Solid fuels (derived solid fuels)
heavy fuel oil with a sulfur content of 2-3.5% and the resulting high SO2 content of the preheater exhaust gases also contributed to this change. This paper discusses the technical solution, the safety concept, the operating experience and the economic aspects of the conversion.
State of rational energy utilization and energy interconnection of the Kaiserstuhl coking plant, Germany
Bertling, H. and Stoppa, H. Stahl Eisen, 1998, 118, (11) 65-69. (In German) The Kaiserstuhl coking plant in Dortmund is the principal subject of this work. Rationalization has been achieved at the plant with the numerous energy saving and energy recovery systems, in particular, the installation of coke dry quenching apparatus has had remarkable positive effects including limiting radiation losses. In the Dortmund region there has been an acceleration in low-pressure gas interconnection between iron and steel mills and coking plants. The surplus blast furnace gas imported by the steel mill is used in the coking plants capacity. In this scheme the Nz supply of the coking plant from the blast furnaces and the backup steam supply are also interconnected.
powders Tepper, F. et al. Proc. Int. Pyrotech. Semin., 1998, 24, 519-530. Considerable defects are usually found in metal powders produced by electroexptosion of metal wires. Their reactivity with oxidizers is very rapid, providing opportunities for new propellants, pyrotechnics and explosive formulations. Aluminium produced by this method (i.e. ‘Alex’) was studied in Russia as a fuel in both solid and gelled propellants. The calculated burning rates and microcinematography have indicated that such aluminium particles are completely converted to oxide at the solid/gas interface and that no burning aluminium is observed in the plume. The calculated life of a burning particle, which is about 40-70 ns, suggested the use of nanosize aluminium powders as an additive for increasing the energy of very fast reactions such as detonations. ‘Alex’ in water gels when ignited produces hydrogen at 2800°C suggesting its use as a storable monopropellant. Studies are also underway to form stable gels of Alex in kerosene and to study their combustion.
Energetic upgrading of wastes with high calorific value. Study of material characteristics in relation to their use in an industrial heat and power plant soon to be built
Biological fluidized bed treatment of wastewater 99102402 from by-product coking operations: full scale case history Sutton, I’. M. et al. Proc. - WEFTEC Expo., 70, 1997, 3, 277-286.
‘97, Water Environ. Fed. Annu. Conf.
The Algoma Steel by-product coke plant comprises three coke oven batteries, which have the capacity to produce approximately 3000 metric tons/day of coke. The excess flushing liquor or weak ammonia liquor produced during the initial cooling of the coke oven gases forms the source of the plant’s major process wastewater. The raw liquor stream is directed to an ammonia still where steam stripping is used to recover the ammonia. The wastewater is then directed to a biological treatment plant designed for removal of phenolic compounds The biological treatment scheme utilized at Algoma is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system. It is the first full scale application of the FBR technology for treatment of coke plant wastewater in North America and the first large scale FBR system to be installed in Canada. The system consists of two 9.14 m (30 ft) diameter reactors with a height of 8.53 m (28 ft). The system design anticipated a median phenolic load of 1I I7 kg/day (2463 lb/day), consisting of a phenolics concentration of 1012 mg/l in the wastewater and a flow of 46 m”/h (203 galimin). The FBR system was started under batch conditions for a period of approximately 48 h at the same time as continuous wastewater feeding was initiated. After nine days, the FBRs were receiving over 40 m”/h of wastewater containing approximately 1000 mg/l of phenolics. The effluent from the system contained >5 mg/l phenolics. A six-week performance assessment of the system, began two weeks after process start-up, during which the FBRs achieved over 99 percent phenolics reduction. By five weeks after process start-up, thiocyanate in the effluent was reduced to >5 mg/l. At this time the biomass concentration, measured as volatile solids, in the FBRs was c 15 g/l.
Calculation of temperature of maximum heat transfer film in hot oil heating furnace
Yu. D. Gongye J&e, 1998, (I), 29-32. (In Chinese) An analysis of the coking process of hot oil. Based on flow rate and parameters of hot oil, a heat transfer model for calculating the temperature of maximum heat transfer film in a hot oil heating furnace is presented. There are four steps in the coking process: thermal chemical reaction, formation of nascent petroleum coke, generation of petroleum coke and transformation to compact hard coke.
Coal thermal decomposition apparatus 99102404 Kozuru, H. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 279,958 [98 279,958], (Cl. ClOJ3/46), 20 Ott 1998, Appl. 97/90,592, 9 Apr 1997, 4 pp. (In Japanese) A multi-zoned coal thermal decomposition apparatus for obtaining fuel gas/ tar/solid char by pyrolysis in a fluidized bed is described. It consists of a lower high-temperature gas generation zone with a slag discharge outlet at the bottom and an upper thermal decomposition reaction zone for mixing the high-temperature gas with powdered coal. Coal or char are used as the fuel in the lower zone. Between the upper and lower zones there is a hightemperature gas supply opening with a tapered shape. It has a larger diameter at the lower zone end and becomes smaller towards the upper zone. Development of a new wastewater treatment sys99io2405 tem for a major coke plant Rupnow, M. R. et al. Proc. - WEFTEC Conf. Expo., 70, 1997, 3, 265-276.
‘97. Water Environ. Fed. Annu.
The paper describes the development of a process wastewater treatment, which allows clean water coke quenching to take place. This design is unique, featuring the use of a free still only for ammonia reductions and the use of an activated sludge plant with an initial anoxic denitrification zone and an integral 60°C slope, open bottom clarifier to nitrify the remaining ammonia and achieve partial denitrification.
Fuel and Energy Abstmcts
Spuziak-Salzenberg, D. Abfallwirtschafts Journal, 1998, 10, (6) 27-29. (In German) The upgrading of the potential waste solids as secondary fuels was carried out at the industrial thermal power plant concept at Bremen, Germany, which is based on high vapour parameters (80 bars, 5OO’C) for advanced energetic utilization of the energy present in the waste, in combination with a high environmental standard of flue gas treatment. By targeting a minimization of solid/ash portions in secondary fuel or through an apparatus in the combustion (such as the use of a thermal cyclone in flue gas channel) there can be -30% decrease in treatment costs for the energetic upgrading.
Fluidized-bed gasification method
Ikeda, Y. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 279,960 [98 279,960], (Cl. ClOJ3i 54), 20 Ott 1998, Appl. 97/105,422, 9 Apr 1997,4 pp, (In Japanese) High gasification and gas cooling efficiency can be achieved from the following fluidized-bed gasification method for powdered coal or char. Solid particles are collected from gas generated in the fluidized-bed gasifier by multistage cyclones. The cyclones have with varying input gas flow rates and cyclone diameters. The powders collected from the cyclones (except the last-stage cyclone) are recycled back to the bottom of the fluidized-bed gasifier. The solid particles collected from the last-stage cyclone are discharged outside the system.
Forming method of coal
Sasaki, M. and Furumaki, I. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 259,382 [98 259,382], (Cl. C101353/08), 29 Sep 1998, Appl. 97/66,105, 19 Mar 1997, 3 pp. (In Japanese) A method for processing coal into flakes or briquets for the manufacture of blast-furnace coke is described. The coal is classified having more than 85% of ~3 mm particle size adjusted. Any coal particles that are >6 mm in size are removed. The coal is then heated at a rate of > lO’“C/min to 300-420°C. Finally it is molded at a linear pressure of I-5 t/cm at 420°C.
99102410 Gas chromatographic study for the evaluation of the suitability of bituminous waste material as an additive for coke production Diez, M. A. et al. J. Chromatogr., A, 1998, 823, (l-2), 527-536. This study concerns the effectiveness of the waste materials derived from coking plants, which can be used in situ as bituminous additives in cokemaking. A comparison is made with a coal-tar and four derived pitches of different applications in the plastic coal range. The volatile matter released from 400 up to 500°C by the additives (VM400-500). evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, showed definite correlation to the extent of the modification of the Gieseler maximum fluidity of coking coal/additive blends. Capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GCFID) analysis was used to evaluate the decrease in the amount of volatile fraction in the CS2 extracts of the additives and the increase in the abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of relatively high molecular mass. From regression analysis, it is possible to infer that there is a relationship between the compositional parameters found in GC-FID analysis and the volatile matter released in the plastic range of a coking coal (VM400-500). Both composition and VM400-500 of the additive resulted in the enhancement in fluidity caused by the presence of the additive in the co-carbonization system. GC-FID analysis is a useful means of assessing the effectiveness of a bituminous additive in the coal plastic stage, leading to a better understanding of the components involved in this critical stage of the carbonization process. The changes in the plastic range caused by the additive modify the development of coke anisotropy and the bonding between coke matrix and inert material, and are the main reason for the improvement in the coke properties.