Appendices

Appendices

178 Appendices Appendix AI. Frequently Used Physical Constants Boltzmann's constant Avogadro's number Gas constant k Na R Elementary charge e Per...

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178

Appendices Appendix AI. Frequently Used Physical Constants Boltzmann's constant Avogadro's number Gas constant

k Na R

Elementary charge

e

Permittivity o f a vacuum Gravitational acceleration

e0 g

1.381 x 10 "16 dyn.cm/K 6.022• 10 23 molecules/mol 8.314• 107 dyn'cm/mol.K, 82.06 cm3.atm/mol.K 1.602x 10 "19 C , 4.803x 10 1~ statC 8.854x 10 12 C2/N.m 2 980.7 cm/s 2

Appendix A2. Conversion Factors Length 1 micrometer ( ~ t m ) - 10 .6 m = 10 -4 cm = 10 -3 1 nanometer ( n m ) - 10 -3 ~tm = 1 0 9 m 1 Angstrom ( A ) = 10 .4 ~tm = 10 1~ m

mm

=

10 3 n m =

10 4 A

Volume 1 ILtm3 = 1015 L = 10 18 m 3 1 liter ( L ) = 1015 ktm3 = 10 "3 m 3 1 m 3 = 1018 [.tm3= 103L

Force 1 dyne (dyn) = 10 .5 N = 1.021 x 10 -3 g force 1 N e w t o n (N) = 105 dyn = 102 g force 1 gram (g) force = 980.7 dyn = 9.807x 10 -3 N

Temperature degree Celsius (~

= K--273.16

Pressure 1 atmosphere (atm) = 1 .O 13 x 10 6 dyn/cm 2 = 1.013 x 105 N/m 2 = 760 m m H g = 1.013x105 Pa = 101.3 kPa 1 dyn/cm 2 = 9.869x 10 .7 atm = 0.1 N/m 2 = 7.501 x 10 -4 mmHg 1 m m o f mercury ( m m H g ) ( a t 0~ = 1.316x10 "3 atm = 1.333x103 dyn/cm 2 = 1.333 x 102 N/m 2 1 Pascal ( P a ) = 10 dyn/cm 2= 1 N/m 2 1 torr = 1 m m H g

Viscosity 1 poise ( P ) = 1 g/cm s = 1 dyn's/cm 2= 0.1 Pa.s

Electrical Units 1 ampere (amp) - 2.998x 10 9 statamp 1 s t a t a m p e r e ( s t a t a m p ) = 3 . 3 3 6 x 10 -10 amp

Appendices 1 volt (V) = 3.336• 10 .3 statV 1 statvolt (statV) = 299.8 V 1 farad (F) = 106 btF = 8.988 • 1 statfarad (statF) = 1.113 • 10 -12 F 1 ohm = 1.113x10 12 statohm 1 statohm = 8.988• 1011 ohm

Appendix A3. Sl Prefixes 10 "12 10 "9 10 .6 10 -3 10 -2 103 106 109 1012

pico nano

p n

micro milli centi kilo mega giga tera

m c k M G T

Appendix A4 (a). Properties of Air at 20~

and I atm

Density Viscosity Mean free path Diffusion coefficient

p ~t ~, D

1.20• 10 3 g/cm 3 = 1.20 g/L 1.81 • 10 4 P = 1.81 x 10 5 Pa.s 0.066 ~tm 0.20 cm2/s

Average molecular weight

M

29.0 g/mol

Appendix A4 (b). Properties of Air at 37~ Density Viscosity Mean free path Diffusion coefficient

p

~t ~, D

and I atm I. 13 • 10 -3 g/cm 3 = I. 13 g/L 1.89• 10 -4 P = 1.89• 10 s Pa.s 0.07 ~tm 0.22 cmZ/s

179

Appendices

180

Appendix A5 (a). Properties of Aerosol Particles at 20~ and I atm. Particle Slip Settling Diffusion Mechanical Diameter Correction Velocity Coefficient Mobility (~tm) Factor (cm/s) (cm2/s) (cm/s dyn) 1.00E-03 2.00E-03 5.00E-03 1.00E-02 2.00E-02 5.00E-02

1.00E-01 2.00E-01 5.00E-01 1.00E-00 2.00E-00 5.00E-00 1.00E+01 2.00E+01 5.00E+01 1.00E+02

2.19E+02 1.10E+02 4.43E+01 2.24E+01 1.15E+01 5.01E+00 2.89E+00 1.88E+00 1.33E+00 1.17E+00 1.08E+00 1.03E+00 1.02E+00 1.01E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E+00

6.60E-07 1.32E-06 3.34E-06 6.76E-06 1.39E-05 3.77E-05 8.70E-05 2.26E-04 1.00E-03 3.51E-03 1.30E-02 7.78E-02 3.06E-01 1.21E+00 7.55E+00 3.02E+01

5.20E-02 1.30E-02 2.10E-03 5.32E-04 1.37E-04 2.38E-05 6.85E-06 2.23E-06 6.32E-07 2.76E-07 1.28E-07 4.90E-08 2.41E-08 1.19E-08 4.76E-09 2.37E-09

1.29E+12 3.22E+ 11 5.19E+10 1.32E+ 10 3.38E+09 5.88E+08 1.69E+08 5.51E+07 1.56E+07 6.83E+06 3.17E+06 1.21E+06 5.96E+05 2.96E+05 1.18E+05 5.87E+04 i

Appendix A5 (b). Properties of Aerosol Particles at 37~ and I atm. Particle Slip Settling Diffusion Mechanical Diameter Correction Velocity Coefficient Mobility (~tm) Factor (cm/s) (cm2/s) (cm/s dyn) 1.00E-03 2.00E-03 5.00E-03 1.00E-02 2.00E-02 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 2.00E-01 5.00E-01 1.00E-00 2.00E-00 5.00E-00 1.00E+01 2.00E+01 5.00E+01 1.00E+02

2.32E+02 1.16E+02 4.69E+01 2.38E+01 1.22E+01 5.27E+00 3.01E+00 1.94E+00 1.35E+00 1.18E+00 1.09E+00 1.04E+00 1.02E+00 1.01E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E+00

6.70E-07 1.34E-06 3.38E-06 6.85E-06 1.41E-05 3.80E-05 8.69E-05 2.24E-04 9.76E-04 3.39E-03 1.26E-02 7.46E-02 2.93E-01 1.16E-00 7.24E-00 2.89E+01

5.58E-02 1.40E-02 2.25E-03 5.71E-04 1.46E-04 2.53E-05 7.24E-06 2.33E-06 6.51E-07 2.82E-07 1.31E-07 4.97E-08 2.44E-08 1.21E-08 4.82E-09 2.41E-09

1.30E+12 3.27E+ 11 5.27E+ 10 1.33E+10 3.42E+09 5.92E+08 1.69E+08 5.44E+07 1.52E+07 6.60E+06 3.05E+06 1.16E+06 5.71E+05 2.83E+05 1.13E+05 5.62E+04