Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography

I~l Re ,:~>,i 30:~,, 182 Tg/yr. Accuracy of these estimates could be evaluated by analysis of carefully collected rain samples from several oceanic ...

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I~l Re ,:~>,i 30:~,,

182

Tg/yr. Accuracy of these estimates could be evaluated by analysis of carefully collected rain samples from several oceanic regions. Grad. Sch. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI

83:1347 Neumann, C.J., 1982. Some characteristics of Atlantic tropical cyclone forecast errors. Ma~. Ob~sr, 52(277):141-148.

02881, USA.

At the National Hurricane Center, error summaries are prepared on individual forecasts as well a,.. on a storm-by-storm basis. At the end of each hurJicanc season, an overall seasonal summary of errors is prepared. Periodically, performance is examined over a number of hurricane seasons to identil3 an~ long-term biases, deficiencies in performance, :rend., ,,r other patterns in the forecasts. Porfi~m~ of Neumann and Pelissier's 1981 study of -f0(R) forecasts of tropical cyclone motion t1970-79~ which pertain to 12- and 24-h forecasts are presented, Natl. Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, Fla,, I!SA

83:!345 Edwards, P.R., lan Campbell and G.S. Milne, 1 9 8 2 . The impact of chloromethanes on the environment. 1. The atmospheric chlorine cycle. Chem. Ind., 1982(16):574-578.

B380. Forecasting 83:1346 Francis, P.E., 1982. The forecasting of the stateof-sea. Met. Mag., Lond., 111(1321):209-217. The requirement for and history of state-of-sea forecasting in the U.K. Meteorological Office are described briefly; the present operational forecasting system is summarized. Forms of output from the system are discussed, some applications are exemplified, and results of some verification exercises are examined. Meteorol. Office, Bracknell, LIK.

B450.

Miscellaneous

83:1348 Ramanathan, A.S. and George Alexander, !975, History of the meteorology of the Indian Ocean. J, mar. biol. Ass. India, 17(3):613-645. Metco orological Office, Poona, India

C. CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

C10. Apparatus and methods 83:1349 Boniforti, R., 1978. Metals analysis in aquatic sediments: a review. Thalassia Jugosl., 14(3/4): 281-301. Lab. per lo Studio dell" Ambiente Mar., C N E N - E U R A T O M , Fiascherino, La Spezia, Italy. 83:1350 de Groot, A.J., K.H. Zschuppe and W. Salomons, 1982. Standardization of methods of analysis for heavy metals in sediments. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:689-695. Several suggestions for standardizing analyses for heavy metals in sediments are given related to

collection and preservation, digesuon and presentation of results. To elucidate sources of metals~ chemical partition via a 3-step extraction procedure (0.1 M hydroxylamine-HCl, H20 _, 30%, [IF) ix proposed. Anthropogenic enrichment and the effects of grain-size are discussed, Inst. for Soil Fertility. P.O. Box 30003, 9750 R A Haren (GR,), Netherlands. (bwt)

83:1351 Fukai, R. et aL, 1980. Tripartite interlaboratory calibration of trace metal measurements on seawater: a summary report. Thalassia JugasL. 16(2/4):171-176. Intl. Lab. of Mar. Radioactivity, IAEA, Musee Oceanogr., Principality of Monaco.

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183

83:1352 Gillam, A.H. and J.P. Riley, 1982. Microscale functional group analysis of marine and sedimentary humic substances. Analytica chim. Acta,

83:1356 Kijowski, Wojciech and P.A. Steudler, 1982. Determination of total reduced sulfur in natural waters. Limnol. Oceanogr., 27(5):975-978.

141:287-299. Starting with classical soil chemistry procedures, microscale analytical methods (5-10 nag samples) were developed for the determination of total acidity, carboxylic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, ketonic carbonyls, quinone groups and hydroxamate groups in sedimentary humics. Riley: Dept. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK. (bwt)

A method developed for determining small amounts of reduced S in water (25-600 /~g S/L) is very specific, free from interferences, and based on alkaline digestion of a sample using Raney nickel as a reductant. HC1 is added to the digestion mixture to liberate H2S, which is trapped in a zinc acetate solution and then determined spectrophotometrically as ethylene blue. There were excellent recoveries for the reduced S compounds tested. Sulfate and most sulfate esters do not interfere, so the method is useful in seawater where sulfate is abundant. Ecosystems Center, MBL, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA.

83:1353 GlOck, C. and K.H. Lieser, 1982. Mieroautoradiography of trace elements in suspended matter. Naturwissenschaften, 69(8):391-392. Microautoradiography, applied to the investigation of heavy metal distribution in Rhine River suspended matter, showed clearly which particles in the suspended load accumulated the spiked radionuclides. Adsorption (incorporation) of 59Fe, 6°Co, 65Zn and 2°3Hg onto (into) inorganic particles, diatoms, green and blue-green algae and protozoans is described. Fach. Anorgan. Chem. und Kernchemie der Tech. Hochschule, D-6100 Darmstadt, FRG. (bwt) 83:1354 Golterman, H.L., 1982. Differential extraction of sediment phosphates with NTA solutions. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:683-687. Station biol. de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200 Arles, France. 83:1355 Horner, S.M.J. and D.F. Smith, 1982. Measurement of total inorganic carbon in seawater by a substoichiometric assay using NaHI4CO3. Limnol. Oceanogr., 27(5):978-983. ~2CO2 can be measured accurately by adding tracer NaH~4CO3 in solution, acidifying the labeled seawater, and trapping a fraction of the gaseous ~4CO2+ ~2CO2 with a substoichiometric quantity of a quaternary amine (carbamate). If the same quantity of radioisotope is added to each of a set of standards and unknowns, radioactivity of the carbamate will depend only on the specific activity of the label in the seawater sample. Decrease in carbamate radioactivity with increasing ~2CO2 is described by a simple functional relationship, readily transformed to a linear equation. The method is well suited to the measurement of minute quantities. CSIRO Mar. Lab., P.O. Box 20, North Beach, W.A. 6020, Australia.

83:1357 Miles, D.L. and J.M. Cook, 1982. The determination of sulphate in natural waters by inductivelycoupled plasma emission spectrometry. Analytica chim. Acta, 141:207-212. Hydrogeology Unit, Inst. of Geol. Sci., Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, UK. 83:1358 Morse, J.W., Mary Hunt, James Zullig, Alfonso Mucci and Tony Mendez, 1982. A comparison of techniques for preserving dissolved nutrients in open ocean seawater samples. Ocean Sci. Engng, 7(1):75-106. Accurate measurement of nutrient concentrations is essential to monitoring any subsequent environmental changes; however, the original nutrient concentration does not remain constant in seawater samples that must be stored. A comprehensive survey of preservation techniques now in use indicates that even such extraordinary measures as quick freezing and poisoning do not prevent significant changes. Open ocean seawater samples are best stored in 'polyethylene bottles at 2°C in the dark with no additives.' Dept. of Oceanogr., Texas A&M, College Station, Tex. 77843, USA. (dlf)

83:1359 Murthy, R.S.S. and D.E. Ryan, 1982. Preeoneentration of copper, cadmium, mercury and lead from sea and tap water samples on a dithiocarbamatecellulose derivative. Analytica chim. Acta, 140(1):163-169. Ryan: Chem. Dept., Dalhouse Univ., Halifax, N.S. B3H 4Jl, Canada.

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(. ChemicalOceanography

83:1360 Narnberg, H.W., 1980. Features of voltammetric investigations on trace metal speciation in seawater and inland waters. [Overview.] Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4):95-110. Inst. of Appl. Phys. Chem., Nuclear Res. Center (KFA), D-5170 Julich, FRG. 83:1361 O'Halloran, RJ., 1982. Anodic stripping voltammetry of manganese in seawater at a mercury film electrode. Analytica chim. Acta, 140(1):51-58. A rapid technique for the ultra-trace determination of Mn in seawater that eliminates the need for extraction and preconcentration steps is described. Samples (acidified for storage) are buffered to prevent calomel formation on the electrodes and then analyzed by differential pulse ASV. Effects of pH and inter-metallic interferences are discussed: results for ocean water are in close accord with those achieved by an extraction/radiotracer method, Materials Res. Lab., P.O, Box 50, Ascot Vale, Vic. 3032, Australia. (bwt) 83:1362 Ru2id, 1.. 1982. Theoretical aspects of the direct titration of natural waters and its information yield for trace metal speciation. Analytica chim, Acta, 140(1):99-113. Center for Mat. Res.. Rudjer Boskovic lust., Zagreb, Croatia, Yugoslavia, 83:1363 Schock, M.R. and S.C. Schock, 1982. Effect of container type on pH and alkalinity stability. Wat. Res., 16(10):1455-1464.

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spectroscopy. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:b97- 700. Dept. of Cir. Engrg., Univ. of Tech., Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, Netherlands, 83:1365 Sipos, L., H. Rt~tzel and I'.H.P. fhyssen, i980. Performance of a new device for sampling seawater from the sea bottom. Thalassia Jugosl. 16(1):89-94. Inst. of Chem.. Nuclear Re~. Cen ter, Julich, FRG. 83:t366 Wagener, K. and D. Heitkamp, 1980. Humic acids as promising adsorbentsforrecoveringuraniumfrom seawater. Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4/: 185- ! g<~ It-loaded humic acids show an exceptionally ta~ loading process for U fixation from seawater thus the possibility of an extremely simple loading process that needs no columns, bed or pumped flow delivery. Decay of the tricarbonate uranyl complex upon entering the low pH zone in the pores of the humic acids may be implicated in the process l e c h Univ. Aachen, D 5100 Aachen, FRG.

C40.

Area studies, surveys

83:1367 De Souza, F.P. and R. Sen Gupta, t981. On the distribution of bromide and the bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian Sea off the central Indian coast. Mahasagat; 14(4):309 311. Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr., Dona Pauta, :~,~'a 403 004, India.

Several container and cap combinations were evaluated for ability to preserve the pH and alkalinity of test waters that were out of equilibrium with atmospheric CO 2 over time periods representative of mail or other surface transport. Provided no air bubbles were present during filling and sealing, polyvinyl-chloride bottles with caps having a conical polyethylene insert were the most satisfactory, followed by high-density linear polyethylene bottles. Cap design was very important. Guidelines for analysis and preservation are given; if they are followed, laboratory measurements can be substituted reliably for field measurements in many instances. Municipal Environl. Res. Lab., US EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, USA.

83:1368 Ma, Xinian et al., 1982. Iron in seawater off the Changjiang River Estuary. Oceanologia Limno/ sin., 13(3):241-253. (In Chinese, English sum mary.) Inst. of Oceanology, Academia Simca, People's Republic of China. 83:1369 Ma, Xinian, Quansheng Li, Wenzhen Hua and Huarui Huang, 1981. Iron in seawater of Jiaozhou Bay [China]. Stud. mar. sin.. 18:49-7[ (In Chinese, English abstract.) Inst. of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, People's Republic of China.

83:1364 Siebers, H.H., A,M. van der Kraan and M. Donze, 1982. The fractionation of iron.phosphorus cornpounds in sediments studied by Mfissbauer

83:1370 Millero, F.J., 1978. The physical chemistry of Baltic Sea waters. Thalassia Jugosl., 14(1/21:1-46.

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C. ChemicalOceanography

The present dissolved river salts entering the Baltic are 0.120+0.005 g/kg compared to 0.075-+0.005 g/kg ~ 7 0 years ago; this increase is caused by the decrease in river flow due to climatic changes, Composition data were used to calculate the densities of Baltic seawater from apparent equivalent volume data. Calculated densities agree on the average to 11 ppm with the measured values over the entire composition and temperature range. RSMAS, Univ. of Miami, Fla. 33149, USA.

C80. Physical chemistry in seawater 83:1371 Brown, M.F. and D.R. Kester, 1980. Ultraviolet spectroscopic studies related to iron complexes in marine systems. Thalassia Jugosl, 16(2/4): 191-

185

83:1374 Mantoura, R.F.C., A. Dixon and J.P. Riley, 1978. The speeiation of trace metals with bumie cornpounds in natural waters. Thalassia Jugosl., 14(1/2):127-145. Adsorption columns were used to isolate macromolecular humic type substances from both sea and fresh waters. Stability constants of the complexes formed between the humic materials and several metals were determined. The data were used both to examine the extent to which the metals are complexed by humic ligands in natural waters and to develop speciation models. Inst. for Mar. Environ. Res., Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK. 83:1375 Stumm, W., 1978. What is the p~ of the sea? Thalassia Jugosl., 14(1/2): 197-208.

201. UV spectra of ferric iron solutions at various pH in which Fe 3÷ and FeOH 2÷ are the major species were investigated. UV absorption was modeled using a modified Gaussian function for each band. The Gaussian model and deconvolution techniques were used to analyze the UV absorption spectra of ferric borate solutions; a bimodal absorption was found for FeB(OH)4 ÷2 similar to that of the other two iron species. Grad. Sch. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 02881, USA.

Photosynthesis keeps the oxic ocean in disequilibrium; 02 and other by-products of photosynthesis, such as organic matter, CH4, CO, and H2, co-exist. Thus, the real ocean cannot be characterized conceptually or operationally by a unique p~. Sill6n's modelling of a hypothetical equilibrium ocean is justified. Swiss Fed. Inst. of Tech., Zurich, Switzerland.

83:1372 Harvie, C.E., H.P. Eugster and J.H. Weare, 1982. Mineral equilibria in the six-component seawater system, Na-K-Mg-Ca-SO4-CI-HzO at 25°C. II. Compositions of the saturated solutions. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 46(9):1603-1618. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of California, La Jolla, Calif.

83:1376 Aston, S.R. and J.E. Rae, 1982. The deposition of Windscale radiocaesium in the Wyre Estuary and the measurement of sedimentation rates. Mar. environ. Res., 7(2):83-90.

92093, USA.

83:1373 Kramer, C.J.M. and J.C. Duinker, 1980. Complexing of copper by sediment extracted humic and fulvic material. Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4):251-258. Humic substance (HS), humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) were extracted from intertidal marine sediments. The F A fraction, when added to seawater, showed a fast reaction and a marked Cu complexing capacity; HA showed hardly any effect during 3 hr. Experiments with molecular weight fractions suggest that components with MW ~ 7 0 0 are responsible for the observed complexing capacity. Netherlands Inst. for Sea Res., Texel, Netherlands.

CII0. Radioactivity, radioisotopes

Profiles from the Wyre Estuary, N W England, indicate that sediments are contaminated with radiocaesium isotopes from the Windscale nuclear fuel reprocessing facility ~ 6 0 km to the north. Radiocaesium activities in different core segments are correlated with percent sub-63 ~tm grain size fraction variations in the sediment profiles. Isotopic ratio patterns in both cores and Windscale annual discharges allowed net sedimentation rate estimates. Intl. Lab. of Mar. Radioactivity, Musee Oceanogr., Monaco. 83:1377 Ku, T.L. et al., 1982. Constancy of oceanic deposition of rOBe as recorded in manganese crusts. Nature,

Lond., 299(5880):240-242. The first detailed measurements of ~°Be and 9Be in Fe-Mn oxide crusts from the equatorial Atlantic and North Pacific show that deposition of ~°Be and

i 86

(. ChemicalOceanography

~°Be/9Be during the past 7-9 Myr has been constant. The 7-9 Myr demarcation may be related to the Late Miocene global abyssal circulation change. Dept. of Geol. Sci., Univ. of So. Calif., Los Angeles, Calif. 90089-0741, USA.

83:1378 Miller, J.M., B.W. Thomas, P.D. Roberts and S.C. Creamer, 1982. Measurement of marine radionuclide distribution using a towed sea-hed spectrometer. Mar. Pollut, Bull,, 13(9):315-319. Application of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry to radionuclide measurements in seawater and sediments is discussed with special reference to a survey of effluent distribution in the Irish Sea. Contours mapped from the spectrometer profiles are matched with sediment distributions. Conclusions are drawn concerning the modes of transport and deposition of ~37Cs in the Irish Sea. Inst. of Geol. Sci. (NERC), Keyworth, Nottingham, N G I 2 5GG. UK.

83:1379 Reid, D.F. and W.M. Sackett, 1982, Radium in the near-surface Caribbean Sea. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 60(1): 17-26. Surface 228Ra concentrations varied temporally and spatially between 1968 and 1976. Near-surface vertical distribution of 228Ra predominantly was influenced by advection suggesting that ZZSRacannot be used in this area to examine vertical mixing rates, The activity and distribution of 226Ra were also determined. NORDA, NSTL Station, Miss. 39529~ USA. (msg)

83:1380 Spencer, D.W., M.P. Bacon and P.G. Brewer, 1 9 8 0 . The distribution of zl°Pb and 21°Po in the North Sea. Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4): 125-154. 2J°Pb activity is depleted strongly in North Sea waters; such depletion appears to be a consistent feature of coastal waters. 2t°po frequently is present in excess of 2~°pb. The North Sea shelf is a strong sink for ~°Pb. Using a random walk model, the data are consistent with a model that balances inputs from radioactive decay, atmospheric (2J°Pb only) sources and diffusive fluxes from the open ocean surface with removal by biological uptake, bottom scavenging and radioactive decay. WHOI, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA.

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C120. Dissolved gases 83:1381 Johnson, K.S., 1982. Carbon dioxide hydration and dehydration kinetics in seawater. LimnoL Oceanogr., 27(5):849-855. Rate constants for the hydration and dehydration reactions of CO 2 with water and with hydroxyl ion were measured in seawater by a pH-stat method at salinities (xl03) from 3.4-37.06 at 25°C and fr~m 5%35°C at a salinity of 33.7Z Transition ~tat¢ theory was used to extrapolate the rate constants to, infinite dilution. Mar. Sci. Inst., Univ. of Calif.. Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106, USA.

C130. Organic compounds 83:1382 Fujita, Naoji and Satoshi Nishizawa, 1982. Distribution of POC, DOC and ATP in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean in summer 19801981. Trans. Tokyo Univ. Fish., 5:53-63 Along 125°E and 160°E, the horizontal and ver:icai distributions of POC were influenced by c~,nvergence and divergence of seawater. A discontinuity h~. ATP concentrations was observed at ~ 100 m; be!ow this, ATP concentration decreased rapidly. ATP/POC ratios were high in the euphotic layers. decreasing with depth. Data clearly suggest the counter-clockwise helical circulation of the Antarctic Divergence and Convergence. DOC concentration was characteristically low throughout the water column with a few exceptions. Lab. of Oceanogr., Tohoku Univ., Sendal 980, Japan. 83:1383 Saar, R.A. and J.H. Weber, 1982. Fulvic acid: modifier of metal-ion chemistry [role in the transport and toxicity of metal ions in soil and water]. (Review.) Environ. Sci. TechnoL. i6(9): 510A-517A. Geraghty & Miller. Inc., Syos.~,et. NY 11791, USA. 83:i384 Sigleo, A.C., T.C. Hoering and G.R. Helz, 1982 Composition of estuarine colloidal material: organic components. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta~ 46(9): 1619-1626. Analysis of colloidal material isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Patuxent River waters showed that most organic compounds were carbohydrates and peptides in proportions similar to phytoplankton composition, although the colloidal material was richer in carbohydrates. No derivatives of terrestrml

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C. Chemical Oceanography

plant detritus were found, suggesting that most organic colloids originated from aquatic organisms. USGS, M.S. 431, Reston, Va. 22092, USA. (mjj)

C140. Nutrients

C150.

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Particulate

matter

83:1388 Bhosle, N.B., C. D'Silva, P. Shirodkar and C.V.G. Reddy, 1981. Partieulate carbohydrate in the euphotie zone of the Bay of Bengal. Mahasagar, 14(4):251-256. Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr., Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India.

83:1385 Callender, Edward, 1982. Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:431-446.

83:1389 Eisma, D., 1982. Supply and dispersal of suspended matter from the Zaire River. Mitt. geol.-pal~ont. Inst. Univ. Hamb., 52:419-428.

Benthic phosphate fluxes are estimated and related to overall estuarine P cycling. A ' I - D steady-state box model' utilizing data on P uptake, remineralization and sedimentation simulates the summer distribution of dissolved and particulate P in the water column. Much of the P released in the Washington, D.C. area is removed by sedimentation; benthic regeneration of P is only 10% of the total P input to the tidal river. Macrofaunal irrigation significantly enhances benthic P regeneration. U.S.G.S., Reston, Va. 22092, USA. (mjj)

The Zaire River is unique in that it carries a very low content of suspended material (ave. 32 mg/L; total suspended load ~ 4 0 x 106 ton/yr) and that this material is deposited directly, via a submarine canyon, to the deep sea (Angola Basin) where there is a large submarine fan. Water and sediment samples were taken from the fan, river, estuary and adjacent sea. Various aspects of this work are being published in special volumes; this report summarizes major results. Neth. Inst. for Sea Res., Texel, Netherlands. (bwt)

83:1386 Coote, A.R. and E.P. Jones, 1982. Nutrient distilbutions and their relationships tu water masses in Baffin Bay. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 39(8): 12101214.

83:1390 Eisma, D., G.C. Cad6e and R. Laane, 1982. Supply of suspended matter and particulate and dissolved organic carbon from the Rhine to the coastal North Sea. Mitt. geol.-pali~ont. Inst. Univ. Hamb., 52:483-505.

Phosphate, nitrate, and silicate concentrations were measured. Results illustrate the remarkable homogeneity of the water structure throughout the bay and show that nutrient concentrations can be used to label water masses in the Baffin Bay deep layer with similar resolution to that provided by salinity and temperature. Bedford Inst. of Oceanogr., P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth, N.S. B2Y 4A2, Canada.

83:1387 Lyons, W.B., T.C. Loder and S.M. Murray, 1982. Nutrient pore water chemistry, Great Bay, New Hampshire: benthic fluxes. Estuaries, 5(3):230233. Benthic fluxes of C, N, P and Si were measured at two sites. Higher fluxes of reactive phosphate, nitrate and reactive silicate were observed at the site where bioturbation is known to occur; fluxes of NH4 +, PO4 -3 and reactive silicate at this location were 3-6 times higher than those calculated by simple pore water diffusion models. Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ, of New Hampshire, Durham, N H 03824, USA.

The Rhine annually supplies ~ 3 . 5 ~ million tons (dry wt.) of suspended matter, ~0.21 million tons of POC and ~0.37 million tons of DOC to its estuary. The dumping of dredge spoils has raised suspended matter concentrations nearshore. Suspended matter distribution is related to river flow, weather conditions, and coastal circulation. Dissolved fluorescence and the aggregation and formation of fluid mud are discussed. Neth. Inst. for Sea Res., Postbox 59, Den Burg-Texel, Netherlands. (ihz) 83:1391 Fujita, Naoji and Satoshi Nishizawa, 1982. Vertical flux of particulate matter in the Antarctic Ocean in summer 1981. Trans. Tokyo Univ. Fish., 5:43-52. Using in-situ particle collectors, the maximum fluxes of POC and pheopigments were 184 mg m -2 d ~at 50 m depth and 1.242 mg m -2 d ~ at 200 m depth. These two distinct maxima of POC flux have not been observed in other ocean areas. Various sources of sampling variability are discussed. Lab. of Oceanogr., Tohoku Univ., Sendai 980, Japan.

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83:1392 Tanoue, Eiichiro and Nobuhiko Handa, 1982. Vertical and horizontal changes in fatty acid composition of particulate matter in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Trans. Tokyo Univ. Fish., 5: 85-95. Horizontal distributions of fatty acid composition in particulates were examined in surface waters (7°N 64°S); vertical distributions, at a pack-ice station (64°S). South of the Antarctic Convergence, unsaturated diatom fatty acids dominated the composition; north of the convergence, unsaturated fatty acids were reduced, and particulate matter composition did not resemble that of the area's predominant unicellular algae. It is concluded that nutrient concentrations and water temperature play a role in determining fatty acid compositions. Handa: Water Res. Inst., Nagoya Univ., Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464, Japan. (bwt) 83:1393 Tanoue, Eiichiro, Nobuhiko Handa and Mitsuo Kato, 1982. Horizontal and vertical distributions of particulate organic matter in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean. Trans. Tokl:o Unit,. Fish., 5:65-83. Particulate organic carbon (POC), generally higher in areas south of 40°S, showed great regional variability. Ratios of organic C and N, amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid and chlorophyll to POC are discussed; no significant trends in relation to water masses were found. Handa: Water Res. Inst., Nagoya Univ., Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464, Japan. (bwt)

C180. Geochemistry, biogeochemistry (see also D-SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS) 83:1394 Billen, G. and J. Putman, 1978. An approach for studying the pathways of organic matter degradation in aquatic ecosyslems. (Preliminary investigations on the distribution and utilization of lactate and acetate in marine, estuarine and sedimentary environments.) Thalassia Jugosl., 14(3/4):381-394. The utilization rate of lactate and acetate was measured first in 3 media representing a wide range of redox conditions and then compared with the overall rate of heterotrophic activity. A significant amount of organic matter was degraded through fermentative metabolism. Except in very reducing

OI_R I 9~~ ~0 ~

conditions, no net accumulation of lactate and acetate was perceived, implying that organic matter is entirely degraded to the CO 2 stage. Lab for Oceanogr., Univ. of Brussels, Belgium. 83:1395 Burton, J.D., W.A. Maher, C.I. Measures and PJ. Statham, 1980. Aspects of the distribution and chemical form of selenium and arsenic in ocean waters and marine organisms. Thalassia Jugo.;'L 16(2/4):155-164. Vertical profiling and analysis for oxidation states and for associations with organic compounds are promising methods for understanding the geochemical cycles and biological pathways of As and Se. Dept. of Oceanogr., The University, Southampton. UK. (dlf) 83:1396 Caschetto, S. and R. Wollast, 1978. The fate of dissolved aluminium in the Mediterranean Sea. Thalassia Jugosl., 14(3/4):371-379. Measurements of dissolved A1 in waters off ( orsica reveal a minimum value in the photic layer and a higher and constant value in the deep layer. VertJcai distributions of the dissolved A1 and nutriem, arc correlated strongly. Interstitial waters from the Bay of Calvi show that the A1-Si-H20 system probably does not reach thermodynamic equilibrium during early diagenesis, but rather is controlled by dynamic factors. The concentration gradient observed at the seawater-sediment interface could be parti~ responsible for the high dissolved A1 concentration in deep water by promoting A1 diffusion from interstitial waters to overlying seawater. Lab f~J Oceanogr., Univ. of Brussels, Belgium, 83:1397 Davison, W., 1982. Transport of iron and manganese in relation to the shapes of their concentrationdepth profiles. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:463-~7 !, A model describing Fe and Mn transport near a redox boundary in fresh and marine waters is based on a point source of a particulate component from which soluble species diffuse along a concentration gradient. Although several dissolved Fe and Mn profile shapes exist, in most cases the profile shape can be explained by the model. Freshwater Biol. Assoc., Windermere Lab., Ambteside, Cumbria LA22 0LP, UK. (msg) 83:1398 Degens, E.T. and Stephan Kempe, 1982. Riverine carbon: an outlook. Mitt. geol.-paliiont. Inst. Univ~ Hamb, 52:757-765.

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Results of the 1981 S C O P E / U N E P River Project field exercise are assessed. Starting from a 'simple' model--the Black Sea catch basin where ~ 2 % of all land eroded will eventually come to rest--a scenario is outlined for river monitoring to estimate the total flux of dissolved and particulate matter from land to sea. Continuation of the project is discussed. Geol.Palaontol. Inst. und Mus. der Univ. Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-2000, Hamburg 13, FRG. 83:1399 Hart, B.T., 1982. Uptake of trace metals by sediments and suspended particulates: a review. Hydrobi-

ologia, 91/92:299-313. This review includes a discussion of 3 mechanisms by which trace metals are enriched in freshwater sediments: adsorption from the water column, biological uptake, and sedimentation (and physical entrapment) of enriched particulates. The role of natural organic matter in the cycling of trace metals is emphasized as metal-organic interactions may be of primary importance. Water Studies Centre, Caulfield Inst. of Tech., Caulfield East, Australia. (bwt) 83:1400 Jouanneau, J.M. and C. Latouche, 1982. Estimation of fluxes to the ocean from mega-tidal estuaries under moderate climates and the problems they present. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:23-29. Fluxes of particulate material and metals through the Gironde Estuary (SW France) were measured for 3 consecutive years. It is concluded that the estuary regulates these fluxes but that they vary greatly from year to year; further, the estuary may function as a source or sink. Better evaluation (semi-quantitative) of flux is made with a mathematical equation than with direct measurements at the estuary's mouth, Inst. de Geol. du Bassin d'Aquitaine, Univ. de Bordeaux l, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence, France. (bwt)

83:1401 Luther, G.W. III, A.L. Meyerson, Karen Rogers and Frank Hall, 1982. Tidal and seasonal variations of sulfate ion in a New Jersey marsh system. Estuaries, 5(3): 189-196. Sulfate-chlorinity relationships (determined in light of fluctuations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH) were seasonal and affected by temperature and rainfall effects on biologic productivity. Both reduction of sulfate to sulfide and oxidation of sulfide to sulfate were found, suggesting that metals precipitated as sulfides may be mobilized and redistributed

189

in the highly-polluted marsh system. Dept. of Chem.-Phys., Kean College, Union, N.J. 07083, USA. 83:1402 Malta, Yoshiaki, Shigeru Montanai and Shigeru Fukase, 1982. Role of humic substances in amino acid distribution in marine sediments. Bull. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ., 33(2):94-105. (In Japanese, English abstract.) Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from Okhotsk Sea sediment samples; elemental composition, amino acid, and infrared analyses were made. Results indicate that the fulvic acid fraction may serve as a reservoir of amino acids in deeper marine sediments. Inst. of N. Pacific Fish., Hokkaido Univ., Japan. (bwt) 83:1403 Musgrave, D.L. and W.S. Reeburgh, 1982. Densitydriven interstitial water motion in sediments. Nature, Lond., 299(5881):331-334. Several studies suggest that density-driven convection can alter sediment depth distribution and increase fluxes of dissolved substances when density decreases below the sediment surface. Temperaturetime series of a freshwater lake undergoing autumn cooling are the first in-situ observations of heat transport due to motion of interstitial waters over periods ~ 1 hour. Density, calculated from temperature, decreases with depth at the time and place that this motion occurs. Inst. of Mar. Sci., Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701, USA. 83:1404 Rice, D.L., 1982. The detritus nitrogen problem: new observations and perspectives from organic geochemistry. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Set., 9(2):!53-162. All estuarine macrophyte detritus decreased in total protein content after 150 d of aging; nevertheless, some detritus showed an increase in N content. Much of this excess appears in the form of non-labile humic N - - t h e condensation products of amino acids reacting with detrital phenolic and carbohydrate groups. Dept. of Geol. Sci. and Environ. Studies, SUNY, Binghamton, NY 13901, USA. (mjj)

83:1405 Richey, J.E., 1982. The Amazon River system: a biogeochemical model. Mitt. geol.-paldont. Inst. Univ. Hamb., 52:365-378. College of Ocean and Fish. Sci., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA.

190

C. ChemicalOceanography

OLR i 198~i 3013)

83:1406 Sansone, F.J. and C.S. Martens, 1982. Volatile fatty acid cycling in organic-rich marine sediments. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 46(9): 1575-1589.

from summer to winter as oxidation increased. Jorgensen: Inst. of Ecol. and Genetics, Univ. of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus (? Denmark.

Acetate and propionate turnover rates were strongly influenced by temperature and the availability of inorganic electron receptors. Summertime high acetate and propionate concentrations appeared to

83:1410 Wefer, Gerold et al., 1982. Fluxes of biogenic

result from high productivity rather than low consumption. Results suggest 'that methanogenesis is not important in sulfate-rich anoxic environments.' Dept. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA. (msg) 83:1407 Skjoldal, H.R., 1982. Vertical and small-scale horizontal distribution of chlorophyll a and ATP in subtropical beach sand. Sarsia, 67(2):79-83. Inst. of Mar. Res., P.O. Box 1870, N-5011, BergenNordnes, Norway.

components from sediment trap deployment in circumpolar waters of the Drake Passage. Naiure, Lond., 299(5878):145-147. Data on vertical ma.,,s fluxes from the Southern Ocean and evidence for strong biogeochemicai fractionation between organic C-. N- and P-containing compounds, siliceous and calcareous skeletal remains, and refractory aluminosilicates are presented. Geol. Inst.. Olshausenstrasse 40-60. 2300 Kiel, FRG.

C210. Pollution (see 83:1408 Smith, C.J., R.D. DeLaune and W.H. Patrick Jr., 1982. Nitrate reduction in Spartina aiternfflora marsh soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46(4):748-750. JSN-labeled NO 3 was added in single applications to the floodwaters or administered in repeated small injections below the sediment-water interface. Fourteen percent of the ~SN was recovered in the single application experiments (4% as NHa+-N, t0% as organic N). Results suggest dissimilatory reduction with NH4 ÷ production preceding organic N production. Repeated applications, which more closely approximate natural conditions, resulted in the recovery of 52% of the ~SN in the NH4+-N and organic N pool. Center for Wetland Res., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La. 70803, USA. (msg) 83:1409 Troelsen, Henning and B.B. Jorgensen, 1982. Seasonai dynamics of elemental sulfur in two coastal sediments. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci,, 15(3):255266. A spectrophotometric method for SO analysis was adapted for use in reducing sediments. SO distribution in coastal sediments was compared to factors regulating the SO accumulation (e.g., redox potentials, rate of bacterial sulfide production). Dense coatings of sulfur bacteria developed on the surface of a sulfuretum which had an SOconcentration up to 41 tzmol S/cm3; the 2.5-ram thick coating contained 400 of all SOin the sediment. A more typical marine sediment with a thin oxidized surface layer had a maximum of 1-3 #mol S/cm 3 at 2~t-cm depth, The SO maximum in sediment surface layers increased

also B 3 5 0 - A t m o s p h e r i c pollution, Cll0-Radioactivity, radi~ist~topes, E 3 0 0 - E f f e c t s of p o l l u t i o n , F 2 5 0

W a s t e disposal) 83:1411 Ballester, A., J. Miller and M. Dunyach, 1980. Some pollutants present in marine sediments, animals and plants in the coastal waters of Catalonia, Spain. Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4):275-288 Inst. Invest. Pesqueras, Barcelona, Spain.

83:1412 Edwards, P.R., lan Campbell and G.S. Milne, t982~ The impact of ehloromethanes on the environment. 2. Methyl chloride and methylene chloride. Chem. Ind., 1982(17):619-622. Environ. Dept. ICI Mond Div., P.O. Box 8, The Heath. Runcorn, Cheshire WA7 4QD. U K 83:1413 Franklin, M.L. and J.W. Morse, 1982. The interaction of copper with the surface of calcite. Ocean Sci. Engng, 7(2): 147-174. Investigations carried out in a range of solutions from seawater to pure water establish the occurrence of a rapid ( < 15 min.) and nearly complete adsorption of copper ions onto calcite; 'two different uptake processes are proposed.' Results have implications for the removal of toxic metals contaminating aquatic environments. Dept. of Oceanogr, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Tex., 77843, USA. (dlf)

OLR t1983) 30 (3)

C. Chemical Oceanography

83:1414 Gassmann, G., 1982. Detection of aliphatic hydrocarbons derived by recent 'bio-conversion' from fossil fuel oil in North Sea waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 13(9):309-315. The chromatographically-detected homologous series of iso- and anteiso-alkanes are distinct from recent biogenic and fossil petrogenic hydrocarbons. Oil pollution records of the marine environment should take into account this group of microbial hydrocarbons. Biol. Anstalt Helgoland, Meeresstation D-2192 Helgoland, FRG. 83:1415 Golik, Abraham, 1982. The distribution and behaviour of tar balls along the Israeli coast. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 15(3):267-276. Israel Natl. Oceanogr. Inst., P.O. Box 8030, Haifa, Israel. 83:1416 Gu, Tangxiu, Tianfo Zhang, Zhaobin Hu and Ruxin Guo, 1981. Source identification of crude oil pollution in the southern Yellow Sea. Stud. mar. sin., 18:73-85. (In Chinese, English abstract.) Inst. of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, People's Republic of China. 83:1417 Haines, J.R. and R.M. Atlas, 1982. In-situ microbial degradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil in Beaufort Sea sediments. Mar. environ. Res., 7(2):91-102. Microbial degradation, governed by low temperatures, low nutrient and oxygen concentrations, limited interstitial circulation and other factors, was found to be very slow; abiotic weathering was equally slow. Results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons contaminating Arctic sediments will persist relatively unaltered for at least several years, USEPA, EMSL, 26 W. St. Clair, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, USA. (bwt) 83:1418 Khalaf, F., P. Literathy and V. Anderlini, 1982. Vanadium as a tracer of oil pollution in the sediments of Kuwait. Hydrobiologia, 91/92:147154. Kuwait Inst. for Sci. Res., P.O. Box 24885, Safat, Kuwait. 83:1419 Langston, W.J., 1982. The distribution of mercury in British estuarine sediments and its availability to deposit-feeding bivalves. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 62(3):667-684. Availability of Hg to Macoma balthica and Scrobicularia plana cannot be predicted easily from

191

sediment concentrations alone but can be when tissue concentrations are compared to Hg:total organic material ratios. Environmental factors may modify bioavailability (e.g., Hg may be bound nearly irreversibly to -SH groups). Factors governing the transport, distribution and accumulation of Hg in British estuaries are evaluated. Mar. Biol. Assoc., Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK. (bwt) 83:1420 Paasivirta, Jaakko, Helena K~t~ri~iinen, Mirja Lahtiper~, Jukka Pellinen and Seija Sinkkonen, 1982. Oil residues in Baltic sediment, mussel and fish. II. Study of the Finnish Archipelago 1979-81. Chemosphere, 11(8):811-821. The Antonio Gramsky spilled ~5500 tons of crude oil off the coast of Latvia in February t979. There was almost no evidence of contamination 1 yr later. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Jyvaskyla, Kyllikinkatu 1-4, SF-40100 Jyvaskyla 10, Finland. (ihz)

83:1421 Pettine, M., T. La Noce, G. Macchi and F.J. Millero, 1982. Baseline. Heavy metals in the Tiber River Basin. Mar, Pollut. Bull., 13(9):327-329. Water Res. Inst., Natl. Res. Council, Via Reno n. 1, 00198 Rome, Italy. 83:1422 Samuels, W.B., N.E. Huang and D.E. Amstutz, 1982. An oiispill trajectory analysis model with a variable wind deflection angle. Ocean Engng, 9(4):347-360. The oilspill trajectory movement algorithm consists of a vector sum of the surface drift component due to wind and the surface current component. Field and laboratory data suggest that the deflection angle of the surface drift current can be highly variable. An empirical formula, based on field observations and theoretical arguments relating wind speed to deflection angle, was used to calculate a new deflection angle at each time step in the model. Comparisons of oilspill coastal contact probabilities calculated for constant and variable deflection angles showed that the model is insensitive to this changing angle at low wind speeds; at high wind speeds, some statistically significant differences in contact probabilities did appear. USGS, Reston, Va. 22092, USA. 83:1423 Seidel, S.L., V.F. Hodge and E.D. Goldberg, 1980. Tin as an environmental pollutant. Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4):209-223.

192

( . Chemical O c e a n o g r a p h y

Tin concentrations in a range of recently deposited terrestrial and marine sediments are higher by 10-fold than in those deposited in pre-industrial revolution periods. The rate of increase appears to be slightly greater than that for lead. In sediments underlying extensive shipping and boating areas, butyl tins are found. Extractable organo-tin compounds from algae include tetramethyltin and dimethyltin which may be the precursors of organotins in coastal seawaters. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr.. La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. K~:1424 Yanabe, Shinsuke, Masahide Kawano and Ryo Tatsukawa, 1982. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Antarctic, western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. Trans. Tokyo Univ. Fish., 5:97-109. Results are discussed in the context of Long-range transport and changing world trends in pesticide consumption (i.e. from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere). Primary use of HCH remains in the north (especially Asia) while DDT consumption has shifted to tropical and southern subtropical areas. PCB fractionation was evident, with higher-chlorinated biphenyls in coastal waters and lowerchlorinated biphenyls in open ocean samples. Dept. of Environ. Conserv., Ehime Univ.. Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790, Japan. (bwt) 83:!425 Tang, 1.N., W.T. Wong, H.R. Munkelwitz and M.F. Flessner, 1982. Laboratory study of sulfuric acid spill characteristics pertaining to maritime accidents. Environ. Sci. Technol., 16(9):587-593. Several acid-spill scenarios, involving the abrupt release of tons of acid or oleums into water, are described based on observations and laboratory experiments. In one case, the convective mixing of spilled concentrated acid with water is 'governed by a buoyancy force arising from changing acid concentration and released heat of dilution.' In the case of surface-spilled oleums, quantities of acid aerosols form dense clouds and could be a hazard to on-scene personnel and to the general public. Dept. of Energy and Environ., Brookhaven Natl, Lab., Upton, NY 11973, USA. (bwt)

C240. Corrosion 83:1426 Curren, W.J., 1982. Instrument corrosion: it's everybody's business. Instrumn Technol., 29(9): 109112. Foxboro Co., Foxboro, Mass., USA.

C280. Books, collections

~)r g i i~4~ 30i ,

(general)

83:1427 Branica, M. (chairman), 1976/78. The chemistry of the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Rovinj, May i0-14, 1976. ThalassiaJugosl., 14(1,,'2): 1-260:13 papers + 8 abstracts. (English with 1 French ,3aper.! l'he main symposium topic was the influe~cc of pollutants on the marine environment. Rep~esentative papers addressed Baltic Sea physical chem~ istry, the global CO 2 problem, trace metal levels and speciation, biological pollution monitors..~urface film effects on air-water exchanges, redox kmeucs_ Pu and Am in Mediterranean surface ~atcrs, biological effects of low-level detergent polh~tion. and pesticides in Indonesian waters. Processes at the solid, liquid and gas interfaces: redox reactiot~,s and equilibria; physico-chemistry of microconstituent,,; and modelling were emphasized. (sir)

83:1428 Branica, M. (chairman), 1980. Chemistry of the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium, Rovinj, May 5-10, t980. Thalassia Jugosl., 16(2/4):95-434:26 paptr~ + 13 abstracts. Fhe symposium's main theme concerned the bio~ logical availability to bivalves of heavy metals (Fe. Mn, A1, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Sn, U), including heavy metal speciation and geochemical reactivity. metal uptake and accumulation by bivalves, ~se of bivalves as indicator organisms, and food ~hain ~ransfer of metals. (mjj)

83:1429 Fukai, R. et al., 1976/77. [Chemical oceanography and marine radioactivity.] Papers presented at the 25th Congress of CIESM, Split, October 25-30 1976. Thalassia Jugosl., 13(1/2):1-209:23 papers, (English with 1 French paper.) Distributions of nutrients, trace metals, phenols, PCB's, D F A A , and isotopes of Th, U and Pu were examined for several Mediterranean locations. The Adriatic ecosystem was modelled. Other papers covered Cd(lI)-chelate formation with E D T A radionuclide interactions with sodium alginate, water quality off Yugoslavia, etc. (ihz)

83:1430 Vukadin, I. et al., 1980/81. [Chemical oceanography.I Papers presented at the 27th Congress of

OLR (1983)30 (3)

193

CIESM, Cagliari, October 9-18, 1980. Thalassia Jugosl., 17(2):89-140; 8 papers. (English with some French.) Studies were conducted in the Mediterranean area (including Kastela Bay, Saronikos Gulf, Aegean and Ligurian seas); one paper concerns the Danube's bed-load chemistry. The influence of terrigenous

input on nutrient budgets, small-scale variations in nutrients and chlorophyll off Nice, nutrient distributions, conditions for heavy metal (Zn and Mn) sedimentation in lagoon environments, and a simulation of organic composition and accumulation at a lagoon sediment-water interface were the topics addressed. (slr)

D. SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS

D10. Apparatus and methods 83:1431 Lambeck, Kurt and Richard Coleman, 1982. Verification of bathymetric charts from satellite altimeter data in the region of the Cook Islands. N.Z. Jl Sci., 25(2):183-194. Based on radar altimetry observations of the southern Pacific Ocean, a regional geoid was computed, Height anomalies reflect many short-wavelength topographic features; satellite observations are ideal for rapid surveys of poorly charted oceans. Previously uncharted seamounts have been postulated between the Southern Cook and Tubuai (Austral) islands; a second group has been postulated south of Maria and Rimatara. Some other seamounts appear mislocated on available bathymetric charts. Res, Sch. of Earth Sci., Australian Natl. Univ., P.O. Box 4, Canberra 2600, Australia. 83:1432 May, R.W. and Brian Jones, 1982. Stochastic analysis of complex iithological successions. Mathl Geol., 14(5):405-417. Thurber Consultants Ltd., 10509-81st Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T6E 1X7, Canada. 83:1433 Roselle, Philippe, 1982. Quantitative mineralogical analysis of carbonate sediments by X-ray diIfraction: a new, automatic method for sediments with low carbonate content. Sedimentology, 29(4):595-600. Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Place Louis Pasteur, 3, B-1348 Louvain-laNeuve, Belgium, Netherlands.

83:1434 Shea, J.H., 1982. Twelve fallacies of uniformitarianism. Geology, geol. Soc. Am., 10(9):455-460. Three (of the twelve) fallacies of uniformitarianism: (1) the concept originated with Hutton; (2) it was named by Lyell; (3) it is unique to geology. Misconceptions about the term constrain geologists' ability to think, and open the science to unwarranted attack. Uniformitarianism in its correct (modern) sense is a style of theorizing rather than a mode of nature. It might read, look first to the commonplace and the simple, rather than to the unusual and the complex. A sound analysis of modern uniformitarianism is made by Nelson Goodman (1967); but because of semantic entropy, the terms 'uniformitarianism' and 'actualism' should probably be abandoned. Univ. of Wisconsin-Parkside, Box 2000, Kenosha, Wise. 53141, USA. (fcs)

D40. Area studies, surveys, bathymetry

83:1435 Cai, Aizhi, 1981. A preliminary study of the origin of the ehenier ridges of Bohai Gulf IChinai. Stud. mar. sin., 18:117-132. (In Chinese, English summary.) The two series of chenier ridges are relict coastlines dated at 2000 and 3100-3500 yrBP. The composition of and conditions leading to the formation of the ridges are described. Inst. of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, People's Republic of China. (msg)