05125 Safety and health hazards associated with energy sources and technology

05125 Safety and health hazards associated with energy sources and technology

15 97fQ5125 Safety and health sources and technology hazards associated with energy Watfa, N. T. Rirk Reducf., 1996, 211-231. Edited by Richardso...

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97fQ5125 Safety and health sources and technology



with energy

Watfa, N. T. Rirk Reducf., 1996, 211-231. Edited by Richardson, M. L., Taylor & Francis, London, UK. This review, containing 17 references, concerns safety and health hazards associated with energy sources and technology. Topics discussed include: energy and life (energy supply and demand, occupational safety and health implications); technology and development and associated safety and health hazards for hydra-energy, biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy, wave and tidal energy, oil and gas energy, coal energy, geothermal energy, nuclear energy; and control of associated safety and health hazards (including general principles, action at a national level and the level of understanding).


Salt removal from flue gas cleaning


l-33 pp. Cnubben, P. A. J. P. et al. ECN-C /Rep./. 1997, (ECN-C-97-017) The paper describes a two-step process that was developed for the treatment of waste incinerator flue gas residues concerning alkyl treatment following neutralization/carbonation of the hot washing water, and addition of loading materials (brown coal and FeCll) for removal of trace elements and heavy metals. The out-washing procedure. the types of additives, and the degree of carbonation were investigated to optimize the process. The treatment results in a maximum salt washing out and in minimum trace element release of the residues, The treated residues are suitable for different applications, such as building materials.

The significance of improvements in fly ash quality 97l05127 Waste Mahuge., 1996, 16, (I-3). 7-13. Woolley, G. R. and Coomha. R. Since the 1940s the Electricity Supply Industry and others have continued to research the uses of fly ash. Dissemination of project work benefiting from this research was generally through publication by the industry of technological bulletins. Political, economic and environmental attitudes now demand that all aspects of and potential for a greater use of the material are considered. A review of these technological bulletins suggests that a number of constructions and processes, somewhat unusual at the time, should be revisited. This paper considers how the earlier research, constructions and processes developed the increasingly beneficial and more widespread use of the material and suggests areas whose potential for development should he reconsidered. Significance of the results of geological investiga97105126 tion of the wastes from the Lvov-Voiyn Basin coal industries Lelik, B. I. (‘I al. C&o/’Ukr., 1995, (12). 16-17. (In Ukrainian) A survey is made of trace elements in wastes from coal mining, preparation and combustion in power stations. Utilization of the rock material in manufacturing building materials and recovery of trace elements and removal of toxic and potentially toxic elements (e.g. V, Pb, and Hg) are discussed.

97105129 ashes


of heavy




in fly

Hara. 0. and Takahashi, M. Jpn Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,225,430 [97,225,430] (Cl. B09B3/00), 2 Sep 1997, Appl. 96134,756, 22 Feh 1996. 6 pp. (In Japanese). Fly ashes are treated by extruding with dithiocarbamic acid or its salts and water-soluble Fe salts in water to form pellets and then dried, to prevent leachates in landfill.





Longwell, J. P. NATO ASI Ser., Ser. I. 1997. 12, (Mobile Alternative Demilitarization Technologies), 183-194. The paper describes a waste treatment process in which organic compounds are reacted with steam and oxygen to form a mixture of CO, COz, H, and, depending on feed composition, products of reaction of Cl, N, S, and other elements in the feed that form volatile compounds in an H rich atmosphere under high temperature conditions. Low volatility inorganic components of the feed are converted to molten slag that is solidified by water injection and removed in a separate stream, and fines that leave the reactor with the gas stream. Low heating value streams, such as contaminated soil, require supplementation by coal or other high heating value fuels to achieve the required operating temperature in the reactor.

Thermal treatment 97105131 for remediation of manufactured

and non-thermal gas plant sites


Was& Management. 1997, 16, (8). McGowan, T. F. et al. Coal tar from coal-fuelled gas works which produced ‘town gas’ from the mid-1800s through the 1950s contaminates many manufactured gas plant (MOP) sites in the USA. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. The contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment, in particular, via groundwater migration. Utility de-regulation may mean site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MOP sites. The first is ‘do nothing and hope for the best’, but history suggests that these sites will become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second is


(pollution, health protection,


to define the problem now and make plans for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as hio-treatment. capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data is provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented. 97105132

Toxic substances

from coal combustion:


studies Senior, C. L. et al. Proc. Annu. Inl. Pittsburgh Coal C‘mf.. 1996, 13. (2), 1344-1349. The forms of arsenic in both coal and ash have been the focus of the preliminary analysis of two American bituminous coals. Trends in trace metal concentration in coal particles as a function of particle size have also been documented.

97105133 Treatment for heavy metal separation from incinerating or melting treatment of wastes

from fly ash

Kimura, T. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09 01.104 [97 01,104] (Cl. B09B3/00), 7 Jan 1997, Appl. 951152,097. 20 Jun 1995. 3 pp. (In Japanese) In the recovery of heavy metals from fly ash produced in incinerating or melting treatment of wastes, fly ash is mixed with a small amount of an acid to dissolve heavy metals, then a complexing agent is added to convert the heavy metals into heavy metal complexes. and the resulting ash containing the complexes with supercritical CO? fluid is extracted, the pressure of the supercritical CO? fluid containing the heavy metal complexes is decreased to lower the dissolution capacity of the fluid and the complexes are recovered in solid phase. Heavy metals in fly ash can he recovered safely and easily at high efficiency.

97105134 Treatment of an industrial wastewater high level of organic pollutants with a combination performance bioreactor and ultrafiltration

having a of high-

Suprihatin, S. er al. Chemical -Ing. -Tech., 1997, 69, (7), 996-999. (In German) Coal-processing wastewater with high COD, BODs, and phenol content (1729 mgil) was used in the testing of the combined process at a pilot-scale plant. The pilot plant was inoculated with a mixture of activated sludges from a municipal sewage plant, from a landfill leachate purification plant, and from synthetic wastewater. The N- and P-deficiencies in the wastewater were compensated by addition of HzP04 (85%) and NH4HC01. The ultrafiltration unit retains compounds and particles having a molecular weight > 20,000 D, which are recirculated to the aerated loop-type hioreactor. Removal of >80% of COD ~957~ of BODi. and ~99% of the phenols was achieved. 97iQ5135


Treatment zeolite

of municipal




Lee, J. H. er al. Chawon Risaikring, 1996, 5, (I), 34-41. (In Korean) Coal fly ash generated from domestic power plants was used to produce artificial zeolite by physical and chemical methods. which could he used as adsorbents to prevent environmental pollution. In this study, artificial zeolite, activated carbon. and I:1 mixture of artificial zeolite and activated carbon were used as adsorhents, and their adsorption removal rates of NH,,-N and heavy metal ions from municipal landfill leachates were analysed. Each of adsorhents (3 g/200 ml) was exposed to the test material for 30 mm. at pH 6.4. The artificial zeolite removed >SO% of NHJ-N. The removal of heavy metal ions was Mn(II) 85%, Zn(Il) 95%, Cd(lI) 9S%, and Ph(II) 96%. except Cu(I1) and Cr(V1). The activated carbon removed heavy metal ions at Cu(Il) 97%, Zn(I1) 83%. Ph(I1) Xl%, Cr(V1) 76%, Cd(I1) 61%, and Mn(I1) 51%. A 1:l mixture of artificial zeolite and activated carbon adsorbed 55% Cr(V1) and 83% Cu(I1) as compared to 24% and 52%, respectively, with a single component adsorbent. The other heavy metal ions were removed at >80%.

Treatment of wastewater with high concentration of organic matters by catalytic wet oxidation method. ii. Study of reaction conditions


Du, H. ef al. ShuichuliJishu, 1997, 23. (3), 160-164. (In Chinese) The paper studies the reaction conditions of Catalytic Wet Oxidation Process used for treatment of coke oven wastewater containing high concentration of ammonia and COD. The decomposition rate of COD and NHs-N decreases with increase of space velocity of wastewater and decrease of reaction pressure. Under a fixed pressure the decomposition rate of COD and NH7-N increases with the increase of temperature through a maximum value then decreases. At the optimum reaction conditions: T = 270”. 9.0 MPa, air/water volume ratio = 210:1, and pH = 9.8, the decomposition rate of COD and NH3 are 99.1% and 99.6%.. respectively. 97105137 Trial solutions to a model for the future carbon dioxide emissions in China



Eckaus, R. S. et al. Energy Environ., Proc. Int. Cmf.. 1995, (Pub. 1996), 184-191. Edited by Chen, Z. er al., Begell House. New York. Collaboration between the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, China, and the Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Climate Change, MIT of the USA has been established in developing a multi-sector, multi-period non-linear programming model of greenhouse gas emissions in China. This model provides complete overall

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