Brewers Condensed Solubles Used as a Feedstuff in Broiler Diets1

Brewers Condensed Solubles Used as a Feedstuff in Broiler Diets1

Brewers Condensed Solubles Used as a Feedstuff in Broiler Diets1 C. TADTIYANANT, J. J. LYONS, and J. M. VANDEPOPULIERE2 Department of Animal Sciences,...

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Brewers Condensed Solubles Used as a Feedstuff in Broiler Diets1 C. TADTIYANANT, J. J. LYONS, and J. M. VANDEPOPULIERE2 Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211

1993 Poultry Science 72:1897-1905

Fuller and Dale (1983) suggested that BCS can serve as a satisfactory feed Brewers condensed solubles (BCS) is a ingredient in broiler and layer rations up by-product of the brewing industry. It to 5%. To better understand the nutritive consists mainly of residual sugars recov- value of BCS, a series of feeding experiered from pressing spent brewers grains, ments were conducted to determine the unused wort, spillage, and tank washings. effects of graded levels of BCS as an Eighty percent of the solid matter of BCS alternative feed ingredient on growth, is readily digestible carbohydrates, of feed efficiency, yield, and organoleptic which 33% is maltose (Anonymous, un- properties of broilers. dated). MATERIALS AND METHODS INTRODUCTION

Received for publication January 28, 1993. Accepted for publication June 15, 1993. iContribution from the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number 11,854. 2 To whom correspondence should be addressed. 3 Anheuser-Busch, Inc., St. Louis, MO 63118.

Brewers Condensed Solubles Brewers condensed solubles3 were obtained and stabilized with .15% propionic acid. Shipments of the product were stored at 2 C until used.

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ABSTRACT Three feeding experiments, each involving 300 1-day-old male broilers, were conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) on growth, feed efficiency, yield, and organoleptic factors. The BCS was incorporated into diets containing corn and soybean meal at 0,10,20,30,40, and 50% levels (wet basis). All diets were formulated to meet the NRC (1984) nutrient requirements. Seven samples of BCS were found to contain an average 45.81% DM, 6.71% CP, 1.96% ash, 1.37% ether extract, 4,925 kcal gross energy/kg, 3,857 kcal MEn/kg, and 4,721 kcal TMEn/kg on a DM basis. Broiler chicks compensated for the moisture in the feed by consuming more and thus achieved similar levels of DM intake from all diets in Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1. Dietary levels of 40 and 50% BCS reduced (P < .05) growth when compared with the control diet in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. Feeding diets containing 40 and 50% BCS inclusion resulted in a lower (P < .05) gain:feed ratio when compared with the control diet in Experiment 2. Total carcass weights (42 days) were unaffected for birds fed 10, 20, 40, and 50% BCS inclusion when compared with the control diet. Triangle test data for flavor evaluations indicated that there were no detectable differences (P > .05) in flavor between broilers fed BCS and those fed the control diet. Brewers condensed solubles can serve as a satisfactory feed ingredient at a level of 30% in broiler starter diets. (Key words: feed ingredients, brewers condensed solubles, broilers, wet feed, organoleptic evaluation)

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Chemical and Bioavailable Energy Assays

energy and other nutrients. The NRC (1984) values for DM and nutrient content of feed ingredients were used. The nutrient profile of the BCS, used for linear programming, was as follows: 52% DM, 3,840 kcal ME/kg, 11% CP, .21% Ca, .28% nonphytate phosphorus, .33% arginine, .44% glycine, .12% methionine, .06% cystine, .34% phenylalanine, .30% threonine, and .49% valine on a DM basis. All diets were maintained isocaloric and isonitrogenic. To reduce the possibility of mold growth all diets were refrigerated at 2 C. Downloaded from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Queensland on June 14, 2015

Analyses of BCS from different barrels used in the study were accomplished using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1984) procedures. Specific methods were moisture (7.003), CP (7.015), crude fat (7.060), and ash (7.009). Calcium and phosphorus were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (7.096). Because of the high moisture and physical nature of BCS it was assayed for gross energy using a corn carrier. It was mixed at a 25:75 ratio with ground yellow corn. Gross energy was determined by Experimental Design adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimetry.4 In each of three experiments, for the Amino acid analyses values for BCS that were used in diet calculations were starter period (0 to 21 days of age) 300 male broiler chicks (Hubbard x Hubbard) were provided by Anheuser-Busch, Inc. obtained from a commercial hatchery and The TMEn was determined as described assigned by weight to pens in electrically by Sibbald (1986). The test diet containing heated batteries with raised wire floors. Ten 50% BCS (wet basis) is shown in Table 1. birds were placed in each pen so that the The control diet contained 36.22% glucose total initial weight would be similar. A in place of a comparable amount of BCS completely randomized design was used. (DM). Chicks were fed the test diets from 1 Each of six dietary treatments were ranto 21 days of age. Total excreta was domly allocated to each pen. The design collected during the last 3 days of the produced five dietary replicates per treatfeeding period. The gross energy content of ment. Feed and water were available for ad fecal samples was determined. The gross libitum consumption. Records were kept on energy value was used to calculate MEn feed consumption, body weight at 21 days according to Hill and Anderson (1958). of age, and gain:feed ratio for the 3-wk experiments. Feed and orts were collected and DM determined. Diets The broiler grower trial continued after Experimental diets (Tables 1 and 2) were the starting period in Experiment 3. At Day formulated to NRC (1984) specifications for 21 after weighing, four birds from each pen starter (0 to 21 days) and grower (21 to 42 were randomly selected for the grower trial days) with BCS included at 0,10,20,30,40, using a table of random numbers to desigand 50% on a wet basis. The feed formula- nate wing-band numbers. All individual tion was done on a DM basis. The broiler pen assignments for BCS dietary levels nutrient requirement standard was as- were maintained the same as in the starting sumed to be based on a 90% DM basis. The period. Bird weights were taken at Day 21 test ingredient (BCS) was forced into the and 42. Feed consumption and feed converformula at 0, 5.99, 12.53, 19.67, 27.55, and sion were determined for the 21-day grow36.22% on a DM basis for the starter period ing period. After weighing on Day 42, (Table 1). The BCS was included at 0, 6.02, broilers were bled, scalded, picked, and 12.59, 19.77, 27.66, and 36.39% on a DM eviscerated by hand. During evisceration, basis for the grower period (Table 2). Linear individual bird's carcass, fat pad, and giblet programmed diets were formulated using a (heart, liver, and gizzard) were weighed. variety of practical ingredients to supply Fat pad and organ weight data were analyzed on both an actual weight basis and as a percentage of the total carcass weight. Total carcass weight included the weight of
BREWERS CONDENSED SOLUBLES AND BROILERS

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TABLE 1. Composition of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) diets, 0 to 21 days of age Level of BCS inclusion (% wet basis) Ingredients

20

51.75 23.86 9.08 6.70 7.30 .04

45.14 23.72 8.82 7.12 7.42 .49

.23

.25

.42 .39 .11 .06 .06

25.56 3,556 1.10 .50 1.33 1.03

50

40

30 (% DM basis) 30.03 37.91 23.57 23.40 8.22 8.53 7.59 8.09 7.71 7.56 .98 1.51

.43 .39 .11 .06 .06 5.99

.26 .01 .44 .39 .11 .06 .06 12.53

.28 .01 .46 .39 .11 .06 .06 19.67

22.74 23.26 7.95 7.30 7.57 2.00 .23 .30 .02 .46 .39 .11 .06 .06 27.55

25.56 3,556 1.10 .50 1.33 1.03

25.56 3,556 1.10 .50 1.33 1.03

25.56 3,556 1.10 .50 1.33 1.03

25.56 3,556 1.10 .50 1.33 1.03

13.13 22.74 7.52 7.29 7.79 2.65 1.23 .29 .03 .49 .39 .11 .06 .06 36.22 25.56 3,556 1.10 .50 1.33 1.03

Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: Mn, 154 mg; Zn, 154 mg; Fe, 143 mg; Cu, 8.8 mg; 1,1.61 mg. Manufactured by ConAgra Poultry Co., El Dorado, AR 71730. 2 Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 9,680 IU; cholecalciferol, 4,235 ICU; vitamin E, 15.1 IU; vitamin B12,12 /*g; riboflavin, 7.3 mg; niacin, 60.5 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 18.2 mg; menadione, 1.8 mg; folic acid, 1.5 mg; pyridoxine, 2.4 mg; thiamine, 1.2 mg; biotin, .24 mg. Manufactured by Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. Supplied .11 mg/kg diet.

Dressing percentage or percentage^ yield was obtained by dividing the total carcass weight by the 42-day body weight and multiplying by 100. Organoleptic Evaluation

ness ranged from not tender or not juicy or low chicken flavor or low molasses flavor to very tender or very juicy or high chicken flavor or high molasses flavor. Numerical values were assigned to the categories for data ^^Y^ i1 = n o t tender, not juicy, low chicken flavor, and low molasses flavor to 9 = very tender, very juicy, high chicken flavor, and high molasses flavor).

The broiler breast parts were removed from the carcass, placed in plastic bags, and frozen at -4 C until used. Samples of breast from each treatment were thawed over- statistical Analysis night in the refrigerator. Individual breasts were removed, wrapped with aluminum Data from Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were foil, and roasted in a preheated oven (177 subjected to statistical analysis using the C). Samples were cooked to an internal end General Linear Models (GLM) procedure of point temperature of 88 C. The meat was the SAS® software (SAS Institute, 1988). The portioned, placed in individual prewarmed experiments used a completely randomized glass beakers, and immediately served to design with the experimental unit being the the panel. pen average for each performance variable Ten trained panelists during four ses- in both the starter and grower periods. sions evaluated the samples for tenderness, Individual bird weights were obtained for juiciness, and flavor acceptability. Tender- use in dressing yield evaluation. The model

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Ground yellow corn Soybean meal (48% CP) Meat meal Distillers grain + solubles Stabilized animal fat Alfalfa meal Feather meal DL-methionine Choline chloride 70% Ground limestone Salt Trace mineral mix 1 Vitamin mix 2 Selenium mix 3 BCS Calculated analysis, DM basis CP ME, kcal/kg Ca Available P Lysine Methionine + cystine

10

0

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TABLE 2. Composition of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) diets, 21 to 42 days of age Level of BCS inclusion (% wet basis) Ingredients

10

0

Ground yellow corn Soybean meal (48% CP) Distillers grain + solubles Meat meal Stabilized animal fat Alfalfa meal Feather meal Limestone Salt Trace mineral mix 1 Vitamin mix 2 Selenium mix 3 DL-methionine BCS Calculated analysis, DM basis CP ME, kcal/kg Ca Available P Lysine Methionine + cystine

55.25 19.19 6.53 6.31 5.20

50.15 18.07 5.69 7.30 4.79 .15

' .76 .39 .11 .06 .06 .08

.78 .39 .11 .06 .06 .10 6.02

.52 .39 .11 .06 .06 .12 12.59

.54 .39 .11 .06 .06 .13 19.77

.56 .39 .11 .06 .06 .15 27.66

25.33 17.55 6.02 6.34 4.96 1.83 .23 .56 .39 .11 .06 .06 .17 36.39

22.22 3,556 1.00 .44 1.11 .80

22.22 3,556 1.00 .44 1.11 .80

22.22 3,556 1.00 .49 1.11 .80

22.22 3,556 1.00 .49 1.11 .80

22.22 3,556 1.00 .49 1.11 .80

22.22 3,556 1.00 .49 1.11 .80

33.54 17.72 6.74 6.65 5.09 1.27

'Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: Mn, 154 mg; Zn, 154 mg; Fe, 143 mg; Cu, 8.8 mg; 1,1.61 mg. Manufactured by ConAgra Poultry Co., El Dorado, AR 71730. Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 9,680 IU; cholecalciferol, 4,235 ICU; vitamin E, 15.1 IU; vitamin B12,12 pg; riboflavin, 7.3 mg; niacin, 60.5 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 18.2 mg; menadione, 1.8 mg; folic acid, 1.5 mg; pyridoxine, 2.4 mg; thiamine, 1.2 mg; biotin, .24 mg. Manufactured by Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. ^Supplied .11 mg/kg diet.

included dietary treatments as main effects with the residuals used as error terms, When significant treatment effects were found, means were separated using repeated tests with probabilities generated by the LSMEANS option of the GLM procedure of SAS®. Sensory data were analyzed using the GLM procedure (SAS Institute, 1988). Main effects were panel, dietary treatments, and panel by dietary treatment interaction. Significance was accepted at the 5% confidence level. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Nutrient Composition

45.81%, which was 6% lower than those reported by Fuller and Dale (1983) and Anheuser-Busch (1987, unpublished data). On a DM basis, BCS contained 6.71% CP, 1-96% ash, 1.37% ether extract, .08% Ca, .33% P, and 4,925 kcal gross energy/kg. The protein value of the BCS supplies used in the study was much lower than the 11% value used in computing the diet. This resulted in diets with protein and ammo acid levels b e l w ° the calculated requirement - T ^ 8 c o u j d haJe b e e n responsible for ^e suppressed performance at the higher use levels. The gross energy of BCS was slightly higher than corn (4,925 versus 4,607 kcal/kg, respectively). Results from the MEn assay gave lower v a l u e s for B C S

^^

ihe

™ E n cockerel

assay (3,857 versus 4,454 kcal/kg). This Nutrient composition data for BCS is relationship is similar to that observed for presented in Tables 3 and 4. The average corn (Pesti, 1984), poultry by-product meal DM content of BCS from seven samples was (Pesti et d., 1986), a complete diet (Hartel,

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61.25 19.28 6.14 6.57 5.30

basis) 42.24 17.91 6.19 6.98 4.94 .68

( 0/ j

C>M

50

40

30

20

BREWERS CONDENSED SOLUBLES AND BROILERS TABLE 3. Nutrient composition of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) feeding samples, DM basis

TABLE 4. Amino acid composition of brewers condensed solubles (BCS), DM basis 1 Amino acid

Nutrient

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Composition

BCS

(%) Asparagine Threonine Serine Glutamine Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tyrosine Phenylalanine Histidine Lysine Arginine Tryptophan

1986), and feather meal (Pesti et ah, 1989), for which the estimated TMEn values were higher than those estimated for MEn. The MEn value for BCS of 3,857 kcal/kg is lower than the 4,320 kcal/kg reported by Fuller and Dale (1983). Three factors could contribute to the observed lower MEn value. The BCS used in this study was lower in percentage protein and the feeding level was higher, 50 versus 15% (wet basis). Fuller and Dale (1983) substituted BCS for the entire diet and in the present study it replaced glucose.

iProvided by Anheuser-Busch, Inc., St. Louis, MO 63118.

Feed Consumption

Generally, there was an increase in wet basis feed consumption with increasing dietary levels of BCS across all experiments in both the starter and grower periods (Tables 5 and 6). As the BCS in the diet increased, percentage DM in the diet declined (90.50, 86.77, 83.03, 79.31, 75.51, and 71.79 for 0,10, 20, 30,40, and 50% BCS inclusion, respectively). Feed consistency was granular at the 10 and 20% BCS levels; however it was lumpy at the 30 and 40% levels. At the 50% BCS level, the feed was wet but not lumpy. For the starter period, the data showed that as the percentage moisture increased, chicks compensated for the wetness of the feed by consuming more. The broiler chickens achieved similar levels of DM intake from all levels of BCS inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3, but not

.42 .20 .25 1.12 .61 .27 .30 .14 .29 .11 .20 .37 .21 .27 .14 .23 .28 .05

Experiment 1 (Table 5). However, a change in feeding technique between the first experiment and latter two experiments may provide the answer for the observed differences. In the first experiment, all diets were provided to the 1-day-old broiler chicks on filler flats. At higher levels of BCS, the wetness of feed caused a moistening and matting of the chicks' down. This probably reduced the chicks' ability to control body temperature, which may have affected DM intake and growth. In Experiments 2 and 3, the feed was provided for the 1-day-old broilers in the feed trough. No wetness of the broilers' down was observed with this feeding regimen. From the results of Experiments 2 and 3, the data indicated that birds achieved a similar level of DM intake from all diets. Therefore, the water from BCS may not be considered detrimental to DM intake. During the grower period, there were no differences (P > .05) in DM intake for birds fed 10 and 40% BCS diets when compared with those fed the control diet (Table 6). Inclusion of BCS at 20,30, and 50% resulted in a higher (P < .05) DM intake when compared with control diet.

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DM,i % 45.81 ± 1.90 CP,1 % 6.71 ± .39 Ash,1 % 1.96 ± .17 1 Ether extract, % 1.37 ± .16 2 Ca, % .08 ± 0 P,2 % .33 ± 0 Gross energy,2 kcal/kg 4,925 ± 87 MEn,3 kcal/kg 3,857 ± 237 TMEn/> kcal/kg 4,454 ± 109 1 Means ± SE of seven samples. 2 Mean ± SE of two samples. 3 Mean ± SE of five pens of 10 chicks each. 4 Mean ± SE of six cockerels.

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Body Weight

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The average body weight at 21 days of age is presented in Table 5. In Experiments 1 and 3, increasing the dietary level of BCS to 40 and 50% reduces (P < .05) average body weight relative to birds fed the control diet. In Experiment 2, growth rates obtained from all levels of BCS inclusion were not different (P > .05) from the control diet. As mentioned earlier, the change of feeding technique in Experiment 2 and beak trimming of birds in Experiment 3 may have confounded the results. Broilers achieved the same level of DM intake from all diets in Experiments 2 and 3 with the same feeding technique. However, in Experiment 3, the higher levels of BCS (40 and 50%) resulted in lower feed consumption (P < .08), which may have been due to beak trimming. Because the 1st wk feed consumption was not determined, the present investigation is not extensive enough to differentiate between growth recovery or compensatory growth at 21 days of age due to lower DM intake of the day-old broiler chicks. Robbins and Ballew (1984) suggested that the initial body weight of the broiler increased by about 700% during the first 14 days of life. Therefore, the initial body discomfort related to contact with wet feed at the higher level of BCS inclusion may not have been overcome in time to recover body weight at 21 days of age in Experiment 1. Beak trimming may have produced similar results in Experiment 3. Orthogonal contrasts show a significant linear response (P < .05) and decreasing feed consumption and body weights in both Experiment 1 and 3 when these responses are evaluated over all levels of dietary BCS inclusion. A significant (P < .05) quadratic and cubic effect were also evident for 21-day body weights in Experiment 3. Neither linear, quadratic, nor cubic responses were significant for these variables in Experiment 2. In the growing period, broilers fed diets containing 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% BCS had body weights (42 days) comparable to or better than those fed the control diet (Table 6). Birds fed 20 and 30% BCS inclusion had higher body weights and greater body weight change (from 21 to 42 days of age) than those fed the control diet. Body

BREWERS CONDENSED SOLUBLES AND BROILERS

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TABLE 6. Effects of levels of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) on feed consumption, body weight, body weight change, and feed efficiency (body weight change:feed intake) for the period of 21 to 42 days of age,1 Experiment 3 Feed consumption Wet basis

DM basis

0 10 20 30 40 50 Probability Pooled SD

2,530* 2,762d 3,043c 3,386b 3,189* 3,741" .0( 154

2,170" 2,251*<* 2,319"* 2,431" 2,196«* 2,383*

Body weight at 42 days of age

(g per bird) — 1,934«* 2,046"* 2,083* 2,154" 1,897<* 2,022* .0057 .0021 111 93

Body weight change

Feed efficiency

1,268a l,305cd 1,372"": 1,473" l,301cd 1,403* .0015 73

(g:g DM basis) .58 .58 .59 .60 .59 .59 .4144 .02

"-'Means within a column with no common superscripts differ significantly (P < .05). 'Means of five pens of four chicks each.

weights at 42 days of age and body weight change were greatest for chicks fed the 30% BCS diet. Feed Efficiency Feed efficiency (grams of body weight: grams of feed intake, DM basis) is presented in Table 5 for the 0 to 21 days of age and in Table 6 for the 21 to 42 days of age in Experiment 3. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency among 0, 10,

and 20% BCS inclusion in all experiments for the starter period. Birds fed 40 and 50% BCS had depressed (P < .01) feed efficiency in Experiment 3. However, there were no differences (P > .05) for feed efficiency among dietary treatments in the grower period. These results suggest that broiler chicks from 1 to 21 days of age may not make maximum utilization of BCS above 20%. Utilization of BCS is satisfactory u p to 50% in the grower period (21 to 42 days of age).

TABLE 7. Effects of dietary levels of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) on carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad, and giblet weights,1 Experiment 3

Lcvel of BCS

Total carcass weight2

0 10 20 30 40 50 Probability Pooled SD

(g) 1,316* 1,373* 1,403* 1,458" 1,253' 1,346* .0081 79

Dressing percentage3

Fat pad wei ght

(%) 66.47

66.87 67.30 67.82 66.33 66.54 .5410 1.41

Giblet weight4

Percentage of total carcass

(%)

(g) 24.01 29.39 27.39 31.45 29.17 31.19 .0669 3.99

Giblet

Fat pad

93.55 94.96 94.30 95.98 91.17 96.51 .8028 .34

1.83b 2.14* 1.95>> 2.15* 2.33" 2.32" .0242 .25

"-'Means within a column with no common superscripts differ significantly (P < .05). 1 Means of five pens of four chicks each. includes weight of fat pad. 3 Total carcass weight divided by 42-day body weight times 100. includes weight of heart, liver, and gizzard.

7.11 6.93 6.73 6.59 7.28 7.19 .1868 .47

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Level of BCS

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TADTIYANANT ET AL. TABLE 8. Effects1 of dietary levels of brewers condensed solubles (BCS) on sensory evaluation scores of cooked broiler breast meat, Experiment 3 Variable of sensory score2

Level of BCS

Tenderness

Juiciness

Chicken flavor

Molasses flavor

0 10 20 30 40 50 Probability Pooled SD

5.44 ± 6.33 ± 5.72 ± 4.64 ± 5.36 ± 5.37 ± .0728 2.40

4.46 ± 5.44 ± 5.18 ± 4.67 ± 5.23 ± 5.42 ± .1150 1.88

5.26 ± 5.18 ± 4.97 ± 5.31 ± 5.72 ± 5.55 ± .2886 1.48

2.02 ± 1.92 ± 2.10 ± 2.00 ± 2.08 ± 2.55 ± .0595 1.05

2.38 2.70 2.60 2.34 2.50 2.19

1.89 1.73 2.27 1.88 1.81 2.22

1.90 1.65 1.95 1.78 1.85 2.06

1.44 1.16 1.74 1.30 1.42 1.94

Carcass Characteristics

Nutrition, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, for her assistance in The effects of inclusion of BCS on carcass conducting the taste panel analysis. weight, dressing percentage, fat pad, and Thanks is also extended to Anheusergiblet weights are presented in Table 7. Busch Inc., St. Louis, MO 63118, for their Total carcass weight (includes weight of fat cooperation and support throughout this pad) followed the 42-day body weight. The project. birds fed 30% BCS diets have the highest carcass weights as compared with the REFERENCES control. This relationship was expected, as live body weight and carcass weight are Anheuser-Busch, 1987. Amino acid composition of brewers condensed solubles. Unpublished data. highly correlated. The fat pad weight as a Anheuser-Busch, Inc., St. Louis, MO. percentage of total carcass weight was Anonymous, undated, Brewex Technical Bulletin, Associates Research Management, Inc., Crystal highest at the 40 and 50% BCS levels. There Lake, IL. were no significant differences for giblet Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1984. weight as a percentage of total carcass Official Methods of Analysis. 24th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlingweight among dietary treatments. Organoleptic Assessments Means and results of the organoleptic assessments are presented in Table 8. Panel tenderness, juiciness, chicken flavor, or molasses flavor were not (P > .05) affected by BCS inclusion and were similar to those of chickens fed the control diet. The results indicated that the inclusion of BCS at levels up to 50% in the diet produced broiler meat with eating qualities and flavor comparable to the control. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors express their thanks to Hildegarde Heymann, Food Science and

ton, VA. Fuller, H. L., and N. M. Dale, 1983. Feeding value of brewers' condensed solubles for broilers and laying hens. Poultry Sci. 62:914-916. Hartel, H., 1986. Influence of food input and procedure of determination on metabolizable energy and digestibility of a diet measured with young and adult birds. Br. Poult. Sci. 27:11-39. Hill, F. W., and D. C. Anderson, 1958. Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive energy determinations with growing chicks. J. Nutr. 64: 587-603. National Research Council, 1984. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 8th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Pesti, G. M., 1984. Influence of substitution method and of food intake on bioassays to determine metabolizable energy with chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 25:495-504. Pesti, G. M., N. M. Dale, and D. J. Farrell, 1989. A comparison of methods to determine the metabolizable energy of feather meal. Poultry Sci. 68:443-146. Pesti, G. M., L. O. Faust, H. L. Fuller, N. M. Dale, and

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Means of 10 panelists in four sensory-evaluation sessions (± SE). One panelist was absent during Session 4. n = 39. 2 Sensory scores: 1 = not tender, not juicy, low chicken, or low molasses flavor to 9 = very tender, very juicy, or high chicken or high molasses flavor.

BREWERS CONDENSED SOLUBLES AND BROILERS F. M. Benoff, 1986. Nutritive value of poultry by-product meal. I. Metabolizable energy values as influenced by method of determination and level of substitution. Poultry Sci. 65:2258-2267. Robbins, K. R., and J. E. Ballew, 1984. Relationship of sex and body growth rate with daily accretion rates of fat, protein and ash in chickens. Growth 48:44-58.

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SAS Institute, 1988. SAS® User's Guide: Statistics. Version 6.03 Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Sibbald, I. R., 1986. The T.M.E. system of feed evaluation: methodology, feed composition data and bibliography. Animal Research Centre Contribution 85-19, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

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