Appendices

Appendices

Appendices Appendix 1. Thermodynamic Data for Lead Compounds. H. Bode, LeadeAcid Batteries, John Wiles & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 1977, p. 366, 367 ...

58KB Sizes 0 Downloads 19 Views

Appendices Appendix 1. Thermodynamic Data for Lead Compounds. H. Bode, LeadeAcid Batteries, John Wiles & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 1977, p. 366, 367 Material 3PbO$PbSO4 PbO$PbSO4 2PbO$PbSO4 4PbO$PbSO4 3PbO$PbSO4$H2O 5PbO$2H2O PbO$0$4H2O Pb(OH)2 PbSO4 rhombic PbO tet PbO orthorhomb H2O fluid H2SO4 fluid Pb2þ aq. HPbO 2 aq.

DH (103 J/mol) DG (103 J/mol) S (103 J/mol) 1626.7 1152.7 1358.5 1882.1

514.63 919.94 218.99 217.32 285.83 813.99 1.67

1427.5 1016.3 1202.6 1595.3 1668.5 1407.5 281.5 420.91 813.20 188.95 187.90 237.18 690.10 24.39 338.48

Cp (103 J/mol)

340.6 217.4 318.6 435.6

150.2 196.2 287.9

87.86 148.57 66.52 68.70 69.92 156.90 10.46

103.21 45.82 45.77 75.29 138.91

Appendix 2. X-ray Powder Diffraction Data for Battery Phases Pb R.J. Hill, J. Power Sources 9 (1983) 55

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

31.27 36.26 52.22

2.858 2.475 1.750

100.0 50.3 34.6

1 0 0

1 0 2

1 2 2

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

17.64 28.62

5.024 3.117

2.6 100.0

0 0

0 1

1 1

a-PbO

(Continued)

689

690 Appendices 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

31.83 35.72 45.63 48.59 54.76

2.809 2.512 1.987 1.872 1.672

31.6 11.3 15.7 25.2 30.4

1 0 0 1 1

1 0 2 1 2

0 2 0 2 1

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

15.03 22.12 29.08 30.32 32.60 37.81 45.12 49.21 50.77 53.10

5.890 4.015 3.068 2.946 2.745 2.377 2.008 1.850 1.797 1.723

4.9 3.2 100.0 24.9 21.6 16.7 15.0 12.3 11.7 18.9

1 1 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 3

0 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 1

0 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 2 1

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

14.20 24.31 26.35 27.14 28.63 30.76 32.09 34.03 36.74 39.30 39.86 44.54 46.02 47.48 49.81 52.06 52.93

6.232 3.658 3.380 2.283 3.115 2.904 2.787 2.632 2.444 2.291 2.260 2.033 1.971 1.913 1.829 1.755 1.728

11.3 2.8 100.0 5.1 13.1 37.8 48.7 26.2 2.2 4.2 5.6 10.1 11.1 19.0 23.7 25.5 2.3

1 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 2 1 2 1 0 3 1

1 2 2 0 2 1 3 2 3 3 2 4 4 2 4 3 5

0 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 1 0 3 2 2 0

b-PbO

Pb3O4

Appendices 691

a-PbO2 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

23.25 28.47 30.03 32.74 34.30 35.97 40.55 45.02 47.53 49.43 49.43 50.55

3.823 3.133 2.973 2.733 2.612 2.495 2.223 2.012 1.911 1.842 1.842 1.804

21.6 100.0 8.5 17.4 19.3 11.6 8.7 7.3 6.5 15.4 12.6 17.5

1 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 1 2

1 1 2 0 2 0 1 2 2 0 3 2

0 1 0 2 1 0 2 2 0 2 0 1

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

25.40 31.98 36.23 49.09 52.16 54.12

3.504 2.796 2.477 1.854 1.752 1.693

100.0 95.2 28.4 68.1 14.7 8.1

1 0 0 1 2 0

1 1 2 2 2 0

0 1 0 1 0 2

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

13.90 14.29 14.96 17.12 20.02 24.02 24.04 25.31 26.65 28.01 30.13 30.19

6.371 6.198 5.922 5.179 4.435 3.705 3.702 3.519 3.345 3.186 2.966 2.960

16.0 16.1 11.3 3.0 16.9 11.7 5.4 10.6 100.0 8.7 75.0 23.0

0 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 0 1 4

0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 2

b-PbO2

PbO$PbSO4

(Continued)

692 Appendices 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

31.17 31.37 34.63 34.93 36.24 36.94 37.42 38.32 39.55 39.65 39.90 40.34 41.52 42.55 43.83 44.10 45.99 47.56 49.23 49.26 49.35 49.61 49.67 50.33 51.81 51.97 52.71 53.03 54.50 54.89 55.08 55.61 55.72

2.869 2.852 2.590 2.569 2.479 2.433 2.403 2.349 2.279 2.273 2.259 2.236 2.175 2.125 2.066 2.054 1.073 1.912 1.851 1.850 1.847 1.838 1.835 1.813 1.765 1.760 1.737 1.727 1.684 1.673 1.667 1.653 1.650

17.3 35.3 2.7 4.7 14.7 13.6 5.2 6.4 4.6 5.8 14.7 6.6 3.4 3.7 7.5 24.3 5.4 7.3 14.8 9.9 5.4 4.6 2.3 2.2 4.4 5.5 4.2 11.5 3.9 4.6 12.7 5.1 2.4

3 0 2 2 5 2 4 2 6 5 2 6 3 0 6 4 6 5 2 1 7 4 1 2 4 6 2 3 8 6 1 5 3

1 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 0 2 0 3 0 2 3 1 3

l 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 1 0 1 2 3 2 0 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 3 4 2 4 0 1 0 2 4 2

3PbO$PbSO4$H2O 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

9.0 14.1 15.4 18.1 20.9 24.1

9.826 6.281 5.754 4.901 4.250 3.693

60 10 20 10 15 2

1 0 1 2 2 1

0 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 2

1

1

0

Appendices 693 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

24.7 25.1 26.7 27.0 27.4 28.5 31.0 31.5 32.0 32.9 33.2 36.0 36.7 36.8 36.9 38.4 38.9 41.8 42.0 42.1 43.4 43.6 44.0 44.8 46.0

3.604 3.548 3.339 3.302 3.255 3.132 2.885 2.840 2.797 2.722 2.698 2.495 2.449 2.442 2.436 2.344 2.315 2.161 2.151 2.146 2.085 2.076 2.058 2.023 1.073

4 5 2 2 100 45 10 7 2 5 10 15 10 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 3 15 5 2 10

0 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 1 4 3 1 4 3

0 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 0 2

3 2 5 5

1 2 2 3 0 0

2 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0

2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

10.7 12.1 14.3 15.4 16.2 16.3 17.1 20.8 26.8 27.1 27.6 28.7 29.2

8.286 7.314 6.194 5.754 5.471 5.438 5.185 4.271 3.327 3.290 3.232 3.110 3.058

10 4 4 3 2 4 2 4 2 6 100 45 45

1 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 2 2

1

0

2

2

2

1

3

1

1

2

2

2

0

3

0

4

1

2

3

1

1

4PbO$PbSO4

(Continued)

694 Appendices 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

29.7 31.0 33.6 34.4 34.8 35.0 36.6 46.0 46.5 46.7 49.9

3.008 2.885 2.667 2.607 2.578 2.564 2.455 1.973 1.953 1.945 1.828

2 30 45 3 2 2 2 18 14 20 10

2 4 0 1 3 3 2 4 0 4 6

1 0 3 3 3 1 4 4 6 3 1

2 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 1

1

2

2

4 3

0 1

2 2

4 4

2 3

2 2

PbSO4 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

16.46 20.81 20.93 23.33 24.56 25.58 26.71 27.69 29.68 32.35 33.17 34.20 37.32 39.55 40.27 41.10 41.70 42.35 43.73 43.76 44.54 44.64 45.95 47.69 48.38 50.88 52.49 52.56 53.32

5.386 4.269 4.244 3.813 3.625 3.482 3.338 3.222 3.010 2.767 2.701 2.622 2.409 2.279 2.240 2.196 2.166 2.134 2.070 2.069 2.034 2.030 1.975 1.907 1.881 1.795 1.743 1.741 1.718

2.3 72.3 28.4 51.1 19.9 28.0 82.5 66.8 100.0 37.9 44.1 9.9 17.5 18.5 4.8 6.4 27.3 5.2 45.3 50.1 35.1 33.6 22.3 3.7 7.1 18.7 7.5 2.1 2.6

1 1 0 1 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 2 1 3 1 4 2

1 0 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 1 0 3 2 2 1 3 2 0 1 1 3 4 4 2 3 3 0 0 4

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 3 0 1

Appendices 695 2q

d-Spacing

53.67 53.74 53.82 55.43 55.73

1.708 1.706 1.703 1.658 1.649

I/I0 4.2 8.5 8.2 6.9 2.6

h

k

l

1 4 3 0 1

1 1 3 2 5

3 0 1 3 0

2PbCO3$Pb(OH)2 2q

d-Spacing

I/I0

h

k

l

11.3 19.9 20.9 24.7 27.1 33.0 34.2 36.1 39.9 40.4 42.6 43.1 44.3 48.3 49.1

7.830 4.462 4.250 3.604 3.290 2.714 2.622 2.488 2.259 2.233 2.122 2.099 2.045 1.884 1.855

5 60 60 90 90 20 100 30 10 50 30 20 30 20 30

0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 1

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 2 1

3 1 2 4 5 7 0 8 1 2 4 10 5 7 9

0

0

9

Appendix 3. H2SO4 Concentrations in Relation to Different Relative Density (Specific Gravity), V.A. Rabinovich, Z.Y. Havin, Short Chemical Reference Book, (From Russian: Kratkiy Himicheskiy Spravochnik), Second Edition, Himiya Publishing House, St. Petersburg, Russia 1978, pp. 265e267 H2SO4 M [ 98.08 g mol1 H2SO4 Content Relative Density at 20 C g cm3 1.000 1.005 1.010 1.015 1.020

g Per 100 g Solution mol L1 0.2609 0.9855 1.731 2.485 3.242

0.0266 0.1010 0.1783 0.2595 0.3372

H2SO4 Content g L1 2.608 9.906 17.49 25.45 33.07

Relative Density at g Per 100 g Solution mol L1 20 C g cm3 1.225 1.230 1.235 1.240 1.245

30.79 31.40 32.01 32.61 33.22

3.846 3.938 4.031 4.123 4.216

g L1 377.2 386.2 395.4 404.4 413.5 (Continued)

696 Appendices H2SO4 M [ 98.08 g mol1 H2SO4 Content Relative Density at 20 C g cm3 1.025 1.030 1.035 1.040 1.045 1.050 1.055 1.060 1.065 1.070 1.075 1.080 1.085 1.090 1.095 1.100 1.105 1.110 1.115 1.120 1.125 1.130 1.135 1.140 1.145 1.150 1.155 1.160 1.165 1.170 1.175 1.180 1.185 1.190 1.195 1.200 1.205 1.210 1.215 1.220 1.450 1.455 1.460 1.465

g Per 100 g Solution mol L1 4.000 4.746 5.493 6.237 6.956 7.704 8.415 9.129 9.843 10.56 11.26 11.96 12.66 13.36 14.04 14.73 15.41 16.08 16.76 17.43 18.09 18.76 19.42 20.08 20.73 21.38 22.03 22.67 23.31 23.95 24.58 25.21 25.84 26.47 27.10 27.72 28.33 28.95 29.57 30.18 55.45 55.93 56.41 56.89

0.4180 0.4983 0.5796 0.6613 0.7411 0.8250 0.9054 0.9856 1.066 1.152 1.235 1.317 1.401 1.484 1.567 1.652 1.735 1.820 1.905 1.990 2.161 2.247 2.334 2.420 2.507 2.594 2.681 2.768 2.857 2.945 3.033 3.122 3.211 3.302 3.391 3.481 3.572 3.663 3.754 2.161 8.198 8.297 8.397 8.497

H2SO4 Content g L1 41.99 48.87 56.85 64.86 72.69 80.92 88.80 96.67 104.6 113.0 121.1 129.2 137.4 145.6 153.7 162.0 170.2 178.5 186.8 195.2 211.9 220.4 228.9 237.4 245.9 254.4 263.0 271.6 280.2 288.8 297.5 306.2 314.9 323.9 332.6 241.4 350.3 359.3 368.2 211.9 804.1 813.8 823.6 833.4

Relative Density at g Per 100 g Solution mol L1 20 C g cm3 1.250 1.255 1.260 1.265 1.270 1.275 1.280 1.285 1.290 1.295 1.300 1.305 1.310 1.315 1.320 1.325 1.330 1.335 1.340 1.345 1.350 1.355 1.360 1.365 1.370 1.375 1.380 1.385 1.390 1.395 1.400 1.405 1.410 1.415 1.420 1.425 1.430 1.435 1.440 1.445 1.675 1.680 1.685 1.690

33.82 34.42 35.01 35.60 36.19 36.78 37.36 37.95 38.53 39.10 39.68 40.25 40.82 41.39 41.95 42.51 43.07 43.62 44.17 44.72 45.26 45.80 46.33 46.86 47.39 47.92 48.45 48.97 49.48 49.99 50.50 51.01 51.52 52.02 52.51 53.01 53.50 54.00 54.49 54.97 75.49 75.92 76.34 76.77

4.310 4.404 4.498 4.592 4.686 4.781 4.876 4.972 5.068 5.163 5.259 5.356 5.452 5.549 5.646 5.743 5.840 5.938 6.035 6.132 6.229 6.327 6.424 6.522 6.620 6.718 6.817 6.915 7.012 7.110 7.208 7.307 7.406 7.505 7.603 7.702 7.801 7.901 8.000 8.099 12.89 13.00 13.12 13.23

g L1 422.7 431.9 441.2 450.4 459.6 468.9 478.2 487.6 497.1 506.4 515.8 525.3 534.7 544.2 553.8 563.3 572.8 582.4 591.9 601.4 610.9 620.6 630.1 639.7 649.3 658.9 668.9 678.2 687.7 697.3 707.0 716.7 726.4 736.1 745.7 755.4 765.1 774.9 784.6 794.3 1264 1275 1287 1298

Appendices 697 H2SO4 M [ 98.08 g mol1 H2SO4 Content Relative Density at 20 C g cm3 1.470 1.475 1.480 1.485 1.490 1.495 1.500 1.505 1.510 1.515 1.520 1.525 1.530 1.535 1.540 1.545 1.550 1.555 1.560 1.565 1.570 1.575 1.580 1.585 1.590 1.595 1.600 1.605 1.610 1.615 1.620 1.625 1.630 1.635 1.640 1.645 1.650 1.655 1.660 1.665 1.670

g Per 100 g Solution mol L1 57.36 57.84 58.31 58.78 59.24 59.70 60.17 60.62 61.08 61.54 62.00 62.45 62.91 63.36 63.81 64.26 64.71 65.15 65.59 66.03 66.47 66.91 67.35 67.79 68.23 68.66 69.09 69.53 69.96 70.39 70.82 71.25 71.67 72.09 72.52 72.95 73.37 73.80 74.22 74.64 75.07

8.598 8.699 8.799 8.899 9.000 9.100 9.202 5.303 9.404 9.506 9.608 9.711 9.813 9.916 10.02 10.12 10.23 10.33 10.43 10.54 10.64 10.74 10.85 10.96 11.06 11.16 11.27 11.38 11.48 11.59 11.70 11.80 11.91 12.02 12.13 12.24 12.34 12.45 12.56 12.67 12.78

H2SO4 Content g L1 843.3 853.2 863.0 872.8 882.7 892.5 902.5 912.4 922.3 932.3 942.4 952.5 962.5 972.6 982.8 992.6 1003 1013 1023 1034 1044 1053 1064 1075 1085 1095 1105 1116 1126 1136 1148 1157 1168 1179 1190 1200 1210 1221 1232 1243 1253

Relative Density at g Per 100 g Solution mol L1 20 C g cm3 1.695 1.700 1.705 1.710 1.715 1.720 1.725 1.730 1.735 1.740 1.745 1.750 1.755 1.760 1.765 1.770 1.775 1.780 1.785 1.790 1.795 1.800 1.805 1.810 1.815 1.820 1.821 1.822 1.823 1.824 1.825 1.826 1.827 1.828 1.829 1.830 1.831 1.832 1.833 1.834 1.835

77.20 77.63 78.06 78.49 78.93 79.37 79.81 80.25 80.70 81.16 81.62 82.09 82.57 83.06 83.57 84.08 84.61 85.16 85.74 86.35 86.99 87.69 88.43 89.23 90.12 91.11 91.33 91.56 91.78 92.00 92.25 92.51 92.77 93.03 93.33 93.64 94.94 94.32 94.72 95.12 95.72

13.34 13.46 13.57 13.69 13.80 13.92 14.04 14.16 14.28 14.40 14.52 14.65 14.78 14.90 15.03 15.17 15.31 15.46 15.61 15.76 15.92 16.09 16.27 16.47 16.68 16.91 16.96 17.01 17.06 17.11 17.17 17.22 17.28 17.34 17.40 17.47 17.54 17.62 17.70 17.79 17.91

g L1 1308 1320 1331 1343 1354 1365 1377 1389 1401 1412 1424 1437 1450 1461 1469 1488 1502 1516 1531 1546 1561 1578 1596 1615 1636 1659 1663 1668 1673 1678 1684 1689 1695 1701 1707 1713 1720 1728 1736 1745 1757