Biological oceanography

Biological oceanography

OLR (1984) 31 (5) 3i5 (refutable), and the likely length and success of its future. (mjj) 84:2249 Lemke, J.L., M.H. Nitecki and H. Pullman, 1980. S...

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OLR (1984) 31 (5)


(refutable), and the likely length and success of its future. (mjj) 84:2249

Lemke, J.L., M.H. Nitecki and H. Pullman, 1980. Studies of the acceptance of plate tectonics. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole.

M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 614-621. Reported here are the results of a retrospective survey of U.S. geologists designed to reveal the patterns and processes of acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics/continental drift, especially during the key period of the 1960's. The role of theory in shaping research efforts and influencing data interpretation is considered. (mjj)

E. BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY El0. Apparatus and methods 84:2250

Hokama, Y., M.A. Abad and L.H. Kimura, 1983. A rapid enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of ciguatoxin in contaminated fish tiSSUes. Toxicon, 21(6):817-824. Dept. of Path., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA. 84:2251

Roper, C.F.E. and M.J. Sweeney, 1983. Techniques for fixation, preservation, and curation of cephalopods. Mere. hath. Mus. Vict., 44:28-47. Dept. of Invert. Zool., Natl. Mus. of Nat. Hist., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.

E40. Area studies, surveys (baselines, ecology, etc.) 84:2252

Chernyavsky, V.I., V.A. Bobrov and N.N. Afanasyev, 1981. [Sea of Okhotsk: production, circulation, plankton and nekton.I lzv. tikhookean, nauchno-issled. Inst. ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr. (TINRO), 105:13-25, 56-60; 3 papers.

Very low fish catches were recorded at 2 primary stations. The catch of benthos was much greater than the previous year as most infaunal species had emerged from the sand. The phenomenon was assumed to be caused by low oxygen concentrations in bottom water following the collapse of a bloom of the dinoflageUate Ceratium furca. Anghan Water, Great Ouse House, Clarendon Rd., Cambridge, CB2 2BL, UK. 84:2254

Islam, A.K.M.N. and A. Aziz, 1982. Addition to the fist of marine algae of St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh. H. Brown, red and blue-green algae. Nova Hedwigia, 36(2/4):643-657. Includes 40 micrographs. Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Dacca, Bangladesh. 84:2255

Yang, Dong-Beom, Eun-Soo Kim, Kwang Woo Lee, Jin Hwan Lee and Hyung Tack Huh, 1983. [Red tides, phytoplankton and seawater quality in Korea: Jinlme and Deukryang bays.] Bull. Korea Ocean R.~s. D o . Inst~ 5(1):15-26; 2 papers. (English with some Korean.) Oceanogr. Lab., KORDI, Korea.

(In Russian.) 84:2256 84:2253

Dyer, M.F., J.G. Pope, P.D. Fry, R.J. Law and J.E. Portmann, 1983. Chnpes in fish and benthos catches off the Danish Coast in September 1981. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 63(4):767-775.

Yang, Dong-Beom and Kwang Woo Lee, 1983. Vertical distributions and diurnal variations of dissolved nutrients and chlorophyll a in Masan Bay [Korea]. Bull. Korea Ocean Res. Dev. Inst~ 5(1):9-13.


E. Biological Oceanography

Dissolved nitrate concentrations were high in surface waters; dissolved inorganic phosphates, in bottom waters. There were high concentrations of dissolved nitrates and chlorophyll a in the less saline waters of the inner bay. Dissolved nitrates were not limiting for phytoplankton growth. Surface waters had low concentrations of dissolved phosphates; high concentrations were found in bottom waters. Chemical Oceanogr. Lab., KORDI, Korea.

E50. General biology, ecology, biogeography, etc. 84:2257 Borgmann, Uwe, 1983. Effect of soumtic growth and reproduction on biomass transfer up pelagic food webs as calculated from particle-size-conversion efficiency. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 40(11):20102018. Transfer of biomass up the food web to larger organisms cannot always be calculated based on predation alone. Somatic growth augments this transfer and reproduction impedes it. Equations accounting for the effects of somatic growth and reproduction are derived; conditions under which these factors can be ignored are defined. Food for each species need not be specified. Production of Mysis relicta is calculated as an example and is found to be 25% greater when somatic growth is accounted for. Dept. of Fish. and Oceans, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ont. L7R 4A6, Canada. (mjj)

F_~O. P l a n k t o n (also primary productivity, seston a n d detritus) 84:2258 Bienfang, P.K. and M. Takahashi, 1983. Ultraplankton growth rates in a subtropical ecosystem [Oahu, Hawaii]. Mar. Biol., 76(2):213-218. Growth rates of ultraplankton ( ~ 3 /~m) were estimated from the increase of chlorophyll biomass in the absence of grazers; results indicate 1.3 to 2.5 doublings occurred per day. Accounting for ~70% of the phytoplankton biomass, the predominance of ultraplankton may result from 'its higher specific growth rate, its higher nutrient assimilation rates, and the absence of its loss through sedimentation.' The Oceanic Inst., Waimanalo, Hawaii 96795, USA. (ahm)

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84:2259 Brooks, E.R. and M.M. Mullin, 1983. Diel charges in the vertical distribution of biomass and species in the Southern California Bight. Calif. coop. ocean. Fish. Invest., (Ser. Repts)24:210-215. Diurnal differences were found in total biomass in the upper 225 m with one-third to two-thirds of the nighttime biomass in the upper 56 m of water being redistributed below this depth during the day. For most copepods considered, this change was caused by diel vertical migration; larger zooplankters could have descended below 225 m or avoided capture in the surface layers more successfully during the day than at night. Inst. of Mar. Res., Univ. of California, La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. 84:2260 Cushing, D.H., 1983. Are fish larvae too dilute to affect the density of their food organisms? J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):847-854. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that during early phases, abundant fish (e.g., haddock and plaice) larvae are too dilute to affect the density of food organisms. However, as the larvae grow their effect increases, and they may cause prey mortality severe enough to affect their own growth near the age of metamorphosis. 198 Yarmouth Rd., Lowestoft, Suffolk NR32 4AB, UK. (mjj) 84:2261 Dandonneau, Yves, 1983. An attempt to simulate the subsurface chlorophyll maximum using populations of unphased oscillating cells. J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):797-818. Tropical chlorophyll profiles are simulated by a model which assumes phytoplankton oscillate vertically around a critical depth, assimilating nutrients at the deeper levels and receiving more light above. Such oscillations have not been observed, perhaps due to wide variance in individual cell oscillation periods and phases. Model results are compared with actual data. The model accounts for deep populations when the surface mixed layer is nutrientexhausted. Centre Orstom, B.P. A5 Noumea, New Caledonia. (mjj)

84:2262 Endo, Yoshinari, Hiroshi Hasumoto and Akira Taniguchi, 1983. Mierozooplankton standing crop in the western subtropical Pacific off the Bonin Islands in winter, 1980. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 39(4):185-191. Fac. of Agric., Tohoku Univ., Sendai 980, Japan.

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E. Biological Oceanography


Fasham, M.J.R. and T. Platt, 1983. Photosynthetic response of phytoplankton to light: a physiological model. Proc. R. Soc, Lond., (B)219(1217):355370. A theoretical representation for the relationship between photosynthesis and light in phytoplankton is based on a simple model of processes associated with electron flow through photosystem II. Photoinhibition is represented as an impediment to this electron flow. Examples are shown of fits to various typical light saturation curves for natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton. Size of the photosynthetic unit of PSII is important. Photoadaptation is discussed in terms of changes in the light saturation curves due to modifications in the number or size of the photosynthetic units. Inst. of Oceanogr. Sci., Brook Rd., Wormley, Surrey GU8 5UB, UK. 84:2264

Fiedler, P.C., 1983. Fine-scale spatial patterns in the coastal epiplankton off southern California. J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):865-879. Herbivorous zooplankton were more consistently associated with the estimated primary productivity maximum than with the deeper chlorophyll maximum, which represented a phytoplankton biomass maximum. Predators were positively correlated with abundant potential prey species. Variations in body length with depth suggest that these fine-scale patterns were sufficiently stable to influence zooplankton growth. Consequences for grazing and predator-prey interactions in pelagic ecosystems are discussed. NOAA/NMFS, SFC, P.O. Box 271, La Jolla, Calif. 92038, USA. 84:2265

Fowler, S.W. and N.S. Fisher, 1983. Viability of marine phytopiankton in zooplankton fecal pellets. Deep-Sea Res., 30(9A):963-969. Fecal pellets collected from sediment traps or freshly excreted by euphansiids were incubated under laboratory conditions and always contained viable marine phytoplankton, usually diatoms. The rapid sinking of fecal pellets appears to be an effective mechanism for transporting living algae to depth and possibly for seeding marine waters and sediments with such cells. Intl. Lab. of Mar. Radioact., Musee Oceanogr., MC 98000 Monaco. 84:2266

Furnestin, M.-L., 1983. Plankton and biogeography: some examples. Oceanis, 9(4):289-316. (In French, English abstract.) Univ. de Provence, Place V. Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3, France.


84:2267 Gilbert, J.J. and C.E. Williamson, 1983. Sexual dimorphism in zooplankton (Copepada, Cladocent, and Rotifera). A. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 14:1-33. Includes 234 references. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. 03755, USA. 84:2268

Gros, Philippe and Mireille Ryckaert, 1983. Phytopianktonic primary production in coastal waters of Normandy, Eastern Channel. Oceanologica Acta, 6(4):435-450. (In French, English summary.) Inertia analysis (an ordination technique) was applied to spatio-temporal variability in the plankton; the major source of variation was seasonality. Seasonal changes in taxonomic contributions to, and size class distributions of, chlorophyll biomass were evaluated. Photosynthetic capacities of different size classes were examined using a semi-empirical nonlinear model; the model was subjected to sensitivity analyses. CNEXO, Centre Oceanol. de Bretagne, B.P. 337, 29273 Brest Cedex, France. (m.ij) 84:2269

Hayward, T.L., E.L. Venrick and J.A. McGowan, 1983. Environmental heterogeneity and plankton ¢ommtmity structure in the central North Pacific. J. mar. Res~ 41(4):711-729. Heterogeneity patterns in nutrients, macrozooplankton biomass, and integrated water column chlorophyll and primary production are described on spatial scales ranging from less than one to several thousand km and on temporal scales ranging 1 day to 12 years. Fluctuations in these properties represent an index of the biological response of the ecosystem to physical forcing. Heterogeneity in each property was low on all scales. Diel changes were evident only in macrozooplankton biomass; no seasonal cycles were detected. The central North Pacific shows relatively low heterogeneity, especially on mesoscales, when compared to other pelagic ecosystems. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. 84:2270

Heimdal, B.R., 1983. Phytoplankton and nutrients in the waters northwest of Spitsbergen in the autumn of 1979. J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):901-918. Phytoplankton biomass, primary production rates and inorganic nutrients were measured in the upper layer of the ice-edge region and in open water, and were compared with environmental factors. Biomass, production values and P concentration were low; a


E. Biological Oceanography

post-bloom community of diatoms, consisting mainly of Chaetoceros, Leptocylindrus, Nitzschia and Thalassiosira, was predominant. Inst. of Mar. Biol., N-5065, Blomsterdalen, Norway.

84:2271 Hernroth, Lars, 1983. Marine pelagic rotffers and tintinnids: important tropblc links in the spring plankton community of the Gnllmar Fjord, Sweden. J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):835-846. Dynamics of the rotifer, Synchaeta vorax, and tintinnids of the genus Tintinnopsis were studied. In early April when surface temperature exceeded 6°C, the rotifer population started to grow rapidly; thereafter the population increased exponentially for 6 weeks. Estimates, admittedly rough, of consumption of phytoplankton by rotifers and tintinnids in their most dynamic phase approximated phytoplankton production, indicating that the 2 groups of predators are highly important components in the community. Through high turnover, they effectively utilize the spring phytoplankton bloom and serve as a link between primary and secondary producers. Kristineberg Mar. Biol. Station, S-450 34 Fiskebackskil, Sweden.

84:2272 Koslow, J.A., 1983. Zooplankton community structure in the North Sea and northeast Atlantic: development and test of a biological model. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 40(11):1912-1924. Results of model simulations in which primary production and abundance of plankton-feeding fish were the primary forcing functions indicated that predatory interactions could regulate the size structure of marine zooplankton. When planktivorous fish were rare, large herbivores and invertebrate predators were dominant, as is the case in freshwater communities. However, model results did not correspond with recent changes in zooplankton and fish in the North Sea. Zooplankton there may be foodrather than predator-limited; more complex models are needed. Dept. of Oceanogr., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada. (mjj)

84:2273 Loeb, V.J., P.E. Smith and H.G. Moser, 1983. Ichthyoplankton and zooplankton abundance lintterns in the California Current area, 1975. Calif. coop. ocean. Fish. Invest, (Ser. Repts)24:109-131. Zooplankton decreased from north to south and inshore to offshore, related to surface water nutrient concentrations. Ichthyoplankton abundance was highest off southern California and northern Baja California where large stocks of spawning migratory

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species were concentrated. 'Persistent high-intensity zooplankton patchiness' off northern Baja California was associated with a surface-layer convergence zone which may delimit the southern California and central-southern Baja California coastal biological regimes. Moss Landing Mar. Lab., P.O. Box 223, Moss Landing, Calif. 95039, USA. (msg)

84:2274 Marshall, H.G. and M.S. Cohn, 1983. Distribution and composition of phytoplankton in northeastern coastal waters of the United States. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci, 17(2):119-131. Seasonal phytoplankton assemblages are noted, including a variety of ultraplankton components. Greatest cell concentrations were observed at nearshore stations, Georges Bank, and at scattered sites over the shelf. Dominant species included Skeletonema costatum, Asterionella glacialis and Leptocylindrus danicus. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. 23508, USA.

84:2275 Ortner, P.B., S.M. Holzknecht and S.R. Cummings, 1983. Assessing the utility of pal2Jtionlng primary productivity by density gradient centrifugation. J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):919-928. A method for determining what contribution various components of natural phytoplankton assemblages make to measured community primary productivity is assessed. Field and laboratory data illustrate partitionings of coastal and oceanic plankton population C uptake. The procedure could be used to partition the uptake of other isotopes or biomass parameters such as chlorophyll or ATP concentration. Advantages and disadvantages of the density gradient approach are discussed relative to available alternatives. NOAA, AOML, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Fla. 33149, USA.

84:2276 Raine, R.C.T., 1983. The effect of nitrogen supply on the photosynthetic quotient of natural phytoplankton assemblages. Botanica mar., 26(9):417423. Algal blooms were stimulated by additions of N, P and Si. When ammonium was being assimilated, conventional values (1.0-1.3) were observed for photosynthetic quotients (rate of 02 production:CO2 assimilation). When NO 3 was assimilated quotients as high as 2.25 were measured; these could be lowered to 1.25 by correcting for 02 production resulting from NO 3 reduction, Nitrate reduction may cause errors in oxygen-based estimates of primary

OLR(1984)31 (5)

E. BiologicalOceanography

planktonic production. Dept. of Microbiol., Sch. of Marine Sci., Univ. College, Galway, Ireland'. (mjj) 84:2277 Revelante, Noelia and Malvern Gilmartin, 1983. Microzooplankton 4istrihotion in the northern Adriatic Sea with emphasis on the relative abundance of created protozoans. Oeeanologica Acta, 6(4):407-415.

Numbers and biomass were determined for microzooplankton in both stratified summer and mixed winter conditions. Ciliated protozoans comprised 90-98% of the microzooplankton but dominated the biomass only in the summer. Food web links and sample preservation techniques are discussed. Dept. of Bot. and Plant Pathol., Univ. of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA. (mjj) 84:2278

Smith, J.C., Trevor Platt and W.G. Harrison, 1983. Photoedaptation of carboxylating enzymes and photosynthesis during a spring bloom. Prog. Oceanogr., 12(4):425-459. Measured during a spring phytoplankton bloom were: carboxylating enzyme activity, parameters of the photosynthetic light saturation curve, biomass, growth rates (in-situ and simulated in-situ), dark ~4C uptake, environmental parameters, nutrient uptake rates, and floristic composition. During the course of the bloom, there was an increase in ribulose1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, carbon fixation per cell, and the light intensity at which photosynthesis became saturated; there was a decrease in dark carbon fixation. Natural conditions appeared to be simulated adequately by semicontinuous methods but not by batch cultures. Bedford Inst. of Oceanogr., Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada. (mjj) 84:2279 Sorokin, Iu.I., 1983. Comparative role of phytoplankton and hacterioplankton in the consumption of phosphate in the upper layers of the SE Pacific. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSS1L 272(4):10031006. (In Russian.) 84:2280 Takahashi, M. and P.K. Bienfang, 1983. Size structure of phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis in subtropical Hawaiian waters. Mar. Biol., 76(2):203-211.

In a subtropical Hawaiian ecosystem, ultraplankton (<3/an), nanoplankton (<20/~m) and netplankton (>20 pan) accounted for ca. 80, 98 and 2% of total chlorophyll standing stock, respectively; similar


trends were evident for other biomass indices. Community photosynthesis had a size distribution similar to that of biomass. Sinking rates for the < 3 /~m, 3 to 20/~m, and > 2 0 / a n fractions averaged 0.0, 0.09 and 0.29 m/d, respectively. The relative abundance of the ultraplankton and the absence of measurable sinking rates for them result in very small phytoplankton losses due to sinking in such waters. Inst. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of Tsukuba, Sakura-mura, Ibaraki 305, Japan. 84:2281 Wells, M.L., N.G. Zorkin and A.G. Lewis, 1983. The role of colloid chemistry in providing a source of iron to phytopl~nkton. J. mar. Res., 41(4):731746. Culture experiments with diatoms demonstrate that, as an iron source, freshly prepared coUoidal ferric hydroxide can produce better cell yield than goethite or hematite; aging or heating of the prepared ferric hydroxide reduces cell yield. Reduction in cell yield can be prevented by adding EDTA prior to, but not after, aging or heating of the ferric hydroxide. Results suggest that the ability of colloidal iron to provide a source of metal for phytoplankton is related to colloid thermodynamic stability. Lewis: Dept. of Oceanogr., Univ. of British Columbia, 6270 Univ. Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5, Canada.

El00. Nekton (communities; also fish, reptiles, mammals) 84:2282 Bebars, M.I. and G. Lasscrre, 1983. Analysis of the Egyptian marine and lagoon fisheries from 19621976, in relation to the construction of the Aswan Dam (completed in 1969). Oceanologica Acta, 6(4):417-426. (In French, English summary.) Inst. of Oceanogr. and Fish., Acad. of Sci. Res. and Tech., 101 Kasr E! Iny St., Cairo, Egypt.

E l l 0 . Bottom communities Caine,


84:2283 1983. Community interagtlons of

Caprd/a l~.mmas Leach (Crnstacea: Amnhipeda) on sea whips. J. crustacean Biol, 3(4):497-504.

C. penantis densities increased by 23 times when Thalassia testudinum died back during winter; reproductive output and decreased fish predation may figure in increasing the densities. Postlarval and juvenile decapod crustaceans colonized the sea


E. BiologicalOceanography

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whips as C. penantis densities decreased. Thus, epibiotic communities serve as a food source, a grazer of fouling organisms and detritus, and a temporary 'home' for benthic invertebrates in transition from planktonic to epibenthic life styles. Dept. of Mar. Sci., Univ. of South Carolina, Beaufort, SC 29902, USA. (ahm)

84:2288 Larsen, P.F., L.F. Doggett and A.C. Johnson, 1983. The macroinvertebrate fauna associated with five sand fiats in the northern Gulf of Maine. Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci., 33(I):57-63. Bigelow Lab. for Ocean Sci., West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04575, USA.

84:2284 Coull, B.C., E.L. Creed, R.A. Eskin, P.A. Montagna, M.A. Palmer and J.B.J. Wells, 1983. Phytal meiofauna from the rocky intertidal at Murrelis Inlet, South Carolina. Trans. Am. microsc. Soc., 102(4):380-389. Dept. of Biol., Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

84:2289 Littler, M.M., P.R. Taylor and D.S. Littler, 1983. Algal resistance to herbivory on a Caribbean barrier reef. Coral Reefs, 2(2): 111-118.

84:2285 Davies, P.J. and P.A. Hutchings, 1983. Initial colonization, erosion and accretion on coral substrate. Experimental results, Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 2(1):27-35. Bur. of Min. Res., Geol. and Geophys., P.O. Box 378, Canberra A.C.T. 260, Sydney, Australia. 84:2286 Dethlefsen, V. and H. von Westernhagen, 1983. Oxygen deficiency and effects on bottom fauna in the eastern German Bight 1982. Meeresforschung (Repts mar. Res.), 30(1):42-53. Two cruises in August and September showed that two-thirds of the 15,000 km 2 area surveyed had less than 60% Oz saturation; a distinct thermocline was present in August. Areas with low 02 (saturation 10%) had low fish catches and often dead fish and benthic organisms on the bottom. Eutrophication processes combined with adverse hydrographic and meteorological conditions may be responsible for the low 02 values. Bundesforsch. fur Fisch., Inst. fur Kusten- und Binnenfischerei, Cuxhaven, FRG. (ahm) 84:2287 Drew, E.A., 1983. Halimeda biomass, growth rates and sediment generation on reefs in the central Great Barrier Reef province. Coral Reefs, 2(2): 101-110. Of the 13 species encountered in the study, H. copiosa and H. opuntia were dominant everywhere except on the atoll. Biomass production was measured at 6.9 g dry wt m 2 d J (a value considerably higher than previously reported). The contribution to the substratum increased with distance from shore. Annual accretion due to Hafimeda averaged over the 5.9 km 2 Davies Reef lagoon floor was estimated at 0.13 mm y r ~. Australian Inst. of Mar. Sci., P.M.B. No. 3, Townsville M.S.O., Qld. 4810, Australia. (hbf)

Field experiments supported predictions on the relationship between algal morphology and resistance to grazing. Crustose, calcareous and thick algae were more resistant than were filamentous or sheet forms. Dept. of Bot., Natl. Mus. of Nat. Hist., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA. (mjj) 84:2290 Maurer, Don, 1983. The effect of an infannal suspension feeding bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria (L.) on benthic recruitment. Mar. Ecol. (P.S.Z.N. I), 4(3):263-274. Young hard clams, at densities from 82.5 to 330 m -2, were placed in defaunated boxes of sand; the mean number of species and individuals, wet weight biomass, species richness and dominance index per sample were calculated per density of hard clams. The analysis demonstrated that feeding behaviour of dense populations of M. mercenaria did not preclude successful recruitment of other benthic species. So. Calif. Ocean Studies Consortium, Calif. State Univ., Long Beach, Calif. 90840, USA. 84:2291 McBane, C.D. and R.A. Croker, 1983. Anlmal-algal relationships of the amphipod Hyale nlissoni (Rathke) in the rocky intertidal. J. crustacean Biol., 3(4):592-601. The filamentous alga Polysiphonia lanosa was the most preferred habitat of H. nilssoni. Laboratory studies showed that in the absence of P. lanosa, H. nilssoni chooses ephemeral algal species over the robust perennials Fucus spiralis and Ascophyllum nodosum for shelter. P. lanosa, with its densely and finely branched fronds, was easily clung to and available throughout the year. Inst. of Nat. and Environ. Res., Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA. 84:2292 McLaughlin, P.A., S.-A.F. Treat, Anitra Thorhaug and Rafael Lemaitre, 1983. A restored seagress

OLR (1984) 31 (5)

E. Biological Oceanography

(T/m/assia) bed and its animal community. Environ. Conserv., 10(3):247-254. The animal community inhabiting a seagrass area that was destroyed by thermal effluents from Florida's Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay) power plant and reseeded in 1973 was compared to a control area and an unrestored, barren site. No significant differences were found in species diversity and abundance between reseeded and control sites. Pink shrimp, caridean shrimp and juvenile fishes were more abundant in the restored area than at the control site and an order of magnitude more abundant than at the barren site. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC, USA. (msg)

84:2293 Minello, T.J. and R.J. Zimmerman, 1983. Fish predation on juvenile brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus Ives: the effect of simulated Spartina structure on predation rates. J. expl mar. Biol. Ecol., 72(3):211-231. Under laboratory conditions, vegetative structure reduced predation rates of pinfish and Atlantic croaker but did not affect those of red drum and speckled trout; the 2 former were inefficient, needing several strikes (thus repeated detection) before successfully capturing prey. Although pinfish and speckled trout appeared to be strictly visual feeders, Atlantic croaker and red drum apparently could detect shrimp through other sensory mechanisms; this did not appear related to the effect of vegetative structure on predation rates. Number of shrimp eaten correlated directly with predator size. Texas A & M Univ., Galveston, Tex. 77550, USA.

84:2294 Sayama, Mikio and Yasushi Kurihara, 1983. Relationship between burrowing activity of the polychaetous annelid, Neanthes japun/ca (Izuka) and nitrification--denitriflcation processes in the sediments. J. expl mar. Biol. Ecol., 72(3):233-241. Aquaria were filled with diluted seawater with or without nitrate and N.japonica. In the series without nitrate, extremely high concentrations of nitrite + nitrate N were found in the inner layer of the burrow wall, and denitrification activity in the surface layer containing N. japonica was 3 times that of controls. In the series with nitrate, there was no significant difference in the activity between surface layers with and without N. japonica. The influence of sediment bioturbation on nitrifieation--denitrification processes was discussed. Kurihara: Biol. Inst., Tohoku Univ., Sendal 980, Japan.


84:2295 Smith, C.R. and S.C. Hamilton, 1983. Epibenthic megafanna of a bathyal basin off southern California: patterns of abundance, biomass, and dispersion. Deep-Sea Res., 30(9A):907-928. Using submersibles and bottom trawls, 50 species were noted at 1300 m. The 4 most abundant species showed 'nonrandom dispersion patterns' in contrast to earlier workers' findings. Possible causes of these patterns are reproductive processes, feeding behavior and social interactions. The Santa Catalina Basin megafauna constitutes a major component of the benthic biomass with ophiuroids accounting for 99% of the community abundance and standing crop. Includes bottom photographs. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. (ahm)

84:2296 Stoner, A.W., 1983. Distributional ecology of amphipods and tanaidaceans associated with three seagrass species. J. crustacean Biol., 3(4):505-518. The abundance and diversity of epifaunal peracaridan crustaceans were functions of seagrass species and biomass per square meter. Infaunal abundance, also affected by seagrass species and biomass, was greatest in bare sand. Seagrass biomass and growth form effects on the foraging behavior of predators of peracarids are discussed. Sea Education Assoc., P.O. Box 6, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (mjj)

84:2297 Wenner, E.L., D.M. Knott, R.F. Van Dolah and V.G. BurreU Jr., 1983. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 17(2): 143-158. Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season; middle shelf areas were transitional with taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa, Cnidaria, Porifera, Annelida and MoUusca represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity and biomass of invertebrates from hard bottoms exceeded those previously reported for sand bottoms. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity, exhibiting no discernible pattern with depth or latitude. South Carolina Mar. Res. Inst., Box 12559, Charleston, SC 29412, USA.


E. BiologicalOceanography

El20. Estuarine, marsh and mangrove commnnlties

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El50. Microbiology (communities, processes; also bacteria, fungi, yeasts, viruses, etc.)


Nicolaidou, A., M. Moraitou-Apostolopoulou and L. Ignatiades, 1983. A survey of estuarine benthic, zooplanktonic and phytoplanktonie communities of Amvrakikos Gulf, Ionian Sea. Mar. Ecol. (P.S.Z.N. I), 4(3):197-209. Zool. Lab., Univ. of Athens, 621, Greece.

El40. Birds 84:2299

Burger, Joanna and Michael Gochfeld, 1983. Behavionral responses to bnman intruders of herring gulls (Lm'us argentatus) and great black-backed gulls (L. mar/Hs) with varying exposure to human disturbance. Behav. Process., 8(4):327-344. Incubating gulls which had frequent prior exposure to humans were slower to leave the nest and quicker to return when disturbed than were birds with little prior human exposure. Effects of incubation time and weather were investigated, as were correlations among behaviors involved in the alarm and returning responses. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. (mjj)


Gaston, A.J., D.G. Noble and M.A. Purdy, 1983. Monitoring breeding biology parameters for mmTes Uda spp.: levels of accuracy and sources of bias. J. Fid Orn~ 54(3):275-282. Dept. of Biol., Univ. of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, Victoria, BC VSW 2Y2, Canada. 84:2301

Guzman, J.R. and M.T. Myres, 1983. The occurrence of shearwaters (PMffnus spp.) off the west coast of Ca~__: Can. J. Zool., 61(9):2064-2077. Dept. of Biol., Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N IN4, Canada.


Dunn, P.H. and G.E. Baker, 1983. Filamentous fungi of the psammon habitat at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Mycologia, 75(5):839-853. Using salinity, pH, temperature, organic content, moisture, oxygen level, sand grain size and vertical distribution, 3 zones of vertical distribution were established: land, tidal and a black, anaerobic zone. Microorganism numbers had no correlation to sand organic content; increased submergence time was related to decreased numbers of fungi, bacteria and Actinomycetes. Adaptation experiments also are detailed. Pacific SW Sta., Forest Serv., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 4955 Canyon Crest Dr., Riverside, Calif. 92507, USA. (ahm) 84:2304

Dye, A.H., 1983. A method for the quantitative estimation of bacteria from manerove sediments. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 17(2):207-212. Mud samples are homogenized in filtered seawater; the supernatant is diluted and stained with Acridine Orange. The stained material is trapped on a 0.45 p~n membrane filter and bacteria are counted under a fluorescence microscope. Samples may be pro-fixed in 5% formalin for later examination. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Transkei, Private Bag X 5092 Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. 84:2305

Grimes, D.J. and R.R. Colwell, 1983. Survival of pathogenic organisms in the Anacostia and Potomac rivers and the Chesapeake Bay Estuary. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 73(2):45-50. Dept. of Microbiol., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Md. 20742, USA. 84:2306

Kenyon, J.E., D.C. Gillies, D.R. Piexoto and Brett Austin, 1983. V/br/o ~ (non-O1) isolated from California coastal waters. Appl. environ. Microbiol., 46(5): 1232-1233. Santa Cruz County Public Health Lab., Santa Cruz, Calif. 95060, USA.


Hatch, S.A., 1983. The fledgin 8 of common and thkk,bllled mm'res on Middleton Island, Alaska. J. Fid Orn~ 54(3):266-274. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Rd., Anchorage, Alaska 99503, USA.


Kjelleberg, Staffan, B.A. Humphrey and K.C. Marshall, 1983. Initial phases of starvation and activity of bacteria at surfaces. Appl. environ. Microbiol., 46(5):978-984.

OLR(1984)31 (5)

E. BiologicalOceanography

Starved hydrophilic Vibrio sp. and hydrophobic Pseudomonas sp. went through a dwarfing phase consisting of fragmentation, continuous cell size reduction, and intense metabolic activity. This process was studied at both nutrient-enriched and nutrient-deficient interfaces. Hydrophilic bacteria became smaller and had a higher endogenous metabolic rate at nutrient-deficient surfaces than in the liquid phase. This was not the case for hydrophobic bacteria. Marshall: Sch. of Microbiol., Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. (mii) 84:2308 Kohlmeyer, Jan, 1983. Geography of marine fungi. Aust. J. Bot~ (Suppl. ser.)10:67-76. Temperature is the most important factor controlling the distribution of higher marine fungi; other important factors include hydrostatic pressure and the availability o f substrates (hosts) and oxygen. Maps of the global distribution of 10 species are presented; distributions of 13 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 2 conidial fungi are discussed. Univ. of North Carolina, Inst. of Mar. Sci., Morehead City, NC 28557, USA. (mjj) 84:2309 Nail Shanta and P.A.L. Bharathi, 1982. Bacteriological studies off the Mangalore coast ISW Indlai. Mahasagar, 15(4):215-222. Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr. Dona Paula, Goa-403 004, India. 84:2310 Pirozynsld, K.A. and J. Walker (eds.), 1981/83. Pacific myeogeogrally: a preliminary approach. (Symposium, 24 August 1981.) Aust. J. Bot., (Suppl. ser.)10:172pp; 6 papers. Includes 2 indexes: Fungi and lichens; Plants and other biota.

El80. Biochemistry 84:2311 Fry, Brian, Howard Gest and J.M. Hayes, 1983. Sulphur isotopic eomlPositions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals. Nature, Lond~ 306(5938): 51-52. Stable sulphur isotope ratio (34S/32S) analysis of Pacific vent fauna yields 834S values close to 0 ppt. These values approximate the + 1 to + 4 ppt range observed for sulphur-bearing minerals at the vents, and indicate that this specialized fauna utilizes sulphur derived from the vents (rather than from


seawater sulphate) during growth and metabolism. Res. Program in Biogeochem., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47405, USA.

E220. Invertebrates (except E230-Crustacea, E240-Protozoa) 84:2312 Alvarifto, Angeles, 1983. Neetocarmen antonloi, a new Prayinae, Calycophorae, Siphonophora from California. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., 96(3):339-348. NMFS, NOAA, SWFC, P.O. Box 271, La JoUa, Calif. 92038, USA.

84:2313 Bamber, R.N., 1983. Some deep water pycaogoaids from the northeast Atlantic. ZooL J. Linn. Soc., 77(1):65-74. Twenty-two specimens (9 species) were taken at depths between 200 and 1835 m off the British Isles. Noted are southern range extensions for Nymphon leptocheles and Pallenopsis tritonis, the northernmost record of the genus Cilunculus, and the 'third European record' for Colossendeis arcuata. C.E.G.B. Mar. Biol. Unit, Fawley Power Sta., Fawley, Hampshire SO4 ITW, UK. (ahm) 84:2314 Bhaud, Michel, 1983. Some examples of geographical limits in marine invertebrate species. Oceanis, 9(4):317-335. (In French, English abstract.)

A comparison between species which are closely related in systematic terms and which have the same developmental cycle demonstrates that the species belong to several biogeographical units with a different spatial range. Numerous secondary dispersal mechanisms eliminate any correlation between life cycle characteristics and the specific distributional area. Lab. Arago, 66650 Banyulssur-Mer, France. 84:2315 Krapp, F., 1983. IPycnogonida from the Atlantic coast of Moroceo.i Bonn. zool. Beitr, 34(1/3): 405-416. (In German, English abstract.) Zool. Forschungsinstitut und Mus. Alexander Koenig, Bonn, FRG. 84:2316 Lu, C.C., J. Thompson and C.F.E. Roper (organizers), 1981/83. Proeeedla~ of the workshop on the biology and resource potential of ~opods. (Held in Melbourne, Australia 9-13 March 1981.) Mere. natn. Mas. Vict., 44:311pp; 26


1!. Biological Oceanography

papers + workshop summaries and recommendations. The cephalopod workshop covered 3 main areas: biology, fisheries, and systematics and collections. There were 5 review papers treating parasites; Onychoteuthis borealijaponica biology; fisheries biology; systematics; and lab maintenance, rearing and culture. One paper discussed fixation and preservation techniques, and another offered taxonomic guidelines. Recommendations were made on life cycles, culture, ecology, general biology, systematics, morphology, and Australian squid fisheries biology and assessment. (ihz) 84:2317 Mauchline, J. and P.F. Harvey, 1983. The Scyphomedusae of the Rockall Trough, northeastern Atlantic Ocean. J. Plankt. Res, 5(6):881-890. Dunstaffnage Marine Res. Lab., P.O. Box No. 3, Oban, Argyll, UK. 84:2318 Pettibone, M.H., 1983. A new scale worm (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) from the hydrothermai riftarea off western Mexico at 21°N [Lepidonoto. pod/urn f/mbr/atum n.gen., n.sp.]. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., 96(3):392-399. Dept. of Invert. Zool., Natl. Mus. of Nat. Hist., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA. 84:2319 Pineda-Polo, F.H., 1979. Seasonal distribution of chaetognaths in the Bight of Panama. Boln Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente, 18(1/2):65-88. Univ. del Valle, Dept. de Biol., Cali, Colombia.

84:2320 Zottoli, Robert, 1983. Amp/ffsamyffm ga/apagensis, a new species of ampharetld polychaete from the vicinity of abyssal hydrothermai vents in the Galapagos Rift, and the rule of this species in rift ecosystems. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., 96(3):379-391. Dept. of Biol., Fitchburg State College, Mass. 01420, USA.

EX30. Crustacea 84:2321 Alcaraz, Miguel, 1983. Coexistence and segregation of congeneric pelagic copepods: spatial distribution of the Aeattia complex in the Ria of Vigo (NW of Spain). J. Plankt. Res., 5(6):891-900. Inst. de Invest. Pesq., P. Nac. s/n, Barcelona 3, Spain.

OLR (1984) 31 (5)

84:2322 B~cescu, Mihai, 1982. [Cumacea of the Aegean Sea (Ewoia) and the Sea of Marmara.i Tray. Mus. Hist. nat. Gr. Antipa, 24:45-54. (In French.) Mus. d'Hist, nat., Grigore Antipa, Sos. Kiseleff 1, 71243 Bucuresti, Romania. 84:2323 Bgtcescu, Mihai, 1982. [ C ~ u d e s laubieri sp.n. and C. curt/carpus sp.n. of the NE Atlantic and some new generic detaiis.I Tray. Mus. Hist. nat. Gr. Antipa, 24:55-68. (In French, English abstract.) Mus. d'Hist, nat., Grigore Antipa, Sos. Kiseleff, 1 71243 Bucuresti, Romania. 84:2324 B/~cescu, Mihai and Aurel Udrescu, 1982. New contribution to the knowledge of the Mysidacea from Australia. Tray. Mus. Hist. nat. Gr. Antipa, 24:79-96. Five new species are described: Gastrosaccus daviei, G. brisbanensis, G. queenslandiensis, Doxomysis proxima and Tenagomysis aseta. Two species new to eastern Australia are noted, bringing the number of known Australian mysids to 56. Mus. de Hist. Nat., Grigore Antipa, Sos Kiseleff 1, 71243 Bucuresti, Romania. (ahm)

84:2325 B~ez R., Pedro, 1983. [Phyilosoma and puerulus larvae of Panu//rus grac///s Streets 1871 from the Costa Riea Expedition, 1973; Crustacea, I)eeapoda, Palinuridae.] Revta Biol. mar., Univ. Chile, 19(1):79-111. (In Spanish, English summary.) Seccion Hidrobiol., Museo Nac. de Hist. Nat., casilla 787, Santiago, Chile. 84:2326 Cals, Philippe, 1983. Diverse migratory capacities of crustacean larvae and historical evolution of the o c e a n s . Oceanis, 9(4):355-387. (In French, English summary.) An analysis of locomotory and feeding mechanisms in Mystacocarida and Carcinus shows that Mystacoearida was 'helpless in the water column' and invaded the Mediterranean after the Messinian crisis 'by storm-driven migrations of the substratum.' The migratory capacity of Carcinus was related to which metamorphic stage was involved. Univ. P.& M. Curie, 12 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France. (msg) 84:2327 Cheng, L. and P. Holdway, 1983. HMobatescoilected during the circumnavigationai expedition 'Operation Drake.' Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 78(2): 187-198.

OLR (1984) 31 (5)

E. Biological Oceanography

Samples from the 2-year expedition yielded 4 oceanic species (H. micans, H. sericeus, H. germanus and H. splendens), 2 coastal species (H. macu!atus and H. princeps), and 1 undescribed species. This paper indicates location, collection time, and surface temperature; distributional boundaries and population densities are discussed. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. (ahm)


84:2333 HolmstrOm, W.F. and Elfed Morgan, 1983. [Endngenons rhythm activity of the estuarine amphipod, Coropldm volutator (Pallas). Direct observations, time-lapse photography, rephasing, and laboratory entrainment.] J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 63(4):833-870; 3 papers. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Birmingham, P.O. Box 363, Birmingham BI5 2TI', UK.


Childress, J.J. and M.H. Price, 1983. Growth rate of the bathypelagie crustacean Gnathophausia /ngens (Mysidacea: Lophogastridae). II. Accumulation of material and energy. Mar. Biol., 76(2): 165-177. Contents of water, ash, C, H, N, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, chitin and energy were measured for all life stages of the mysid collected in San Clemente Basin (southern California) and used to examine the life history, growth rates, growth pattern and partitioning of material and energy over the life of this species. The evolutionary context of this mysid's life history is discussed. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106, USA. 84:2329

Da Rocha, C.E.F., 1983. Distribution of the marine dadoceruns (Crustaom, Branchiopoda) off Santos, Brazil. Bolm Zool., Univ. S Paulo, 1983(7): 155-169. Dept. de Zool., Univ. de Sao Paulo, C.P. 20.520, 01000, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 84:2330


Kaczmaruk, B.Z., 1983. Occurrence and distribution of the Antarctic copepods along the ice shelves in the WeddeH Sea in summer 1979180. Meeresforschung (Repts mar. Res.), 30(1):25-41. Study of the 'little known plankton' revealed low diversity and abundance in the western Weddell Sea's upper 50 m with a steady increase eastward. Ctenocalanus vanus and Oithona so. were dominant with the latter occurring at all depths and in the highest numbers. Calanoid copepodids were a major component of the population; large Antarctic copepods were scarce. Alfred-Wegener-Inst. fur Polarforschung, Columbus-Center, 2850 Bremerhaven, FRG. (ahm) 84:2335

Krutak, P.R., 1980. Modern lagoonal ostracodes and species diversity gradients, Gulf of Mexico. Trans. Gulf Cst Ass. geol. Socs, 1980(30):437-443. Dept. of Geol., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 68588, USA. 84:2336

George, R.Y. and Ileana Negoescu-V1Adescu, 1982. Ocsanthm'a bacescu/, a new anthuridean isopod (Isopoda, Anthuridea) from the outer continental shelf of North Carolina. Tray. Mus. Hist. nat. Gr. Antipa, 24:97-103. Inst. of Mar. Bio-Med. Res., Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC 28401, USA.

Macko, S.A., M.L.F. Estep and We~ Yula Lee, 1983. Stable hydrogen isotope analysis of foodwebs on laboratory and field populations of marine amphipods. J. expl mar. Biol. Ecol., 72(3):243-249. Dept. of Earth Sci., Memorial Univ., St. Johns, Nfld. A1B 3X5, Canada.

84:2331 Gratto, G.W., M.L.H. Thomas and J.S. Bleakney, 1983. Growth and production of the intertidal amphipod Coropldum volutstor (Pallas) in the inner and outer Bay of Fundy. Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci., 33(1):47-55. Biol. Dept., Univ. of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 5050, St. John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada.

84:2337 McConaugha, J.R., D.F. Johnson, A.J. Provenzano and R.C. Marls, 1983. Seasonal distribution of •larvae of Calllnectes sapidns (Crustacea: Decap. oda) in the waters adjacent to Chesapeake Bay. J. crustacean Biol., 3(4):582-591. Dept. of Oceanogr., Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. 23508, USA.


Hirota, Yuichi, Takahisa Nemoto and Ryuzo Marumo, 1983. Vertical d~tdbution of euphansiids in Sagami Bay, central Japan. Mer, Tokyo, 21(3):151-163. Japan Sea Regional Fish. Res. Lab., Suido-cho, Niigata, 951, Japan.

84:2338 Onb6, Takashi, 1983. Preliminary observations on the biology of a marine dadocerun Pieop/s (Potion) schm~,ker/ OPoppe) [Shikoku, Japan]. J. Fac. appl. biol. Sci., Hiroshima Univ., 22(1):55-64.


E. BiologicalOceanography Fac. of Appl. Biol. Sci., Hiroshima Univ., Fukuyama 720, Japan.

84:2339 Paulinose, V.T., 1982. Key to the identification of larvae and postlarvae of the peuneid prawns (Decapoda: Penaeidea) of the Indian Ocean. Mahasagar, 15(4):223-229. Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr., Pullepady Cross Rd., Cochin 682 018, India. 84:2340 Pineda-Polo, F.H., 1979. A new species of Euaugaptllidae (Copepeda: Calanidae) from the Carlaco Trench [ ~ f f / u s fosa/i n.sp.I. Boln Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente, 18(1/2): 13-15. Univ. del Valle, Dept. de Biol., Call, Colombia. 84:2341 Poulet, S.A., 1983. Factors controlling utilization of

non-algal diets by partkle-grazing copepods:


review. Oceanologica Acta, 6(3):221-234. Current scanty knowledge of marine copepod diets is reviewed. The potential dietary importance of detritus, bacteria, ciliates and flagellates cannot be evaluated until more is known about copepod protein and carbohydrate contents and ingestion and assimilation rates, as well as their relative importance in organic matter transfer to copepods. Includes more than 150 references. Centre d'Etudes d'Oceanogr, et de Biol. Mar., CNRS, Sta. Biol., 29211 Roscoff, France. (mjj) 84:2342 Ramtrez, F.C. and C. Dato, 1983. Seasonal changes in population structure and gonadal development of three [sunthern Atlantic] euphausHd species. Oceanologica Acta, 6(4):427-433. Inst. Nac. de Invest., Casilla de Correo 175, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina. 84:2343 Ravindranath, K., 1982. The Krislma estuarine complex [west ln~ia] with reference to its shrimp and prawn fishery. Indian J. Fish., 29(1/2):168176. Fish Seed Farm, Andhra Pradesh Fish. Corp., Sri Rama Sagar Project, Pochampad 503219, India. 84:2344 Read, G.H.L., 1983. Possible influence of high salinity and low temperature on the distribution of M m e b r a ~ m pemna (Hngendod) (Cnmaeca" Caridea) along the southeast coast of South Africa. Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr., 45(1):35-43. Inst.

OLR(1984)31 (5)

for Freshwater Studies, Rhodes Grahamstown, South Africa.


84:2345 Rice, A.L. and R.G. Hartnoll, 1983. Aspects of the biology of the deep-sea spider crab, Dorhyachus tlmmsoni (Crostacea: Braehyura). J. Zool., Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 201(3):417-431. An analysis of pelagic first stage crabs and benthic crabs from the Rockall Trough and Porcupine Seabight indicates that most females and some males undergo puberty before the third crab instar; this finding suggests that only 3 larval and 3 post-larval instar stages occur during the life cycle. The possibility that some individuals molt after puberty is discussed. Includes underwater photos. Inst. of Oceanogr. Sci., Wormley, Godalming, UK. (msg) 84:2346 Wakabara, Y., A.S. Tararam and A.M. Takeda, 1983. Comparative study of the amnhipod fauna living on S,qrgassum of two ltunha~m shores, Brazil. J. crustacean Biol., 3(4):602-607. Inst. Oceanograf., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Cidade Univ., Butanta, 05508, SP, Brazil. 84:2347 Wells, J.B.J., 1983. Keys to aid in the identification of marine harpacti~id copepods. Amendment Bulletin No. 4. Zoology Publs Vict. Univ. Coll., 77:9pp. Dept. of Zool., Victoria Univ. of Wellington, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. 84:2348 Williams, A.B. and C.L. Van Dover, 1983. A new species of M ~ [ieutigo n.sp.] from submarine thermal vents of the East Pacific Rise at 21°N (Anomm-a: Galathaidae). Proc. biol. Soc. Wash, 96(3):481-488. NMFS Systematics Lab., Natl. Mus. of Nat. Hist., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA. 84:2349 Wilson, G.D.F., 1982. Systematies of a species complex in the deep-sea genus Em'ycope, with a revision of six previously described species (Crostacea, Isolmde, Eurycopldae). Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., 25:64pp. 84:2350 Wilson, G.D.F., 1983. An unusual species complex in the genus Eurycope (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) from the deep North Atlantic Ocean. Proc. biol. So¢. Wash., 96(3):452-467. The complex consists of 4 new species, plus 3 individuals that may belong to a fifth new species.

OLR(1984)31 (5)

E. BiologicalOceanography

The characters of these closely related species agree with the present definition of Eurycope, but several features make them distinct from their congeners. The most unusual trait is the very elongate stylet on the male pleopod II which is considered to be a derived trait that has evolved independently on numerous occasions in the Asellota Janiroidea. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La JoUa, Calif. 92093, USA.


These forams are 'probably suspension feeders, trapping minute organisms on a knob of extruded protoplasm.' B. folini n.sp. is unique in having a 'test densely studded with Globigerina shells.' Includes 39 micrographs. Inst. of Oceanogr. Sci., Brook Rd., Wormley, Godalming, Surrey GU8 5UB, UK. (ahm) 84:2354

St~nchez Ariza, M. del C., 1983. Specific thn2tocoenoses of recent planktonic Foraminifera of the neritic zone in the Motril-Nerja area, Spain, as a

E250. Forsminifera, Radiolaria, Tintinnida, etc. (see also D-SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS) 84:2351

Duguay, L.E., 1983. Coml~u'attve laboratory and field studies on calcification and carbon fixation in foraminiferal.algal associations. J. foram. Res., 13(4):252-261.

function of depth: diversity and constancy. J. foram. Res., 13(4):27%282. The relationships among 31 taxa as a function of depth are determined. The tendency of relationship is measured by an index of distance between each 2 species; these indices are used to draw a dendrogram and to establish 3 depth thanatocoenoses. The maximum diversity of the group was found at a depth of 200 m. Dept. de Zool., Univ. de Granada, Jaen, Spain.

Light enhancement of Ca incorporation and photosynthetic C fixation was observed in laboratory and field studies of benthic Foraminifera (Archaias

angulatus, Sorites marginalis, Cyclorbiculina compressa) harboring algal symbionts. Mar. Sci. Res. Center, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. (mjj) 84:2352

Ellison, R.L. and G.E. Peck, 1983. Foraminiferal recelonization on the continental shelf. J. foram. Res~ 13(4):231-241. Foram colonization at shelf depth was studied for the first time by placing boxes of defaunated sediment at 65 m depth, 90 mi east of Atlantic City, N.J. Boxes recovered after 10 and after 43 weeks had remarkably similar Foraminifera densities, which, like species richness, surpassed that of natural communities. The characteristics of the community surrounding the space cleared by the disturbance determined the pattern of colonization; data fit a nonequilibrium colonization model. Dept. of Environ. Sci., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 22903, USA. (mwf) 84:2353

Gooday, A.J., 1983. B a t h ~ ~ de FoUn, 1 ~ 6 and J h ~ fo//n/ n.~.: two large agglutinated foraminlfers abundant in aby~ml NE Atlantic e p i c sledge samples. J. foram. Res., 13(4):262-276. Descriptions of the two species, their abundance (B. rusticus between 290(0-400 m and B. folini n.sp. between 2400-3000 m), density (B. folini > B. ruxticus), distribution and ecology are included.


M i c r o p h y t e s (coccolithophores, diatoms, flagellates, etc.) 84:2355

Anderson, D.M., S.W. Chisholm and C.J. Watras, 1983. Importance of life cycle events in the population dynamics of Gonyau/ax tamarens/s. Mar. Biol., 76(2): 179-189. Population dynamics of G. tamarensis are reported for 3 shallow Cape Cod, Massachusetts, salt ponds monitored during 'bloom' and 'non-bloom' years. Population losses and gains due to grazing, advection and growth are reported along with observations on encystment and excystment, the timing of which is an important factor in regulating bloom development. Biol. Dept., WHOI, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (mjj) 84:2356 Garrison, D.L., S.F. Ackley and K.R. Buck, 1983. A physical IIM~hnni~m for ~i~bli~lng algal populations in frazil ice. Nature, Lond~ 306(5941): 363-365. Most researchers suggest that ice algae are derived from sparse water column assemblages that become trapped during ice formation and then develop in-situ; others have suggested that forming ice crystals concentrate algal cells. Weddell Sea ice algae were concentrated by a physical mechanism described here; how such a process may accumulate planktonic forms in ice communities is explained.


E. Biological Oceanography

Center for Coastal Mar. Studies, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Calif. 95064, USA. 84:2357 Muhoz S., Pablo and Sergio Avaria P., 1983. [Scrippsiella trochoidea (Stein) Loeblich III, a new red tide organism in Valparaiso Bay, Chile.] Revta Biol. mar., Univ. Chile, 19(1):63-78. (In Spanish, English abstract.) Includes micrographs. Inst. de Oceanol., Univ. de Valparaiso, Casilla 13-D, Vina del Mar, Chile. 84:2358 Pankow, Helmut and F.M. Mutleg, 1982. On the micronigae flora of the Gulf of Aden near Aden (People's Democratic Republic of Yemen). Nova Hedwigia, 36(2/4):399-408. Includes micrographs. Dept. of Biol., Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ., Doberaner Str. 143, 25 Rostock, DRG.

Poulin, M., A. Cardinal and Response of a community salinity gradient (Hudson 76(2): 191-202. (In French,

84:2359 L. Legendre, 1983. of ice diatoms to a Bay). Mar. Biol., English summary.)

Ice thickness and settlement efficiency are controlled by the surface-water salinity gradient while taxonomic composition is influenced by the ice salinity gradient. A major control of species abundance and distribution is the salinity of underlying surface waters; this variable, nutrient supply and light intensity are limiting factors in settlement and growth. Dept. de biol., Univ. Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. (ahm)

E300. Effects of pollution (also uptake, trace accumulations, etc.; see also B350Atmospheric pollution, C210-Chemical pollution, F250-Waste disposal) 84:2360 Bodin, P. and D. Boucher, 1983. [Evolution of meiohenthos and chlorophyll pigments on some beaches polluted by the Amoco Cadiz oH spill.] Oceanologica Acta, 6(3):321-332. (In French, English abstract.) Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Lab. d'Oceanogr. Biol., 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, 29283 Brest Cedex, France. 84:2361 Casey, Richard, Anthony Amos, John Anderson, Robert Koehler, Rudy Schwarzer and Jon Sloan, 1980. A preliminary report on the microplankton and mlerohenthos responses to the 1979

OLR (1984)31 (51

Gulf of Mexico oil spills (Ixtoc 1 and Burmah Agate). Comments on avenues of oil to the sediments and the fate of oil in the column and on the bottom. Trans. Gulf Cst Ass. geol. Socs, 1980(30):273-281. Rice Univ., Geol. Dept., Houston, Tex. 77001, USA.

84:2362 Engelhardt, F.R., 1983. Petroleum effects on marine mammals. Review. Aquat. Toxicol., 4(3): 199-217. Reviewed are the effects of petroleum exposure on whales, seals, sea otters and polar bears. Routes of absorption of oil (via skin, gastrointestinal tract and inhalation), distribution in body tissues, clearance rates, physiological and pathological damage, and effects on swimming ability (seals), filtering capabilities (baleen whales) and thermoregulation are considered. Species specific differences in susceptibility to oil toxicity are revealed, related to physiology and life habits. Canada Oil and Gas Lands Admin., 355 River Rd., Ottawa KIA OE4, Canada. (mjj) 84:2363 Fisher, D.J., M.E. Bender and M.H. Roberts Jr., 1983. Effects of ingestion of Kepone-contaminated food by juvenile blue crabs (Callineetes sapidus Rathbun). Aquat. Toxicol., 4(3):219-234.

Juvenile crabs fed diets containing Kepone in ambient James River, Virginia, concentrations showed no mortality effects during the 65-day experiment. However, increased metabolic rate, increased excitability during feeding, and thinning of the carapace at high Kepone levels or high temperatures (28°C) were observed. Biomagnification occurred at high Kepone levels and high temperature. U.S. EPA, ERL, Sabine Island, Gulf Breeze, Fla. 32561, USA. (mjj)

84:2364 Fitzwater, S.E., G.A. Knauer and J.H. Martin, 1983. The effects of Cu on the adenylate energy charge of open ocean pbytoplankton. J. P/ankt. Res., 5(6):935-938. Energy charge remained at ~0.77 over the range of Cu additions (0.025-5.0 /~g/L), even though ~ac uptake and total adenylate levels were reduced by as much as 60%. These findings suggest that energy charge alone is not a sensitive indicator of acute sublethal metal effects on phytoplankton. Moss Landing Mar. Labs., Moss Landing, Calif. 95039, USA.

OLR (1984)31 (5)

E. Biological Oceanography

84:2365 Frey, B.E., J.R. Lara-Lara and L.F. Small, 1983. Reduced rates of primary production in the Columbia River Estuary following the eruption of i t . Saint Heleus on 18 May 1980. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci, 17(2):213-218.

Photosynthesis was reduced by ~75% during the period of increased turbidity. It took ~ 5 weeks for the estuary to clear. Although primary production was greatly diminished, flux of particulate C was high; the total production estimated to have been lost amounted to only ~2% of the total particulate C flux just after the eruption. That the turbidity did not induce a severe fall in the phytoplankton population is evidence that phytoplankton biomass is mostly a function of import from the Columbia River, rather than in-situ production. Sch. of Oceanogr., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oreg. 97331, USA. 84:2366 Frey, B.E., G.F. Riedel, A.E. Bass and L.F. Small, 1983. Sensitivity of estuarine [Oregon] phytoplankton to hexavalent chromium. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 17(2):181-187. Sch. of Oceanogr., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oreg. 97331, USA. 84:2367 Ganning, BjOrn, Dag Broman and Cecilia Lindblad, 1983. Uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by the blue mussel My~/us ~ L.) after experimental oiling and high pressure, hot-water shore cleaning. Mar. environ. Res., 10(4):245-254. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Stockholm, S-106 91, Sweden. 84:2368 Houston, M., D. Lowthion and P.G. Soulsby, 1983. The identification and evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an industrialized estuary: Southampton Water, UK, using a long-term, low-level sampling strategy. Mar. environ. Res., 10(4): 189-207.

Faunal distribution was examined in relation to water quality influences in an estuary receiving both domestic and industrial discharges. Three faunal assemblages were identified, one characterizing an area with high sediment values of hydrocarbon and copper. Spatial and temporal variations indicate the need for a long-term approach to demonstrate dominant faunal patterns; the approach is both economical and compatible with monitoring survey objectives. Southern Water Auth., Res. Planning Lab., Otterbourne, Hants, UK.


84:2369 King, K.A., C.A. Lefever and B.M. Mulhern, 1983. Organochlorine and metal residues in royal terns nesting on the central Texas coast. J. Fld Orn., 54(3):295-303. Eggs from both a polluted area (Pelican Island, Corpus Christi Bay) and a relatively unpolluted area (Sundown Island, Matagorda Bay) contained low levels of organochlorines and metals; DDE and PCB concentrations were below levels known to adversely affect avian reproduction and survival. Eggshell thickness increased from 1970 to 1978, correspondhag to a decline in DDE and PCB residues. Although elevated pollutant levels were reported in Corpus Christi Bay sediments and seagrasses, little accumulation was observed in the terns. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., Patuxent Wildlife Res. Center, P.O. Box 2506, Victoria, Tex. 77902, USA. (msg) 84:2370 Luoma, S.N., D.J. Cain, Kay Ho and Anne Hutchinson, 1983. Variable tolerance to copper in two species IMacoma /ndt/~ca, Acar~a dalt~i] from San Francisco Bay. Mar. environ. Res., 10(4): 209-222. USGS, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park, Calif. 94025, USA. 84:2371 McFeters, G.A., P.J. Bond, S.B. Olson and Y.T. Tchan, 1983. A comparison of microbial bioassays for the detection of aquatic toxicants. War. Res, 17(12): 1757-1762. Dept. of Microbiol., Montana State Univ., Bozeman, Mont. 59717, USA. 84:2372 Ofstad, E.B. and Karl Martinsen, 1983. Persistent organochlorine compounds in seals from Norwe#an coastal waters. Ambio, 12(5):262-264.

Concentrations of PCB's, DDT, HCH and HCB in the blubber of harbor and grey seals collected along the Norwegian coast were low, and similar to levels in unpolluted areas. Chlorine in the 4 identified compounds comprised 20-100% of the total chlorine in persistent compounds. Central Inst. for Indust. Res., P.O. Box 350, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway. (mjj) 84:2373 Satsmadjis, J. and F. Voutsinou-Taliadouri, 1983. Mytilus galioprovincialis and Patapenaeus rostr/s as bioindicators of heavy metal and organochlorine pollution. Mar. Biol., 76(2): 115124. Inst. of Oceanogr. and Fish. Res., GR16604 Hellinikon, Greece.


E. Biological Oceanography

OLR (1984) 31 (5)

84:2374 Tumanov, A.A. and I.E. Postnov, 1983. Aquatic invertebrates as analytical indicators. (Review.) Gidrobiol. Zh., 19(5):3-16. (In Russian, English abstract.) Includes 123 references.

Dept. of Biol., Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T IW5, Canada. (mjj)

E340. Aquaculture (commercial)

Controlling the particulate matter in salinas (salt ponds) results in better salt production. As Artemia's value in this regard becomes better known, the brine shrimp's introduction and management assume greater importance. Possibilities for marketing Artemia cysts and adults as a food source for fish and crustaceans are discussed. (ahm)

84:2375 Cassels, Fred and C.T. Krebs, 1983. A comparison of artificial incubation methods using ova of the red crab Geryon quinquedens Smith (Decapoda, Brachym'a). J. crustacean Biol., 3(4):565-574. Dept. of Biochem., Medical Univ. of So. Carolina, 17l Ashley Ave., Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

84:2376 Hejkal, T.W., C.P. Gerba, Scott Henderson and Mike Freeze, 1983. Bacteriolngieai, virological and chemical evaluation of a wastewater-aquaculture system. War. Res., 17(12):1749-1755. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Murray State Univ., Murray, Ky. 42071, USA. 84:2377 Lutz, P.L. et al., 1983. [Caribbean maricaiture.] Proc. GulfCarib. Fish. Inst., (35th a. vol., 1982):6-135; 18 papers + 2 summary reports. The potential for future developments in Caribbean mariculture was the unifying theme in these presentations. Dolphin, Tilapia, land crabs, and penaeid shrimp were discussed. The 12 papers on conch mariculture covered hatchery production, field releases, management, restoration, predation, etc. Presently, the economic prospects for commercializing conch culture are not good; 'extreme caution' is urged to protect and manage conch resources. Overall, it is recommended that the Caribbean nations balance 'high technology commercial ventures' with small scale local projects. (ihz) 84:2378 O'Neill, S.M., A.M. Sutterlin and D. Aggett, 1983. The effects of size-selective feeding by starfish (Aste~as vu/g~s) on the production of mussels (Mytilus edulis) cultured on nets. Aquaculture, 35(3):211-220.

Feeding rates of 3 size classes of starfish on 4 size classes of mussels were determined. Predation does not appear to be a serious problem; preferential feeding by the young starfish on the smaller mussels may increase the marketable yield of older mussels.

84:2379 Sorgeloos, Patrick, 1983. Brine shrimp Artenffa in coastal saltworks is an inexpensive food source. Aquacult. Mag., 10(1):25-27.

84:2380 Wickins, J.F., 1983. Studies on marine biological filters: model filters. Wat. Res., 17(12):17691780. Microbial oxidation of NH 4 to NO 2 (nitrification) can cause a rapid pH drop in recirculating seawater systems despite the use of calcareous materials in the biological filters. The chemical changes involved were studied; means of overcoming inhibition of nitrification at low pH were investigated. Growth rates of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are reported, along with evidence for PO4 uptake and hydroxylamine formation during nitrification. MAFF, Fish. Exp. Sta., Conwy, Gwynedd LL32 8UB, Wales. (mjj)

E370. Theoretical biology and ecology 84:2381 Balon, E.K., 1983. Perspectives. Epigenetic mechanisms: reflections on evolutionary processes. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci~ 40(11):2045-2058. Epigenetic processes are the 'interactions among gene products, cells, tissues, organs and the environment' which operate early in ontogeny and control development of the phenotype. The role of epigenesis in maintaining genetic variation is discussed. Evolutionary resistance to phenotypic optimization and resultant oscillations in variation are described and dubbed the 'Chert principle.' The evolutionary dichotomy of 'altricial/precoeial dynamic states' is discussed. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Guelph, Ont. N1G 2Wl, Canada. (mjj) 84:2382 Harvey, P.H., R.K. Colwell, J.W. Silvertown and R.M. May, 1983. Nail models in ecology. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 14:189-211. Includes 131 references. Sch. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, Sussex, UK.

OLR (1984) 31 (5)

E. Biological Oceanography


Levinton, J.S., 1983. Stasis in progress: the empirical basis of macroevolntion. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 14:103-137.

Macroevolution is defined as both a process and a field, being the study of processes underlying character-state transitions which delineate differences of major taxonomic significance. The empirical data base of morphological change is described. Punctuative evolution, a major macroevolutionary hypothesis, is discussed. Includes 217 references. Dept. of Ecol. and Evol., SUNY, Stony Brook, N.Y. 11794, USA. (mjj) 84:2384 Ochiai, Ei-ichiro, 1983. Copper and biological evolution. Bio Syst., 16(2):81-86.

Copper is contained in a number of enzymes and proteins, but except for azurin, plastocyanin and copper-containing cytochrome c oxidase found in some bacteria, all copper enzymes and proteins are found only in eukaryotes. In the Early and Middle Precambrian, copper compounds were very insoluble and might have been unavailable to organisms. Copper became Cu(II) upon rise of the atmospheric oxygen pressure, thus available in the Mid-Proterozoic when the first eukaryotes seem to have appeared on Earth. Thus, copper may be considered an indicator for atmospheric evolution (from anoxygenie to oxygenic) and the evolution of higher organisms. Dept. of Chem., Juniata Coll. Huntingdon, Penn. 16652, USA. 84:2385 Raup, D.M., 1983. On the early origins of major biologic groups. Paleobiology, 9(2): 107-115.

Major biological groups (phyla, classes, orders) in an adaptive radiation tend to appear early in the geologic record. This commonly observed phenomenon is shown to be an 'artifact of the geometry of the evolutionary tree,' based on theoretical and empirical analysis. Only cladogenetic (branching) aspects of the problem are considered. The morphological distinctness of the major groups as soon as they appear in the fossil record requires ecological explanations. Dept. of Geophys. Sci., Univ. of Chicago, Ill. 60637, USA. (mjj) 84:2386 Riechert, S.E. and Peter Hammerstein, 1983. Game theory in the ecological context. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 14:377-409.

Ecological models generally have been based on the principle of optimization, in which a dependent


variable is optimized based on a cost-benefit function. However, in cases where the performance of an individual affects the performance of other members of the population the optimization approach is invalid and game theory should be used instead; some such cases are described. The background and uses of game theory are discussed here, emphasizing areas not detailed by Maynard Smith and Price, originators of the biological variant of game theory. Includes 409 references. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 37996-0810, USA. (mjj) 84:2387 Strathmann, R.R. and Montgomery Slatkin, 1983. The improbability of animal phyla with few species. Paleobiology, 9(2):97-106.

At least 10 phyla now have only a few (~1000) species. The existence of these small phyla can be predicted by models of speciation and extinction if speciation rates initially exceeded extinction rates but soon became similar, or if rates of speciation and extinction were dependent on the number of species in the clade. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA. (mjj)

E400. Books, collections


84:2388 Bhaud, M. (organizer), 1982/83. Life cycles and biogeography [plankton and invertebratesl. Seminar, November 26, 1982. Oceanis, 9(4):289-393; 4 papers + seminar general conclusions. (In French, English abstracts.)

E410. Miscellaneous 84:2389 Banerjee, S.K. and S.N. Chatterjee, 1983. Killing of bacteria during a solar eclipse and its biological implications. Radiat. environ. Biophys., 22(3): 235-238. Chatterjee: Biophysics Div., Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, 37 Belgachia Rd., Calcutta700 037, :ndia. 84:2390 Damkaer, D.M. and Tenge Mrozek-Dahl, 1980. The Plankton-Expedition and the copepod studies of Friedrich and Maria Dahl. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Veflag; pp. 462-473.


OLR (1984) 31 (5)

84:2391 Fontaine, Maurice, 1980. From the physiology of marine organisms to oceanographic physiology or physiological oceanography. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 353-359. Historical examples of studies of the physiology of marine animals are presented, and the role of physiology in the development of several fields of oceanography is outlined. Some of the luminaries: William Harvey, Paul Bert, Raphael Dubois. (mjj) 84:2392 Herman, Alex and Trevor Platt, 1980. Meso-scale spatial distribution of plankton: co-evolution of concepts and instrmnentation. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 204-225. Described is the historical evolution of research on the patchiness of plankton distributions, which of necessity occurred simultaneously with the development of new instruments and techniques of plankton sampling. Figures include data plots as well as diagrams of plankton samplers. (re.U) 84:2393 Melkonian, Michael, 1982. Systematics and evolution of the algae. (Review.) Prog. Bot., 44:315-344.

Includes 6 pages of references. Bot. Inst. der Westfalischen Wilhelms Univ., Schlossgarten 3, D-4400 Munster, FRG.

84:2394 Mills, E.L., 1980. Alexander Agassiz, Carl Chun and the problem of the intermediate fauna. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 360-372. Described is the controversy between Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910) and Carl Chun (1852-1914) concerning the existence of mid-water plankton (the 'intermediate fauna') which might serve as a food source for benthic, deep-water animals. Chun found mid-water plankton wherever he looked whereas Agassiz found none. Unfortunately, we now know that the equipment Agassiz used and the areas he chose to sample, which had a well-developed oxygen minimum layer at mid-water depths, resulted in his failure to find mid-water plankton. (mjj) 84:2395 Taylor, F.J.R., 1980. Phytoplankton ecology before 1900: supplementary notes to the "Depths of the Ocean." In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 509-521.

F. GENERAL F I0. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 84:2396 de Loor, G.P., 1983. Tower-mounted radar backscatter measurements in the North Sea. J. geophys. Res., 88(C14):9785-9791. For grazing angles under 50°, the dependency of backscatter on wind speed was highly sensitive to

polarization and look direction. An unexplained difference between ground-based and airborne measurements was observed. Physics Lab. TNO, The Hague, Netherlands. 84:2397 Gupta, Amar and H.-M.D. Toong, 1983. Microprocessors: the first twelve years. Proc, 1EEE, 71(11): 1236-1256.