Alcohol preference in mice

Alcohol preference in mice

427 be the female type and feminine patterns of behavior are displayed. Periods of maximal susceptibi!itT to this action of fetal (neonatal in the ra...

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be the female type and feminine patterns of behavior are displayed. Periods of maximal susceptibi!itT to this action of fetal (neonatal in the rat) androgen have been detelTnined or c a l l be estimated fairly accurately' As meastired from the time of Conception, they are 25 to 35 days and therefore prenatal in the guinea pig, 2 1 to 28 days and therefore postnatal in the rat, and 40 to 50 days and therefore prenatal in the rhesus monkey. A transitory masculinization of behavior is produced in non-pregnant adult guinea pigs receiving testosterone propionate. Pregnant adults are protected from this maseulinizing action of testosterone by the antagonistic :action of progesterone. Extension of this concept to such sexrelated behavior as play and facial threat is demonstrated by data obtained from a comparison of these measures of behavior in males; females, and female pseudohermaphroditic rhesus monkeys. The significance of t h e data for the problem of psychosexual neutrality versus psychologic bisexuality at birth will be discussed. Alcohol Preference in Mice

DA~o A. ttoDcv.xas, Ph.D., Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La lolla; Calif. Alcohol preference of mice is assessed for its appropriateness as an analogue of human alcoholism. Genetic manipulability of alcohol preference is demonstrated and discussed. Strain differences are shown to be related to differences in degree of liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity, strains showing highest preference for alcohol having the highest activity of

alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes.Studies relating alcohol preference of animals to levels of stress aide :reviewed and data are presented :!demonstrating no :: elevation and in some cases a decline in alcohol preference following carefully controlled conditions of stress. Studies are reviewed concerning ntitritional' . . . . deficiency and alcohol preference. Pregnancy is shown to increasealcohol intake of high-preference females probably as a consequence of increased liver size and function during gestation a n d postpartunl nursing. A technique Consisting o f adding sugar to t h e 1 0 p e r c e n t alcohol solution is reported that induces voluntary alcoh01 intake to the poin t of obvious intoxication. Level of voluntary alcohol intake of the high-preference animals is shown to he close to their maxiinum abilitn, to ~metabolize alcohol and probably above the capacity o f alcohol metabolism of the low preference strains. This high level intake occurs within two or . . .three . days after initial exposure to alcohol, a n d therefore does not correspond to the characteristic pattern of more gradual onset of heavy consumption in most htunan alcoholics. Maximumrate of metabolism of alcohol in the mouse is not sufficiently high to all o w replacement of all other s o u r c e s of calories with alcohol; tmlike in the human. The mouse therefore ingests additional foodstuffs even when drinking: to capacity, w h e r e a s the human alcoholic can satisfy his entire daily calorie needs from alcohol and may therefore eliminate intake of other essential foodstuffs during his drinking periods: These recent findings: are reassessed for their implications concerning the utility of treating alcohol preference of mice as an analogue of human: alcoholism. ..-