from the combustion chamber. Combustion gas is passed through a wasteheat boiler, an air preheater, and a feed water preheater, desulfurized, separated from dust, and released to the atmosphere. The system is suitable for gasification of industrial and municipal wastes, biomass, sludges, and/ or coal.
Nielsen, P. E. H. and Sigurdardottir, I. D. Proc. Annu. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., 1995, 12, 1074-1079. A sandwich sorhent has been developed by Topsoe for deep sulfur removal in coal gases. By a combination of a SnOz based sorbent with a ZnO based sorbent, a sulfur removal down to a few ppm of HZS can be achieved at temperatures around 400°C. The SnOz acts as a bulk desulfurization agent whereas the ZnO acts as a fine desulfurization agent. Sulfur formation can be completely avoided if the oxidation agent is removed from the steam before the tin oxide is completely regenerated. The system has been tested both in lahoratory and pilot scale using simulated coal gases.
Hot gas desuifurization
Campbell, W. M. and Henningsen, G. B. Proc. Anrru. Int. Pittshwgh Coal CO,lf.. 1995, 12, 1059-1064. This paper describes a hot gas desulfurization system for the removal of H2S and COS on a selective sorbent and the regeneration of that sorbent to produce an SO:-rich tail gas.
97101866 Cox, J. L.
et al. Proc.-Biomuss
a fresh approach
Cortf. Am.: Energy, Etwiron., Agric. Irrd.. 2nd. 1995, 657-675. National Renewable Energy L.aboratory: Golden, CO. The paper proposes a new method for the production of hydrogen by thermochemical gasification of biomass is subjected. The process is hased on the catalytic steam gasification of hiomass with concurrent separation of the hydrogen. The process produces a pure (299.9%) hydrogen stream and a gaseous byproduct stream consisting essentially of carbon dioxide and steam. Experimental data and thermodynamic arguments are presented that support the projection that high hydrogen yields can he achieved through control of gasification conditions and reactor design. The process is particularly well suited for wet hiomass and may be conducted at temperatures as low as 300”. The process, thermochemical, preliminary economics. and technology barriers to commercialization are presented.
Murata, T. Gekkun Haihihutsu, 199f1, 22, (6). 122-125. (In Japanese) The production of methane from coal including the energy efficiency of thermal power generation, methane manufacturing of wastes, and coal gasification technologies is reviewed.
97101868 Manufacture of town suitable for methanol synthesis
Mueller. W.-D. et a/. Ger. Offen. DE 19,.507.098 (Cl. ClOK3/04), 1996. Appl. 19,507,09X. I Mar 1995: h pp. (In German) The method of this process is detailed.
Vaeaeraenen. T. M. PCT Int. Appl. WO 96 30.465 (Cl. CIOKIIZh). 3 Ott 1996, US Appl. 413.486, 30 Mar 1995; 14 pp. A method for feeding regeneration offgas into a gasifier in the production of product gas by gasifying sulfurous fuel forms the hasis of this invention.
97101870 Modeling and simulation of energy in combined gas-steam power plant integrated gasification
conversion with coal
Zaporowski. B. froc. fnterroc. Enerkv Corn~ers. Etrg. Co,!f:. I9Yh, 3 I, 20562061. The modelling and simulation of energy conversion in technological systems of combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification were developed. The basis of the performed energy analysis IS the elaborate mathematical models of the coal gasification process. and of the energy processes in gas and in steam parts of power plants. The mathematical model of the coal gasification process for gas--steam power plants allows us to calculate: the composition and physical properties. and energy parameters of gas produced in the process of coal gasification, the consumption and temperature of gasifying medium. and both the chemical and the energy efficiency of coal gasification. ‘The mathematical models were the basis for computer programs for multivariant numerical simulation of energy conversion processes in gas-steam power plants
air by pressure
Stanciu. V. and Stefanescu, D. Ret,. Chim. (Bucharest), 1996, 47, (7). h5S661. (In Romanian) One of the most important applications of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technolology is air separation. Two types of PSA process are in common use, depending on whether oxygen or nitrogen is required as the pure product. Nitrogen production processes use a kinetically selective carbon molecule sieve (CMS) adsorbent which adsorbes oxygen more rapidly than nitrogen. A brief review of the results obtained in recent experimental studies is presented and the influence of the flow rates on the performance of PSA nitrogen recovery from air is discussed.
97101872 97101864 absorption
Gaseous fuels (‘derived gaseous fuels)
Prenfio for the European
IGCC at Puertoiiano
Schellberg, W. Proc. Annu. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., 1995, 12, S8-63. The paper describes the European IGCC plant at Puertollana, Spain, based on the Prenflo coal gasification process. Results from gasification tests are presented. Stringent environmental regulations can be fulfilled by the new IGCC technology, which at the same time achieves high efficiencies. The start-up of the plant is planned for the second half of 1995 with natural gas followed by coal gas one year later. Development trends in IGCC power plants are also discussed.
97101873 Pyrolysis eous materials
Rabe, W. et al. Ger. Offen. DE 19,509,570 (Cl. ClOJS/hO), I9 Sep 1996, Appl. 19,509,570, 16 Mar 1995; 4 pp. (In German) Successive pyrolysis and fixed-bed gasification of wastes containing thermoplastic polymer components took place in the same reactor. Typically, the system is used for simultaneous processing of brown-coal briquettes, compacted polymer wastes, and tar-oil-solid-water mixtures to produce a synthesis gas containing CO: 32, CO 15, Hz 40, CHJ IO, N1 1.3, hydrocarbons 1.5, and H_S 0.2 vol.%.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts