Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography

OLR (1982)29 (3) 155 energy and enstrophy fluxes and spectra. Tellus, 33(4):411-414. C a n a d i a n Climate Centre, Downsview, Ontario M3H 5T4, Can...

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OLR (1982)29 (3)


energy and enstrophy fluxes and spectra. Tellus, 33(4):411-414. C a n a d i a n Climate Centre, Downsview, Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada. 82:1258 Segal, Mordecay and R.A. Pielke, 1981. Numerical

model simulation of human biometcorological heat load conditions; summer day case study for the Chesapeake Bay area. J. appl. Met., 20(7): 735-749. Dept. of Envir. Sci., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 22903, USA.


C10. Apparatus and methods

the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. J. geophys. Res., 86(C9): 8048-8066.

82:1259 Shepherd, R.J. and I.M. Davies, 1981. A semiautomatic alkaline peroxodisulphate method for the routine determination of total dissolved nitrogen in seawater. Analytiea chim. Acta, 130(1):55-63. Modifications necessary for the application of Nydahl's method to the routine analysis of seawater and environmental samples are described. Alkaline digestion and an improved buffering system permit rapid (50-80 samples/d) and accurate analysis of total dissolved N in, e.g., tanker ballast water, oil platform production waters and zooplankton, Davies: Dept. of Agric. and Fish. for Scotland, Mar. Lab., Victoria Rd., Aberdeen AB9 8DB, UK. (bwt)

Mechanisms controlling the distribution of Cu, Ni and Cd in surface waters are addressed. Their concentrations in a variety of geographic areas (open ocean, upwelling zones, coastal areas, shelf waters, etc.) are reported. Cu concentrations varied little ocean-wide, but were elevated in the Gulf of Panama and in shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream. Ni and Cd showed distinct regional differences in their element-nutrient correlations. It is suggested that 'residual trace metal concentrations in surface waters can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to P increases as productivity decreases.' Dept. of Earth and Plan. Sci., MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. (bwt)

82:1260 Sullivan, K.F., E.L. Atlas and Choo-Seng Giam, 1981. Loss of phthalic acid esters and polychlorinated biphenyls from seawater samples during storage. Analyt. Chem., 53(11):1718-1719.


From 2-50% of the organic solute lost from spiked solutions was found to be adsorbed on the glass container walls. Although this adsorption was reversible it required solvent rinsing to recover most of the solute--a factor which must be considered both when quantitative analyses of trace levels are required and when the analyst wishes to reuse sample containers. Giam: College of Sci., Univ. of Texas, E1 Paso, Tex. 79968, USA. (bwt)

C50. Seawater composition 82:1261 Boyle, E.A., S.S. Huested and S.P. Jones, 1981. On the distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in

Physical chemistry in


82:1262 Gramm-Osipov, L.M. and Yu.M. Shul'ga, 1980. Elements of manganese equilibrium in ocean water. Geoehem. int. (a translation of Geokhimiya), 17(4):134-140. The authors suggest, on the basis of electrochemical data, that the measured redox potential is a steadystate rather than an equilibrium value. Mn equilibrium is calculated from the redox potential; the predominant dissolved ion (Mn +~) is determined. When Mn +2 compound equilibrium concentrations in ocean water are calculated, the ocean is concluded to be Mn-supersaturated. Far East Sci. Center, Acad. of Sci. of the USSR, Vladivostok, USSR. (bwt)


C. Chemical Oceanograph3

OLR (1982) 29 (3)

CI10. Radioactivity, radioisotopes

C150. Particulate matter

82:1263 Belot, Yves and P. Guegueniat, 1981. [Radionuclides: behavior and transfer in sediments.] Oceanis, 7(3):287-308; 2 papers. (In French, English abstracts.)

82:1267 Bothner, M.H., C.M. Parmenter and J.D. Milliman, 1981. Temporal and spatial variations in suspended matter in continental shelf and slope waters off the northeastern United States. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 13(2):213-234.

C120. Dissolved gases 82:1264 Bopp, R.F., P.H. Santschi, Yuan-H. Li and B.L. Deck, 1981. Biodegradation and gas-exchange of gaseous alkanes in model estuadne ecosystems, Org. Geochem., 3(1/2):9-14. Experiments indicate that ease of degradation of normal alkanes increases with chain length; behavior of gaseous perhalogenated alkanes can be explained by gas exchange alone (no degradation). After 2-4 weeks, C 3 and C4 degradation rates increased by at least an order of magnitude. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observ., Palisades, NY 10964, USA. 82:1265 Herr, F.L., M.I. Scranton and W.R. Barger, 1981. Dissolved hydrogen in the Norwegian Sea: mesoscale surface variability and deep-water distribution. Deep-Sea Res., 28(9A):1001-1016. Extensive sampling along the Iceland-Faroe Ridge and in the Norwegian Sea revealed: (1) widespread undersaturation of the surface relative to the atmosphere, (2) no 'supersaturation patches,' (3) the possibility of a strong near-surface H 2 sink, (4) N2-fixers as the likely principal source of H 2 in warm surface waters, (5) H 2 concentrations of 6-7 n L / L on the ridge, 4 n L / L on the plateau, and (6) persistent H 2 undersaturation at all depths (ave. 4nL/L below 300 m). Environ. Sci. Div., Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC 20375, USA. (izs) 82:1266 Jones, E.P. and E.M. Levy, 1981. Oceanic CO z increase in Baffin Bay. J. mar. Res., 39(3):405416. Measurements of total inorganic C are interpreted to reflect increases in atmospheric CO 2 due to fossil fuel combustion. Increases are indicated by differences, at various depths, in the alkalinity and total inorganic C values after correction for dissolution and decay; differences are comparable to changes reported for GEOSECS Atlantic and Pacific stations. Bedford Inst. of Oceanog., P.O. Box 1 0 0 6 , Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada.

Suspended matter in Georges Bank waters was examined during each season and after major storms in both summer and winter. Seston in these waters originates primarily from biological production and resuspension of bottom sediments; suspended matter concentrations on the central shoals are more influenced by storms than by seasonality. Suggestions are made for further research. USGS, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (bwt) 82:1268 Fellows, D.A., D.M. Karl and G.A. Knauer, 1981. Large particle fluxes and the vertical transport of living carbon in the upper 1500 m of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 28(9A):921-936. A MULTITRAParray with collectors at 5 depths from 60-1550 m was deployed off Point Sur, California, to examine the distribution, production and flux of living and non-living particulate C. The observed transport of viable microbial assemblages to depth by rapidly sinking large particles may have important implications for concepts of open ocean C cycling. Moss Landing Mar. Lab., Moss Landing, Calif. 95039, USA. (izs) 82:1269 Krause, M., 1981. Vertical distribution of faecal pellets during FLEX '76. Helgoli~nder Meeresunters., 34(3):313-327. In a quantitative study of the planktonic spring bloom, a clearly defined faecal pellet maximum was observed above the main thermocline; the primary producer of these pellets was Calanus fi'nmarchicus. While the faecal pellet maximum could be disturbed (lowered) by storms, in general the layer did not migrate verticallywiththecopepod. Univ. Hamburg, Sonderforsch, 94-Meeresf. Bundesstrasse 55, D-2000 Hamburg 13, FRG. (bwt) 82:1270 Silver, M.W. and A.L. Alldredge, 1981. Bathypelagic marine snow: deep-sea algal and detrital eommunity. J. mar. Res., 39(3):501-530. Marine snow (fragile macroscopic aggregates), observed and collected from the submersible Alvin in 2 southern California basins, was present throughout the water column with layers of high concentration.

OLR (1982) 29 (3)

C. Chemical Oceanography

Examination of the aggregates revealed a complex and highly concentrated detrital community that may act as an agent to transport surface-derived materials to depth at sinking rates of 50-100 m/day. Includes marine snow micrographs. Center for Coastal Mar. Studies, Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz, Calif. 95064, USA. (mwf)

C180. Geochemistry, biogeochemistry (see also D-SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS)



Lupton, J.E. and Harmon Craig, 1981. A major helium-3 source at 15°S on the East Pacific Rise. Science, 214(4516): 13-18. An extensive, asymmetric plume of mantle helium indicated deep circulation across the EPR from east to west, a pattern 'not predictable from classic geostrophic models developed for flat ocean basins'; the plumes' strength and extent suggest that the largest hydrothermal fields are yet to be discovered near 15°S on the EPR. West of the ridge, a density discontinuity termed the 'ridge-crest front' was newly observed. Mar. Sci. Inst., Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106, USA. (mwf)


Bloch, Salman, 1981. Antipathetic magnesinm-manganese relationship in basal metalliferous sediments. Chem. Geol., 33(1/2):101-113. A strong inverse relationship between Mn and Mg is identified in the metalliferous end-member of eastern equatorial Pacific DSDP sediments. Almost all the Mn occurs in an oxide phase; Mg, in sepiolite. Hydraulic fractionation may further separate Mg and Mn phases. Oklahoma Geol. Surv., Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 73019, USA. (izs) 82:1272 Ivanov, M.V., A.Yu. Lein, S.S. Belyayev, A.I. Nesterov, V.A. Bondar and N.N. Zhabina, 1980. Geochemical activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bottom sediments of the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean. Geochem. int. (a translation of Geokhimiya), 17(4):150-160. These sediments are low in Corg (<1%), high in biogenic carbonate, and low in reduced S. Between 0.11 and 288/tg of S are reduced per kg (wet) mud per day, at a rate directly proportional to the J2C content of carbonate. S isotopic composition was determined. Pushchino Inst. of Oceanology, Acad. of Sci., Moscow, USSR. (mjj) 82:1273 Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile, 1981. Humic compounds at the ocean-sediment interface. Oceanis, 7(3):

309-325. (In French, English summary.) Structure and formation of humic products found at the sediment-water interface are discussed. A miscellaneous group of polycondensates resulting from stabilization reactions of biomolecules, the humics and fulvics is described; the importance of such factors as source organics, environmental conditions and oxygen in their production is considered. CNRS Centre de Pedologie biol., B.P. 5-54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France. (bwt)

82:1275 Mayer, L.M., S.A. Macko, W.H. Mook and Susan Murray, 1981. The distribution of bromine in coastal sediments and its use as a source indicator for organic matter. Org. Geochem., 3(1/2):37-42. Br to organic C ratios are constant throughout the Gulf of Maine but vary in the estuaries according to the original Br content of the 'various primary productivity sources of sedimentary organic matter.' Some Br enrichment seems to occur during decay of plant material, precluding quantitative use of the ratio; it has value in distinguishing terrigenous from marine sedimentary origin, however. Dept. of Oceanog., Univ. of Maine, Walpole, Maine 04573, USA. (bwt) 82:1276

Piotrowicz, S.R., C.A. Hogan, R.A. Shore and A.A.P. Pszenny, 1981. Variability in the distribution of weak acid leachable Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments of the Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine region. Environ. Sci. Technol., 15(9):1067-1072. Surface sediment samples were analyzed to obtain information on population variance for each of the weak acid leachable metals. Data from 40 of the 42 sampling sites were normally distributed and could be used to calculate an unbiased estimate permitting detection of future changes in metal distributions over this heterogeneous area. NOAA, 4301 Rickenhacker Causeway, Miami, Fla. 33149, USA. (hbf)

82:1277 Suzuki, Yoshimi, Yasuo Miyake, Katsuko Sarnhashi and Yukio Sugimura, 1981. A cycle of selenium in the ocean. Pap. Met. Geophys., Tokyo, 31 (3/4): 185- 189. A box model divides the ocean into 2 layers (0-1000 m, 1000-5000 m depth); describes the cycling of


('. ('heroical Oceanograph3

dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic Se forms; and gives results in good agreement with observations. Meteorological Res. Inst., Tsukuba, Japan. (izs)

C210. Pollution (see also E300-Effects of pollution, and F 2 5 0 - W a s t e disposal)

82:1278 Barbeau, C., R. Bougie and J.-E. C6t~, 1981. [Spatial and temporal variations of Cs-137 and C in Saguenay Fjord sediments.] Can. J. Earth Sci., 18(6):1004-1011. (In French, English abstract.) Sediment accumulation rate varies between > 1.0 cm/year upstream and 0.2 cm/year downstream. Cs profiles in cores from the northern basin follow that of ground fallout and reflect a major mudslide; Cs accumulation in the larger basin seems less sensitive to external influences. Carbon content and the C/N ratio are higher upstream than downstream; carbon contents in cores reflect changes caused by the forest industry. Dept. de chimie, Univ. Laval, Quebec G I K 7P4, Canada.

82:1279 Barbeau, C., R. Bougie and J.-E. COt6, 1 9 8 1 . Temporal and spatial variations of mercury, lead, zinc, and copper in sediments of the Saguenay Fjord. Can. J. Earth Sci., 18(6):1065-1074. Trace metals in dated cores are related to industrial and geological activities. Various stages in the operation and closing of a chlor-alkali plant can be traced in the sedimentary record and the effect of a 1971 landslide is clearly shown. Lead, increasing steadily since 1940, constitutes the major anthropogenic material in recent surficial sediments. Dept. de chimie, Univ. Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. (bwt) 82:1280 Myers, Alan, 1981. Estuarine and marine coastal pollution in the Republic of Ireland. Viewpoint. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 12(8):260-264. The Republic of Ireland enjoys an 'almost pristine environment' and an early stage of industrial development--both advantageous for baseline environmental research. Increases in population and

O L R t 1982) 29 (3)

industrialization make long-term planning imperative, but no overall plan for a national baseline study has emerged. Univ. College, Cork, Ireland. (smf)

82:1281 Paasivirta, Jaakko, Rainer Herzschuh, Mirja Lahtiperil, Jukka Pellinen and Seija Sinkkonen, 1981. Oil residues in Baltic sediment, mussels and fish. I. Development of the analysis methods. Chemosphere, 10(8):919,928. Northern Baltic environmental samples were examined for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons via high resolution glass capillary gas chromatography following separation by column or HPLC; quantification was accomplished with internal standards. Pollution-derived hydrocarbons were distinguished from those of natural origin. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Jyvaskyla, Finland. (bwt)

82:1282 Wiesenburg, D.A., Guy Bodennec and J.M. Brooks, 1981. Volatile liquid hydrocarbons around a production platform in the northwest Gulf of Mexico. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 27(2): 167-174. Gulf of Mexico oil platforms routinely discharge an estimated 675,000 barrels/day of production brine. As part of an in-progress oil production impact study, the discharge and subsequent dilution of volatile light hydrocarbons (C6-Ct4) in the Buccaneer field area are reported; some implications for impact assessment are noted. Dept. of Oceanog., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Tex. 77843, USA. (bwt)

C290. Miscellaneous 82:1283 Paul Pandian, A. and V.K. Venugopalan, 1975. Studies on foam. J. mar, biol. Ass. India, 17(2): 175-180. Foam in the Vellar Estuary [east India] contained a considerable amount of phytoplankton (chiefly Coscinodiscus and Trichodesmium spp.), and rich concentrations (100-fold more than those of seawater) of nitrate and phosphate anions and Fe, Cu and Mn cations. Mar. Biol. Station, Porto Novo, India. (smf)