06 Electrical power supply and utilization (scientific, technical) activity has been conducted in three steps; the definition of the conceptual design of the systems, the application of the Relap5 code to simulate their behaviour; and the proposal of their specific applications to pressurized and boiling LWR. In this paper, both systems are presented in their structural and operating characteristics together with the main results of the code application for their simulation. Some proposals of application of SIP-l and ICS to pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors are also shown. The developments and reached goals of the prosecution of the research are also summarized here, tog-ether with future needs.
02lOO454 A roadmap for developing ATW technology: system scenarios and integration Van Tuyle, Ci. ef al. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2001, 38, (I-2) 3-23. A roadmap has been established for development of accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) technology. The roadmap defines a reference system along with preferred technologies, which require further development to reduce technical risk, associated deployment scenarios, and a detailed plan of necessary R&D to support implementation of this technology. The potential for international collaboration is discussed which has the potential to reduce the cost of the programme. A reference ATW plant design was established to ensure consistent discussion of technical and life cycle cost issues. Over 60 years of operation, a reference ATW plant would process about 10000 tn of spent nuclear reactor fuel. This is in comparison to the current inventory in the USA of about 40000 tn of spent fuel and the projected inventory of about 86000 tn of spent fuel if all currently licenced nuclear power plants run until their licence expire. The reference ATW plant was used together with an assumed scenario of no new nuclear plant orders in the USA to generate a deployment scenario for ATW. In the R&D roadmap, key technical issues are identified, and timescales are proposed for the resolution of these issues. A key recommendation is that, in the first year of any ATW programme, trade studies intended to confirm technology choices and optimization of design be conducted. These studies will then be used to define future R&D. International collaboration will be important in this endeavour.
02lOO455 Review and proposals about the role of accelerator driven systems nuclear power Salvatores, M. et al. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2001, 38, (I-2) 167178. Accelerator driven systems (ADS) can play a role in radioactive waste transmutation scenarios, but also in innovative nuclear power plant concepts, in particular in order to simplify the nuclear fuel cycle. Their improved safety characteristics is also a beneficial feature in the perspective of very innovative reactor concept. Finally, it seems that the use of Thorium can be facilitated (at least from a neutronics point of view) by the use of ADS. These motivations justify relevant R&D programmes in order to validate the concept. This paper gives a number of arguments on the role of ADS, and gives some characteristics of an innovative ADS system (TASSE), based on a Th-molten salts fuel.
02lOO456 Safety evaluation of the inherent and passive safety features of the smart design Bae, K.H. er al. Annuls of Nuclear Energy, 2001, 28, 333-349. SMART (system-integrated modular advanced reactor) is a 330 MWt advanced integral PWR, which is under development at KAERI for seawater desalination and electricity generation. The conceptual design of the SMART desalination plant produces 40000 m3/day of potable water and generates about 90 MW of electricity, which are assessed as sufficient for a population of about 100000. The SMART enhances safety by adopting the inherent safety design features such as the elimination of large break loss of coolant accidents, substantially large negative moderator temperature coefficients, etc. In addition, the safety goals of the SMART are achieved through the adoption of passive engineered safety systems such as an emergency core cooling system, passive residual heat removal system, safeguard vessel, and reactor and containment overpressure protection systems. This paper describes the design concept of the major safety systems of the SMART and presents the results of the safety analyses using a MARS/SMR code for the major limiting accidents including transient behaviours due to desalination system disturbances. The analysis results employing conservative initial/boundary conditions and assumptions show that the safety systems of the SMART conceptual design adequately remove the core decay heat and mitigate the consequences of the limiting accidents, and thus secure the plant to a safe condition.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND UTILIZATION Scientific,
02lOO457 A methodology for the quantification of corrosion and erosion damage in laboratory, burner rig and plant environments. Simms, N.J. er al. Proc. - Electrochem. SW., 2000, 99-38, 305-316. Fuel gases derived from solid fuels, such as coal, biomass and waste, have the potential to cause both erosion and corrosion damage to components throughout the hot gas paths of power generating systems. To allow the statistically valid assessment of materials performance in short term plant runs, burner rig tests and laboratory simulated environments a methodology has been developed to collect compatible quantitative data on materials degradation. Accurate measurement techniques based on pre-exposure contact metrology and postexposure optical microscopy/image analysis have been developed, which take into account the low damage levels required for practical systems and the localized nature of hot corrosion. The data produced have been used to derive and test quantitative models for the prediction of the performance of candidate materials. For these models to be used with confidence, similar damage morphologies must be produced in both the real and simulated conditions, as well as similar damage rates.
02/00458 A novel non-linear programming-based coal blending technology for power plants Yin, C. el al. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 2000, 78, (Al), 118-124. Coal blending has now attracted much attention in coal industry of China, and was investigated extensively to meet the often conflicting goals of environmental requirements and reliable and efficient boiler operation in power plants. However, most of the existing blending projects are guided by experience, or linear-programming (LP), whose main assumption is that all the quality parameters of a blend can be approximated as the weighted average of the corresponding indexes of its component coals at any condition. This was proved incorrect for some blend properties. Now, more and more evidence indicates that a strong non-linearity exists between some quality parameters of a coal blend and those of its component coals. Thus the unreliable assumption impairs the resulting coal-blending scheme. To remedy this situation, a novel coal blending technology for power plants, i.e. using non-linear programming (NLP) based on neural network models, was proposed, and has now been successfully applied at the Hangzhou Coal Blending Center. The application attests that this new technology is much better than the existing linear-programming coal-blending method.
A promising fuel for a high-temperature fuel cell V.A. er al. Vestsi Nats. Akad. Navuk Belarusi. Ser. Khim. Navuk, 2000, 1, 9-l 1. (In Russian) Experimental data are presented on the processes of electrochemical oxidation of fuel gases based on CHI, NH,, CzHsOH and on products of partial burning (containing CO and Hz) of industrial carbon fuels in high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell (HTFC). Some problems of HTFC performance optimization are considered.
02lOO460 Advanced fuel conversion technologies in centralized and decentralized plants Bergmann, H., Hannes, K. VGB Tech. Ver. Grosskrqf/ll~erk.shetr., [Tagungsher.] VGB-TB, 1999, 102, PaperAZ/i, PaperAZ/l-PaperA 13. (In German) A review with many deposited references concerning the state-of-theart and development of fossil fuel-fired power plants. Technologies including conventional coal- and lignite&fired steam-power plants, fluidized-bed combustion plants, power plants with integrated gasification, natural gas-fired heating power plants, and advanced fuel cells are presented. 02/00481 Catalyst for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells Tada, T., Inoue, M. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 100,448 (Cl. HOlM4/90), 7 Apr 2000, Appl. 1998/269,579, 24 Sep 1998. 5. (In Japanese)
06 Electrical power supply and utilization (scientific, technical) The catalyst has noble metals loaded on fine carbonaceous powdeJ, where the powder contains 120% pores having diameter 160A. Preferably, the carbonaceous material has DBP absorption capacity 200-394 cm3/100 g and surface areas 300-1270 mz/g. 02/00462 Characterization of fly ash from oil-fired power plants as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries Yagasaki, E., Ujiie, S. Proc. - Eleclrochem. DC., 2000, 99-25, 81-85. Electrochemical Society. We report the electrochemical properties of the fly ash sampled from electrostatic precipitators at some fossil fuel power plants. The oil-fired fly ash consists mainly of carbon and shows lithium insertion-extraction ability. The fly ash is investigated as a possible low-cost material for lithium ion batteries. 02iOO463 Complex power generation using synthesis gas obtained by partial oxidation of carbon compounds Kobayashi, T., Saito, T. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 161,076 (Cl. F02C3/28), 13 Jun 2000, Appl. 1998/375,510, 27 Nov 1998. 3. (In Japanese) The title process is carried out by (1) crushing of C compound, (2) mixing of the crushed fine particles with MeOH to obtain a slurry, (3) generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of the slurry in a gasification furnace, and (4) use of a part of the synthesis gas for preparation of MeOH, which is re-fed into the slurry preparation process, and use of the rest of the synthesis gas for generation of electric power and heat. Use of brown coal as the C compound was explained. 02lOO464 Development of high performance graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries Barsukov, I.V. er al. Proc. - Elecrrochem. Sot., 2000, 99-25, l-l 1. Graphite’s first cycle loss and safety remain to be among the issues of concern of the Li-ion battery manufacturers. Superior Graphite Co. (SGC) is manufacturing and/or developing three types of carbonaceous materials for application as a negative electrodes in the Li-ion batteries. A unique thermal purification technology allows SGC to produce one of the most pure carbons (99.95%C) worldwide in industrial quantities. This high purity level allows full utilization of the active material. Natural graphite offers a viable alternative to the much higher cost and limited supply mesophase carbons. This paper considers several grades of the natural graphite being produced by SGC. They offer near theoretical discharge capacities (350-372 mAh/g) with first cycle loss below 15%. At high discharge rate (C/5), in laboratory experiments, graphite LBG-25 outperformed mesophase carbon MCMB25-28 by 20% (approximately 50 mAh/g). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the fully lithiated MCMB25-28 and LBG-25 similar behaviour. Carbon purity, surface moisture, particle size distribution, thoughtful selection of the binder, copper and electrolyte were suggested to be among the key factors, which influence the irreversible capacity loss. Particle shape and surface area were determined to be among the important, but to a certain extent not as critical factors as the others mentioned herein. 02lOO465 Device and method for reducing carbon monoxide in reformate gas for fuel cell Nagamiya, K. er al. Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 995,717 (Cl. COlB3/58), 26 Apr 2000, JP Appt. 1999/32,002, 9 Feb 1999. 33. A CO reducing device supplies 0 to a reformate gas obtained through a reforming reaction so as to oxidize CO contained in the reformate gas by means of the 0 and thereby reduces a concentration of CO contained in the reformate gas. This CO reducing device is equipped with an 0 supply amount controller designed to oxidize CO. The 0 supply amount controller controls an amount of 0 supplied to oxidize CO contained in the reformate gas based on an amount of supply of fuel contributing to the reforming reaction. Thereby, the amount of 0 for oxidizing CO contained in the reformate gas is adjusted appropriately, and a high-quality reformate gas can be obtained. 02/00466 Electrode plates for solid electrolyte fuel cells Hashimoto, M., Komata, K. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 195,526 (Cl. HOlM8/02), 14 Jul 2000, Appl. 1998/371,241, 25 Dee 1998. 5. (In Japanese) The electrode plates for solid electrolyte fuel cells using fuel gases and oxidizing agent gases have a number of protrusions integrally formed from synthetic resin materials containing anticorrosive electric conductive fine powders (e.g. C powders). The electrode plates are manufactured at low cost. 02/00467 Experience gained from commissioning a new 411 MW coal-fired plant with advanced steam data Thomson, F., Jensen, V. VGB Tech. Ver. Grosskrofl~~‘erkshetr., (Tagungsber.] VGB-TB, 1999, 102, PaperA4/i, PaperA4/1-PaperA4/ 17. (In German)
Design features including boiler, steam turbine, and flue gas system, and operational experiences concerning a new 411 MW coal-fired plant in Denmark with advanced steam data are presented. The plant shows a thermal efficiency of nearly 47% in condensing mode and 90% with full district heating with full flue gas cleaning. 02/00466 Gas-phase transformations of mercury in coalfired power plants Senior, C.L. et al. Fuel Process. Technol., 2000, 63, (2-3), 197-213. Because mercury enters the food chain primarily through atmospheric deposition, exposure models require accurate information about mercury emission rates and mercury speciation from point sources. Since coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction of the anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, the speciation of*m&cuty in coal-fired power plant flue gas is currently an active topic of research. We have demonstrated that the assumption of gasphase equilibrium for mercury-containing species in coal-fired power plant exhaust is not valid at temperatures below approximately 8000 K (500°C). Chlorine-containing species have been shown to be the most important for oxidation of elemental mercury in the post-combustion gases. The conversion of HCI to CIz in the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is kinetically limited. Kinetic calculations of the homogeneous oxidation of elemental mercury by chlorine-containing species were carried out using global reactions from the literature. The levels of mercury oxidation, while of comparable magnitude to field observations, are still below the 40% to 80% oxidation typically observed in field measurements. 02lOO469 Hydrocarbon fuel gas reformer assembly for fuel cell power plant Bonk, S.P. er al. PCT Int. Appl. WO 00 27,518 (Cl. BOlJ8/04), 18 May 2000, US Appl. 190,855, 10 Nov 1998. 22. The fuel reformer which produces a H-enriched process fuel from a raw fuel, includes a compact array of catalyst tubes in a heat-insulated housing. The catalyst tube array includes a multitude of catalyst tubes arranged in an array. The interior of the catalyst tubes includes a hollow dead-ended central tube which serves as a fines trap for fines entrained in the fuel stream. The catalyst tubes are provided with an upper frusto-conical portion which extends the catalyst bed providing a catalyst reserve. The assembly includes a side-fired startup burner allowing for a diffusion burner orifice array at the top of the reformer. The catalyst tubes are supported by side walls of the assembly which stabilizes the tubes in the assembly. Internal transverse manifold plates are tied together by portions of the tube assemblies so as to support the weight of the catalyst tube array. 02/00470 Hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicle development Oh, B.S. et al. Hydrogen Energy Prog. XII. Proc. World Hydrogen Energy Conf., IZth, 1998, 2, 1265-1279. Edited by Bolcich, J.C. Veziroglu, T.N. A review with 25 references of technological development for fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen. In the past when solid fuels, such as coal, were used, the external combustion engine was the appropriate power plant. At the present time, liquid fuels made from oil are being used in internal combustion engines. In the future, new power plants, such as fuel cells, are expected to use gaseous fuels, such as natural gas and hydrogen. From the 1980s onwards, some companies and research centres have developed fuel cells as new power plants for transportation, and converted some vehicles to run on hydrogen fuel cells. The fuel cells are not constrained by the ‘Carnot’ efficiency limitations, and are environmentally more compatible. The efficiency of fuel cells is two to three times that of internal combustion engines. The specific power and the power density of fuel cells are now competitive to those of the internal combustion engines. The one remaining problem is the high price of the fuel cells. But it is expected that the price will come down within a decade by mass production and reduction in expensive materials used. The operating cost of hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles is about that of conventional gasoline or diesel fuel vehicles, because the hieher efficiencv of the former can fullv comnensate for the higher price of hydrogen: Proton Exchange Membrane~iPEM) fuel cell powered buses with hydrogen are suggested to be used as transit buses in big cities, where pollution is highly concentrated. If the government of the citv, orovides financial support to purchase the buses and to set the infrastructure for the hydrogen fuel system, the citizens can live in a healthier environment. It is expected that, in the future, vehicles should be changed to hydrogen gradually from cities to country side, and from buses to cars. a
02/00471 Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes Platon, A. er al. Proc. - Indian Acad. Sci., Chem. Sci., 2000, 112, (I), 19-26. Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the green Fuel and Energy Abstracts