15 C02/US$1000 at 1990 prices) in 1980 to 591.9 u in 1994. The rate of decrease in COz emission intensifies has decelerated; the decrease during the first 7-year period was twice as fast as during the second period. A decrease in energy intensity accounted for about 70% of the total, with the remaining 30% attributable to fuel switching. This trend has changed recently, but the change is insignificant.
Das. A. and Crandra Kandpal, T. Energy, 1998, 23, (2), 145-152. Aluminium manufacturing is highly energy-intensive and a large contributor of CO?. The emissions per tonne of aluminium manufacturing in India have been estimated and the demand for aluminium and associated CO2 emissions have been projected for the industry as a whole for the years 2001/02 and 2006107. The reduction potential in CO2 emissions through energy-conservation measures has been assessed.
Coal hydrogenation and environment
Lebedeva, L. N. et al. DGMK Tag~rngsher., 1997, 9704, (Proceedings ICCS ‘97. Volume 3). 1727-1730. For lignite hydrogenation to components of motor fuel with boiling points of 40-3OO”C, the possible environmental effects of trace elements in coal are discussed. Trace elements were concentrated in the slurry during hydrogenation. Depending on the combustion temperature of the slurry, the distribution of lead and vanadium species in the combustion residues was calculated. At temperatures of 1500 K, a great amount of these metals remained’ in the ash as PbO, VzO+ and VzOs. At temperatures of 2000 K these elements were enriched in the flue gas in the form of PbO, lead and VOz, In addition the concentrations of barium, beryllium, boron, manganese, chromium. nickel and copper were given for the solid residuals from lignite hydrogenation. The paper recommends strategies to avoid the release of these trace elements into the environment.
Determination of organic contaminants in soil from coking plant Kubica,K. et al. Chemical Anal., 1998, 43, (1). 57-67.
A method for the assessment of the level of soil contamination by the compounds particularly noxious for environment such as benzol type hydrocarbons, phenol and its alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analysis procedure’s feasibility was assessed using the soil samples taken from the area of the liquidated coking plant.
CO2 emissions from aluminium manufacturing in
Control of NO, emissions by NO, recycle approach
Zhou. C. Q. et al. Symp.(Int.) Comhust., [Proc.], 1996, 26, (2). 2091-2097. An alternative approach to NO, emissions control in combustion, NO, recycle uses regenerable sorbent to adsorb NO, in the flue gas from a combustor followed by desorption. This produces a highly concentrated NO,-laden stream containing both NO and N02. This stream is then sent back to the same combustor or to a separate combustor, where the NO, is reduced in the flame and NO, formation is inhibited. In order to investigate the effect of NO, recycle on the reduction of NO, emissions, experimental studies have been performed. Highly concentrated NO, NO>. or NO/NO2 mixtures were recycled into a combustor at different locations. A range of 50-90% of NO, reduction efficiency could be achieved depending on experimental conditions. The NO, reduction efficiency in the combustor is affected by the recycle location, the amount of exit air and the composition of recycle gases. The most favourable recycle location is at the primary air duct. When NO, is recycled into the secondary air duct, lower exit 02 favours NO, destruction in the flame. The experimental results also reduction efficiency for the NO* recycle in indicated higher NO, comparison with the NO recycle. The concept of the NO, recycle approach has been implemented in the NOXSO process, which is a dry, postcombustion flue gas treatment technology for fossil-fuelled boilers that can remove more than 90% of N0,/S02. The NO, recycle approach is expected to be a new alternative for NO, removal from flue gas.
Damage analysis and safety recommendations on 9ato334a activated coke adsorbers for flue gas final cleaning Seifert, U. et al. VGB Krujtwerkstech., 1998, 78, (2), 77-80. (In German) Based on actual experience of flue gas purification in thermal waste treatment plants with activated-coke adsorbers, qualitative analyses were carried out and safety recommendations proposed. Causes for spontaneous temperature rising and ignition in fluidized-bed adsorbers and preventive measures are discussed. Measuring techniques for the early recognition of damages, including temperature and pressure detection, CO and 02 concentration measuring, and level monitoring are briefly described.
Determination of NO, and heavy metal emissions 98103349 from coal-fired power plants Karl, U. et al. Transp. Chemical Transform. Pollut. Troposphere, 1997, 7, 337-345. Edited by Ebel, A. et al.,. Springer, Berlin, Germany. For most countries NO, and heavy metal emissions from coal-fired power plants contribute significantly to the total national emissions. A methodology has been developed, for emission inventory purposes, to estimate NO, emission factors for combustion installations. The work described here is part of the contribution of the Expert Panel on Power Plants and Industry to the Emission Inventory Guidebook of the UN-ECE Task Force on Emission Inventories. Furthermore a methodology is presented to assess the distribution of heavy metal streams in coal-fired power plants. The methodology is based on the empirical assessment of the enrichment of the elements on fly ash, the particle-size-dependent removal efficiencies of particulate control and flue gas desulfurization devices and the particle size distribution of the fly ash in raw gas. It has been applied in the framework of a regional emissions inventory.
98103351 Developing countries are combating climate change. Actions in developing countries that slow growth in carbon emissions Reid, W. V. and Goldemberg, J. Energy Policy, 1998, 26, (3), 233-237. Increasingly a focus of political controversy, the role of developing countries in helping to solve the problem of climate change is discussed. With levels of greenhouse gas emissions projected to exceed those of developed countries by 2020, some industrialized countries are calling on developing countries to take stronger actions to meet the commitments they have made in the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). This review of recent policy changes in developing countries, however, suggests that they are already taking little appreciated steps that reduce rates of growth in carbon emissions. Indeed, since the 1992 signing of the FCCC, carbon emission savings in developing countries may be greater than those attained by industrialized countries. A major source of these gains can be attributed to energy price reforms that are likely to have led to substantial gains in production and end-use efficiency.
Economic and environmental evaluations of waste treatment and disposal technologies for municipal solid waste
Daskalopoulos, E. et al. Applied Energy, 1997, 58, (4). 209-255. Management of MSW can be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer, processing and disposal of MSW, in a way which is governed by the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, aesthetics and other environmental considerations. The disposal of MSW has been the focus of environmental policy for several industrialized countries since the mid-1970s, when attempts were made to identify and categorize the waste fractions involved in a systematic way. This categorization provided the policy makers with the necessary information, to determine the most appropriate option for dealing with the waste in a more economic and environmentally sustainable way. This paper reviews the main economic costs and the environmental impacts of the widely-accepted waste treatment and disposal methods. Examples of successful waste-management schemes are presented and prospective future trends are assessed.
98103353 Effect of natural mechanical outburst hazard of coals
Frolkov, G. D. et al. Khim. Tverd. Top/., 1997, (S), 22-33. (In Russian) The organic matter of various coals was examined using IR analysis, gas chromatography, technical analysis, and, especially EPR spectroscopy. The tests indicated the possibility of the development of a method for predicting the outburst hazard. Formation of outburst-prone zones and geological ruptures as a result of structural and chemical transformations of coals during mechanochemical reactions due to deformation by tectonic forces was suggested.
98103354 Electrochemical detection of mercury adsorbed from flowing gas samples on porous carbon electrodes Huang, M. et al. Electroanalysis, 1997, 9, (15), 1201-1204. Mercury adsorption from flowing gas streams onto reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is combined with post-adsorption stripping voltammetric determination in this novel analysis method. Gas stream detection limits of 1.1 ,Lf/rn. were achieved for unmodified RVC electrodes at 52°C and 1.8 l&m- for modified RVC electrodes at 25°C. This detection technique could feasibly be applied for mercury analysis in coal fired power plant plumes and waste incinerator stacks.
Emission of pollutants from Carbo-Plus fuel com-
Bargulewicz, J. et al. Chem. Inz. Ekol., 1997. 4, (2). 163-167. (In Polish) Comprised of a mixture of small-size coal and different wastes of the coke chemical industry, Carbo-Plus was combusted under routine conditions of a municipal heating plant. This resulted in enhanced lead and zinc emissions. Furthermore, polyaromatic hydrocarbons emissions increased markedly, but the level remained within Poland’s acceptable limits.
Emissions from combustion mixture in fluldlzed bed
Mastral, A. M. et al. DGMK Tagungsher., 1997, 9703, (Proceedings ICCS ‘97, Volume 2), 1155-1158. The paper studies the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry in the flue gas of coal-tyre mixtures after fluidized bed combustion. Keeping a constant oxygen excess of 20%, the experiments were carried out at different combustion temperatures. The PAH emissions were compared to the ones obtained in coal combustion under the same conditions. The results showed that the use of tyres as fuel was possible because of their high calorific value, but the emission of PAH reached higher values in comparison to coal combustion.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts