Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography

OLR (1988)35 (7) 609 B450. Miscellaneous B440. Books, collections (general) 88:3794 88:3793 Handler, Paul and Bridget O'Neill, 1987. Simulta- Py...

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OLR (1988)35 (7)


B450. Miscellaneous

B440. Books, collections (general)

88:3794 88:3793

Handler, Paul and Bridget O'Neill, 1987. Simulta-

Pyle, J.A., L. Thomas and R. Wilson (eds.), 1987. Studies of the middle atmosphere. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (A)323(1575):519-705; 14 papers.

neity of response of Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclones and Indian monsoons. J. geophys. Res.,

This collection arose from a discussion meeting dedicated to the late Sir Harrie Massey. Among the topics covered are satellite and laser radar observations of middle atmosphere temperature, structure and composition; atmospheric and stratospheric chemistry, including recent ozone layer measurements over Antarctica; observations and modelling of middle atmosphere dynamics, transport, and photochemistry; influence of atmospheric waves on middle atmosphere general circulation; and rocket photometry and the lower-thermospheric oxygen nightglow. Nine of the papers include the discussions following their presentation. (sir)

A strong correspondence between local deviations in Indian monsoon precipitation and Atlantic cyclonic frequencies is established for the period between 1900 and 1986 using linear correlation and chisquared analyses. The authors favor the existence of low-latitude aerosols, mediated by aerosol-induced reduction in solar radiation, as a causal linkage between the two, producing as evidence further correlations between seasons in which reported aerosols were confined to low latitudes and above average monsoon precipitation and cyclonic frequencies. Phys. Dept., Univ. of Illinois, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA. (emm)

92(C13): 14,621-14,630.


C10. Apparatus and methods

88:3797 88:3795

Bender, Michael, William Martin, Jennifer Hess, Fred Sayles, Lary Ball and Claude Lambert, 1987. A whole-core squeezer for interracial pore-water sampling. Limnol. Oceanogr., 32(6): 1214-1225. Grad. School of Oceanogr., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

88:3796 Carlson, D.J., L.E. Morrill and J.E. Brophy, 1987.

Techniques of fluorescence depolarization for measuring seawater viscosities. Limnol. Oceanogr., 32(6): 1377-1381. This new technique, which determines viscosity by measuring the rotational freedom of fluorochromes added to seawater, is accurate in the presence of seawater particles and organics and requires only small volumes, making it useful for samples taken from locations or under conditions in which influences of viscosity on molecular-scale processes may be important. Coll. of Oceanogr., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

de Capitani, Christian and T.H. Brown, 1987. The

computation of chemical equilibrium in complex systems containing non-ideal solutions. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(10):2639-2652. A general algorithm for the computation of chemical equilibria in complex systems containing non-ideal solutions is G-minimization based on repeated linear and nonlinear programming steps. A computer program based on this algorithm was used to solve a great variety of problems, ranging from a simple blast furnace calculation to liquid-liquid unmixing in a four-component silicate melt. The method can also be used to test the consequences of thermodynamic models and data in systems of interest to many fields, including chemistry, geochemistry and metallurgy. Dept. of Geol. Sci., Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B4, Canada.

88:3798 H~tle, Miroslav, 1987. Determination of mercury by

differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry with various working electrodes. Application to


C. Chemical Oceanography

the analysis of natural water sediments. Talanta, 34(12):1001-1007. City of Prague Planning Board, Environ. Studio, Hradcanske nam. 8, 118 54 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. 88:3799 Horita, Juske, 1988. Hydrogen isotope analysis of natural waters using an H~-water equilibration method: a special implication to brines. Chem. Geol., 72(1):89-94. An H2-water equilibration method using a novel re-usable Pt catalyst has been developed for hydrogen isotope analysis of natural waters. The reproducibility is ±0.8 ppt, comparable with the conventional water reduction methods by U or Zn metal. Equilibration times of 1 and 2 hr. were sufficient for analysis of a freshwater and Dead Sea brine sample, respectively. This method gives hydrogen isotope activity ratios of natural brines, which have not been analyzed routinely before, and is applicable to the automated multisample analysis of hydrogen isotopes. Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 88:3800 Horita, Juske and J.R. Gat, 1988. Procedure for the hydrogen isotope analysis of water from concentrated brines. Chem. Geol., 72(1):85-88. A method was developed for the analysis of deuterium in brines containing alkaline-earth salts. The Ca:* and Mg -~+ ions in the salt solutions, which interfere in the conventional vacuum distillation method and hence in the deuterium analysis, were removed as insoluble carbonates before azeotropic distillation of the water. The accuracy and precision obtained in the determination of 8D in Ca (up to 7.5m) and Mg solutions (up to 4.7 m), as well as in simulated Dead Sea brines, compares well with the usual accuracy of analysis for these isotopes in fresh water. Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 88:3801 Levy, E.M., B. MacLean, D. Knox and G. Connolly, 1987. An in-situ sampler for the collection of gas and water-immiscible liquids emanating from the seafloor. Deep-Sea Res., 34(12A):2037-2042. A new device, designed to collect gases and buoyant liquids as they emanate from the seafloor, was used successfully in an area where natural seepage of petroleum is occurring. The sampler has the potential for application to a variety of oceanographic studies. Bedford Inst. of Oceanogr., Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada.

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88:3802 Lukashev, Yu.F., V.Yu. Maslov and M.P. Nesterova, 1986. Use of ion exchange resins to extract microelements from seawater. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiia), 26(6):765-769. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanol., Acad. of Sci., Moscow. USSR. 88:3803 Reimers, C.E., 1987. An in-situ microprofiling instrument for measuring interfacial pore water gradients: methods and oxygen profiles from the North Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 34(12A): 2019-2035. An in-situ microprofiling instrument, developed to study the composition of pore waters at the interface of deep-ocean sediments, lowers and operates microelectrodes. It has been deployed at four North Pacific sites spanning water depths of 1275-5790 m. Oxygen profiles with a vertical resolution of 1 mm, are reported. Benthic oxygen fluxes calculated from the in-situ gradients range from 0.04___0.02 to 0.14±0.04 ~mol cm 2 day ~. Microelectrode oxygen measurements in box-cored sediments never precisely duplicated in-situ distributions, especially near the sediment-water interface, where definition of the gradient is most critical to flux determinations. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. 88:3804 Roelandts, Iwan, 1988. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma and neutron activation analysis for precise and accurate determination of nine rare-earth elements in geological materials. Chem. Geol., 67(1-2):171-180. Dept. of Geol., Petrol. and Geochem., Univ. of Liege, B-4000 Sart Tilman, Liege l, Belgium.

88:3805 Shen, G.T. and E.A. Boyle, 1988. Determination of lead, cadmium and other trace metals in annually-banded corals. Chem. Geol., 67(1-2):47-62. Sample preparation and analytical methodology are described for determining lattice-bound trace-element concentrations in annually-banded scleractinian corals. Time-series studies were performed for Pb, Cd, Mn, Zn, and V in corals from a variety of locations. The procedure isolates the metals of interest from the coral calcium matrix to allow more precise analysis by graphite furnace AAS. Thus far, only Pb and Cd have demonstrated clear temporal variability associated with industrialization and/or natural perturbations in ocean circulation. LamontDoherty Geol. Observ., Palisades, NY 10964, USA.

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C. ChemicalOceanography

88:3806 Unesco (Carbon Dioxide Sub-panel of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards.), 1987. Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in seawater. UNESCO tech. Pap. mar. Sci., 51:55pp. Recommendations of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards are presented for pH scales in seawater. Particular emphasis is given to a new set of standards that can be used in seawater or seawater-like solutions. Best fit equations are suggested for the first and second dissociation constants of carbonic acid, and the dissociation constant of boric acid, as functions of temperature, salinity, and pressure; recommendations for the solubility products of calcite and aragonite in seawater as functions of temperature, salinity, and pressure are included. 88:3807 Zolotov, Yu.A., L.K. Shpigun, I.Ya. Kolotyrkina, E.A. Novikov and O.V. Bazanova, 1987. The trace determination of some heavy metals in waters by flow-injection spectrophotometry and potentiometry. Analytica chim. Acta, 200(1):2133. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochem. and Analyt. Chem., Acad. of Sci., Moscow 117975, USSR.

C40. Area studies, surveys 88:3808 Fr0hlich, K., J. Grabczak and K. Rozanski, 1988. Deuterium and oxygen-IS in the Baltic Sea. Chem. Geol., 72(1):77-83. Results of deuterium and ~O measurements of water samples in general confirm earlier findings with respect to vertical stratification of the heavy isotopes in the Baltic and their relation to salinity. The heavy-isotope content of the zero-salinity component was estimated to be -8.9 ppt for ~sO and -68.1 ppt for D, respectively. It appeared that the isotopic composition of this component is already slightly modified by evaporation and isotope exchange with atmospheric moisture. Phys. Dept., Mining Acad., Freiberg, DRG.

C50. Seawater composition 88:3809 Kremling, K. and D. Hydes, 1988. Summer distribution of dissolved AI, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn and Ni in surface waters around the British Isles. Continent. Shelf Res., 8(1):89-105. Inst. fur Meeresk., Dusternbrooker Weg 20, D-2300 Kiel, FRG.


C80. Physical chemistry in seawater 88:3810 Lucotte, Marc and Bruno d'Anglejan, 1988. Processes controlling phosphate adsorption by iron hydroxides in estuaries. Chem. Geol., 67(12):75-83. Phosphate adsorption by Fe hydroxides is studied in the laboratory on P-depleted and P-saturated seston and postglacial clays from the St. Lawrence Estuary. Adsorption equilibrium is quickly reached for the sediment and P-depleted samples when agitated with PO4-P enriched seawater. P adsorption on P-saturated particulate matter is reversible under low reducing conditions; pH does not seem to influence the reaction rate. The stirring experiments adequately reproduce the natural behavior of the particulate matter, but the kinetics of the readsorption reaction are much faster than in the estuary. GEOTOP, UQAM, C.P. 8888, suc. A, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada. 88:3811 Ogino, Takeshi, Toshio Suzuki and Kiyoshi Sawada, 1987. The formation and transformation mechanism of calcium carbonate in water. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(10):2757-2767. An initially amorphous CaCO~ precipitate from Ca 2+ and CO 9 supersaturated solutions transforms quickly within a few minutes into several crystalline forms: vaterite and calcite at 14-30°C, aragonite and calcite at 60-80°C, and all three in between. A gradual (200 min. at 25°C to 1300 min. at 80°C) transformation of the two metastable forms to the stable calcite is then observed. The authors propose a mechanism based upon dissolution of the metastable phase and growth of the calcite phase, with calcite growth being rate-limiting. Dept. of Chem., Niigata Univ., Niigata 950-21, Japan. (emm) 88:3812 Turner, D.R. and Michael Whitfield, 1987. An equilibrium Slmeiation model for copper in sea and estnarine waters at 25°C including complexation with glycine, EDTA and NTA. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(12):3231-3239. The model is based on the ion-pairing model of Dickson and Whitfield (1981), and the derivation has taken advantage of recent measurements on many of the interactions involved. The model is intended for use in the calibration of complexation capacity methods, and in the interpretation of bioassay measurements. Fitting functions for the apparent association constants of the organic acids as a function of salinity have been derived, and selected speciation calculations from the literature


C. Chemical Oceanography

have been reassessed. Mar. Biol. Assoc. of the U.K., Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK.

C100. Alkalinity, acidity, pH 88:3813 Dyrssen, David and Margareta Wedborg, 1987. The influence of fluoride and sulphate on buffers used for the determination of the pH and speciation of protolytes in seawater. Analytica chim. Acta, 200(1):261-268. Various aspects of the measurement of pH in seawater are described. The assumptions underlying the assignment of a pH to a buffer are discussed, as well as the links to the alkalinity titration and calculations of carbonate speciation. Although the correction for fluoride is small, the correction for sulphate can be significant. Wedborg: Dept. of Analytical and Mar. Chem., Univ. of Goteborg, S-412 96, Sweden.

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88:3816 Buesseler, K.O. and E.R. Sholkovitz, 1987. The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the North Atlantic: II. z4°pu/~-~gPu ratios and their significance. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(10):26232637. A systematic decrease in the sediment z4°pu/-~3~pu ratio is found with increasing water depth along a transect of cores between Woods Hole and Bermuda. A model is presented which can account for the range of 24°pu/239pu ratios found in this and similar studies. We propose that there have been at least two distinct sources of fallout Pu to this region. The major source is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a 24°pu/23°Pu ratio of 0.18 and a relatively long residence time in seawater. The second source is characterized by a much lower -~4°pu/239pu ratio, and relative to global fallout it must have been much more efficiently removed from the water column to deep-sea sediments. Surfacebased low yield testing at the Nevada Test Site is the only source of low ratio fallout Pu which could account for the timing, inventories, and refractory characteristics of this second component. WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

CII0. Radioactivity, radioisotopes 88:3814 Albertazzi, S., O.H. Merlin, L. Menegazzo Vitturi, E. Molinaroli and L. Tassi Pelati, 1987. Distribution and behaviour of 137Cs in nearshore sediments of the northern Adriatic and at the Adige River Estuary, northern Italy. Appl. Geochem., 2(4): 357-366. Inst. of Zool., Univ. of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. 88:3815 Buesseler, K.O. and E.R. Sholkovitz, 1987. The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the North Atlantic: I. A study in shelf, slope and deep-sea sediments. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(10): 2605-2622. Along a transect of seven cores collected between Woods Hole and Bermuda, the solid phase 239.24°pu, 2~°pbex and ~37Cs results do not suggest that any of these tracers are preferentially mobile within the cores. Pore water Pu activities appear to be controlled primarily by the distribution of Pu in the solid phase. There is a trend in the distribution coefficient along the transect, with values in the 104-105 range on the shelf and slope, to ~104 in the deep-sea cores; the exact mechanism for this shift has yet to be determined. Sediment mixing models are not significantly altered by the inclusion of Pu diffusion terms, since the pore water terms are so small relative to typical sediment mixing rates. WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

88:3817 Fukai, R., A. Yamato, M. Thein and H. Bilinski, 1987. Oxidation states of fallout plutonium in Mediterranean rain and seawater. Geochem. J., 21(2):51-57. Measurements of the oxidation states of fallout plutonium in rain water collected at Monaco indicate that plutonium exists predominantly in the higher oxidation states (Pu(V) and Pu(VI)). Results show that the percentage of the higher valency fraction of plutonium ranges from 38 to 89% of the total soluble plutonium in rain. The percentage tends to be lower when the storage time before chemical treatment becomes longer. A thermodynamical computation supports these findings. Internatl. Lab. of Mar. Radioactivity, IAEA Musee Oceanogr., Pricipality of Monaco. 88:3818 Kershaw, Peter and Alan Young, 1988. Scavenging of 234Th in the eastern Irish Sea. J. environ. Radioactivity, 6(!): 1-23. Ministry of Agric., Fish. and Food, Directorate of Fish. Res., Fish. Lab., Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. 88:3819 McKee, B.A., D.J. DeMaster and C.A. Nittrouer, 1987. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments. Geochim. cosmochirn. Acta, 51(10): 2779-2786.

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C. ChemicalOceanography

Data suggest that loss of particulate U from riverine sediments (and consequent input to shelf waters) is probably the result of desorption from ferricoxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles and/or release by mobilization of the ferric-oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved 23~U from the Amazon shelf is commensurate to the river's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238U underestimates, by a factor of ~ 5 , the flux of dissolved 238U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean. Louisiana Univ. Mar. Consortium, Chauvin, LA 70344, USA. 88:3820 Mitchell, N.T. and A.K. Steele, 1988. The marine impact of caesium-134 and -137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident. J. environ. Radioactivity, 6(2): 163-175. Ministry of Agric., Fish. and Food, Directorate of Fish. Res., Fish. Lab., Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. 88:3821 Mitchell, P.I., A. Vidal-Quadras, J.L. Font and M. Oliva, 1988. Gamma radioactivity in the Iberian marine environment closest to the NEA dumping site. J. environ. Radioactivity, 6(1):77-89. Lab. of Radiation Phys., Dept. of Experimental Phys., Univ. Coll., Dublin, Ireland. 88:3822 Muramatsu, Y., M. Sumiya and Y. Ohmomo, 1987. Iodine-131 and other radionuclides in environmental samples collected from Ibaraki, Japan after the Chernobyl accident. Sci. total Environment, 67(2-3): 149-158. Natl. Inst. of Radiol. Sci., Isozaki 3609, Nakaminato, Ibaraki 311-12, Japan. 88:3823 Santschi, P.H., Michael Amdurer, Dennis Adler, Patricia O'Hara, Y.-H. Li and Peter Doering, 1987. Relative mobility of radioactive trace elements across the sediment-water interface in the MERL model ecosystem of Narragansett Bay. J. mar. Res., 45(4):1007-1048. The dynamics of trace element cycling at the sediment-water interface were studied with radiotracers, and where possible, with stable elements as well (results were similar). Experiments included laboratory leaching/speciation, tracer backdiffusion under oxic and anoxic conditions (MERL tanks), and vertical sediment distribution profiles (compared with inert particles). Results show agreement between laboratory predictions and behavior in the model ecosystem for backdiffusion of Cs, Mn, Co, and Zn into oxic waters and Mn and Co into anoxic


waters, and for the movement, under anoxic conditions, of Cs, Zn, and Cd into sediments. EAWAG, Swiss Fed. Inst. of Tech., Ueberlandstr. 133, CH8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland. (gsb) 88:3824 Santschi, P.H., C. Bajo, M. Mantovani, D. Orciuolo, R.E. Cranston and J. Bruno, 1988. Uranium in pore waters from North Atlantic (GME and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain) sediments. Nature, Lond., 331(6152):155-157. The measurement of low uranium concentrations in composite pore-water samples from the uppermost 20-30 m of abyssal plain sediments from the Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plains Area is reported. Many values are between 0.1 and 0.5 ppb (parts per 109) which are the lowest uranium concentrations ever measured in the pore waters of deep-sea sediments. Our lowest value is orders of magnitude lower than the predicted solubility of UO 2 or U409, probably indicating solubility control of U(IV) by an adsorbed phase. The low mobility of uranium in pore waters from turbiditic deep-sea abyssal plain sediments, which can be deduced from these measurements, has important implications for the sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and for marine geochemistry of uranium. EAWAG, Swiss Fed. Inst. of Water Resour. and Water Pollution Control, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland.

C130. Organic compounds 88:3825 Chmura, G.L., P. Aharon, R.A. Socki and R. Abernethy, 1987. An inventory of ~3C abundances in coastal wetlands of Louisiana, USA: vegetation and sediments. Oecologia, 74(2):264-271. A mixing model using measurements of standing crop and 8J3C of plant carbon was applied to estimate the contribution of each species to sedimentary carbon at four marsh sites. Sedimentary 8J3C values generally reflected that of the dominant species at each site, but brackish and salt marsh samples showed a negative shift, interpreted as resulting from more extensive organic matter decomposition and selective preservation of t3Cdepleted refractory components at saline sites. Results suggest that 8~3C composition may be a valuable tool for distinguishing subtle changes in paleohydrology of wetlands resulting from relative sea level changes. Lab. for Wetland Soils and Sediments, Center for Wetland Resour., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.


Volkman, J.K., J.W. Farrington and R.B. 1987. Marine and terrigenous lipids sediments from the Peru Upwelling 15°S: sterols and triterpene alcohols. chem., 11(6):463-477.

C. Chemical Oceanography

88:3826 Gagosian, in coastal region at

Org. Geo-

Major free sterols in the surface sediments from the Peru coastal zone at 15°S include cholesterol, mainly derived from zooplankton, and two C28 sterols, derived from diatoms. Their concentrations decrease by almost an order of magnitude in the top 20 cm of sediment. Lipids from higher plants were also detected. The concentrations of most terrigenous lipids varied by less than a factor of three over the same depth, and these changes were not correlated with changes in total organic carbon. Below 3 cm lipids from higher plants predominated. It is postulated that there are significant marine sources of higher plant sterols in the sediments with a high proportion of many of the terrigenous lipids probably transported into the coastal zone by rivers and then redistributed by bottom currents. CSIRO Mar. Lab., Div. of Oceanogr., GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

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distribution of suspended matter in the coastal zone of the Mekong River. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiia), 26(6):725-729. Pacific Oceanol. Inst., Far Eastern Sci. Center, Acad. of Sci., Vladivostok, USSR. 88:3829 Atkinson, E.G. and J.W. Wacasey, 1987. Sedimentation in Arctic Canada: particulate organic carbon flux to a shallow marine benthic community in Frobisher Bay. Polar Biol., 8(1):3-7. The data on seasonal sedimentation in the bottom waters off southern Baffin Island, obtained using sediment traps designed by the authors, probably represent the first such information collected in Arctic waters. The results indicate that resuspended particulate carbon constitutes 25% of the sediment and that mean annual sediment flux is 26 g C m -' y ~. Peak sedimentation rates occur during August following the peak of primary production during the four-month open water season. Benthic conversion activity is estimated at 53%, and there is some evidence which would indicate that increased sedimentation stimulates reproduction in some benthic species. Arctic Biol. Station, Dept. of Fish. and Oceans, 555 St. Pierre Blvd., Ste Anne de Bellevue, PQ H9X 3R4, Canada. (hbf)

C140. Nutrients 88:3827 Sahlsten, E., 1987. Nitrogenous nutrition in the euphotic zone of the Central North Pacific Gyre. Mar. Biol., 96(3):433-439.

88:3830 Brady, J.F. and Georges Bossis, 1988. Stokesian dynamics. A. Rev. Fluid Mech., 20:111-157.

C150. Particulate matter

This article discusses a new, molecular-dynamicslike approach, which we have named 'Stokesian dynamics,' for dynamically simulating the behavior of suspended or dispersed particles. Particles in suspension may interact through both hydrodynamic and nonhydrodynamic forces, where the latter may be any type of Brownian, colloidal, interparticle, or external force. The simulation method is capable of predicting both static (i.e. configuration-specific) and dynamic micro-structural, as well as macroscopic, properties in either dilute or concentrated systems. Applications of Stokesian dynamics are widespread; problems of sedimentation, flocculation, diffusion, polymer rheology, and transport in porous media all fall within its domain. Stokesian dynamics is designed to provide the same theoretical and computational basis for multiphase, dispersed systems as does molecular dynamics for statistical theories of matter. Dept. of Chem. Engng, Calif. Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

88:3828 Anikiyev, V.V., O.V. Zaytsev, T.T. Hieu, 1.1. Savil'yeva, Ye.G. Starodubtsev and Ye.N. Shumilin, 1986. Variation in the space-time

88:3831 de Leeuw, G., 1987. Near-surface particle size distribution profiles over the North Sea. J. geophys. Res., 92(C13):14,631-14,635.

Uptake rates of ammonium, nitrate, and urea were measured using ~N-labelled substrates under simulated in-situ conditions. The average total daily N uptake rate, integrated over the euphoric zone, was 12.5 mmol N m 2 d ~. Ammonium accounted for 54% of the total N uptake (urea 32%; nitrate 14%). Organisms ~ 3 /tm dominated the nitrogen assimilation (~75% of the ammonium uptake). The uptake rates seem higher than those of earlier investigations in the area, but correlate well with other productivity measurements performed during the same cruise. Dept. of Mar. Microbiol., Univ. of Goteborg, Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22, S-41319 Goteborg, Sweden.

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C. ChemicalOceanography

Profiles of particle size distributions near the air-sea interface were measured as part of the Humidity Exchange Over the Sea pilot experiment in 1984. Minima and maxima in the concentration profiles were observed, in agreement with results obtained previously in the North Atlantic. Differences are ascribed to the improved vertical resolution in the present measurements, while the shorter wave period in the North Sea also has an influence. The results are qualitatively explained in terms of a wave-rotor model. Phys. and Electronics Lab., Netherlands Organization for Appl. Sci. Res., The Hague, Netherlands. 88:3832 Minster, J.-F. and Mostefa Boulahdid, 1987. Redfield ratios along isopycnal surfaces--a complementary study. Deep-Sea Res., 34(12A):19812003. The recent suggestion by Takahashi et a1.(1985) to change the Redfield ratios from P / N / - O 2 = 1/18/ 138 to 1/17/172 is critically examined. As a complementary analysis we process the GEOSECS and TTO data in the Atlantic and Indian oceans along four isopycnal horizons. The Redfield ratios are calculated in a two or three end-member mixing and consumption model via a direct non-linear least-squares technique. The N / - O 2 Redfield ratio appears constant and equal to 9.1_+ 0.4. For P/-O 2, we confirm the Takahashi et al. value for o0 = 27.0 and 27.2 ppt; at 27.4 ppt, we find a ratio of 1/141 and at 27.8 ppt, a value of 1/115. Results suggest that phosphorus is less easily remobilized, or more strongly recycled in shallow levels, than nitrogen. UM 39-CNES/GRGS, 18, Ave. Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France. 88:3833 Newton, P.P. and P.S. Liss, 1987. Positively charged suspended particles: studies in an iron-rich river and its estuary. Limnol. Oceanogr., 32(6): 12671276. Results are presented which indicate that oxidehydroxide coatings can control the mobility under conditions found in a river fed by acid-mine drainage, but that organic coatings, when present, assume overall mobility control. Electrophoretic measurements show positively charged river particles acquiring less positive and then negative charges in estuarine waters. In the river and at low salinities mobility is affected by the pH of the water. At higher salinities the oxide-hydroxide character is less evident, and particles assume the negative mobilities normally found in natural waters and attributed to organic surface coatings. School of Environ. Sci., Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.


C180. Geochemistry, biogeochemistry (see also D-SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS) 88:3834 Bishop, J.K.B. and M.Q. Fleisher, 1987. Particulate manganese dynamics in Gulf Stream warm-core rings and surrounding waters of the N.W. Atlantic. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(10):2807-2825. Manganese concentrations measured in size-fractionated particulate matter profiles ranged from 10 pmol/kg in warm-core ring 82B to 10,000 pmol/kg in a tongue of shelf water at its periphery, the majority appearing in the 1-53 /tm fraction. Major sources and sinks of Mn are described; calculations indicate that warm-core rings induce offshore particulate Mn transport, feeding Mn into the slope water and the Gulf Stream circulation, a process which may account for much of the Mn flux to continental slope and upper rise sediments. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observ., Palisades, NY 10964, USA. (emm) 88:3835 Danilenko, A.F. and A.I. Ryabinin, 1986. Sulfates in Black Sea waters. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiia), 26(6):710-716. Sevastopol Div., State Oceanogr. Inst., Sevastopol, USSR. 88:3836 Fallon, R.D., 1987. Sedimentary sulfides in the nearshore Georgia Bight. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 25(6):607-619. The two measured depth-integrated sulfur pools, F e S + H S and FeS2, tended to decrease with increasing distance from shore out to 33 km. Total iron and organic matter were strongly correlated and tended also to decrease with increasing distance. Sediment depth profiles suggest relatively constant rates of sulfate reduction over the top 40 cm of sediment. Regions of lower and higher spatial/temporal heterogeneity may be related to tidally-driven circulation patterns. No seasonal cycles were evident in sedimentary sulfides. E.I. Du Pont Co., Haskell Lab. for Toxicol. and Industrial Med., Elkton Rd., Newark, DE 19711, USA. 88:3837 Hanson, R.B. and C.Y. Robertson, 1988. Spring recycling rates of ammonium in turbid continental shelf waters off the southeastern United States. Continent. Shelf Res., 8(1):49-68. During the three-week study period, low-salinity water was not advected offshore as expected, but held against the coast by a weak onshore-southward


C. ChemicalOceanography

wind stress. Several analytical nitrogen models were examined to determine the appropriateness of each to describe the experimental data. The Laws 0985) nitrogen cycling model best described the data set. Results suggest that phytoplankton are not the sole consumer of regenerated NH4 +, the fate(s) of regenerated NH4 + remains unknown, and the spring phytoplankton off the southeastern U.S. may be N limited. Skidaway Inst. of Oceanogr., P.O. Box 13687, Savannah, G A 31416, USA.

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Measurements of benthic ammonium, nitrate, and oxygen fluxes and denitrification rates were made along a salinity gradient in Ochlockonee Bay, Florida. Over the year, denitrification comprised 69% of the benthic nitrogen flux, acting to a large extent on recycled N O 3 o r N O 2 from nitrification in the sediment. The role of denitrification as an important remover of inorganic nitrogen inputs to the Ochlockonee Estuary is described and discussed. Patrick Center for Environ. Res., Acad. of Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA. (emm)

88:3838 Naqvi, S.W.A., 1987. Some aspects of the oxygendeficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea. J. mar. Res., 45(4):1049-1072. Analysis of recent data from the Arabian Sea indicates dissolved 02 levels of about an order of magnitude less than previous estimates, a deep (700-1200 m) denitrifying layer in some areas in addition to the main denitrifying layer, and great short-term variability in denitrification. The rate of denitrification, estimated from nitrate deficit exports, exceeds earlier estimates by an order of magnitude or more. These results lead the author to suggest that accepted values for oceanic water column denitrification should be revised upward by 40-100%. Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr., Dona Paula, G O A 403 004, India. (gsb)

88:3839 Peterson, B.J. and R.W. Howarth, 1987. Sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen isotopes used to trace organic matter flow in the salt-marsh estuaries of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Limnol. Oceanogr., 32(6):1195-1213. Organic matter inputs from terrestrial sources as detrital input from forests adjacent to marshes or from rivers were not detectable by their isotopic signatures in estuarine consumers. Results suggest that there are two major sources of organic matter for fauna of the marshes and estuarine waters of Sapelo Island: Spartina and algae; both sources are important and their relative importance is determined by feeding mode, size, location, and trophic position of the marsh and estuarine consumers. Ecosystems Center, MBL, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

88:3840 Seitzinger, S.P., 1987. Nitrogen biogeochemistry in an unpolluted estuary: the importance of benthic denitrification, Mar. Eeol.-Prog. Ser., 41(2):177186.

88:3841 Shiller, A.M. and E.A. Boyle, 1987. Dissolved vanadium in rivers and estuaries. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 86(2-4):214-224. New measurements of dissolved vanadium indicate that the average concentration in major rivers entering the ocean is ~ 1 5 nmol/kg. Weathering rate and type of source rock appear to be the important factors in determining fluvial dissolved vanadium concentrations. Laboratory experiments suggest that in oxic waters vanadium is found predominantly in its most oxidized, anionic form. In estuaries, vanadium behaves as a bioactive element, showing close correspondence with phosphate distribution. The extent of estuarine vanadium removal may be low due to rapid remineralization. Based on the river flux, oceanic residence time for dissolved vanadium is estimated to be 100,000 years. Center for Mar. Studies, Univ. of Southern Mississippi, NSTL, MS 39529, USA.

88:3842 Shiller, A.M. and E.A. Boyle, 1987. Variability of dissolved trace metals in the Mississippi River. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 51(12):3273-3277. The concentrations of eight dissolved trace metals were measured at various flow stages during a two-year interval. Using trace metal sampling and analysis techniques demonstrated to be reliable, these metals are shown to occur at levels lower than frequently reported. There are systematic relations between the metals and discharge which can serve as predictors of metal variability. Anthropogenic contributions apparently do not affect the concentrations of most of these metals more than in less disturbed systems, with the possible exception of Ni and Cd. Center for Mar. Sci., NSTL, Univ. of Southern Mississippi, MS 39529, USA.

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C. Chemical Oceanography

C210. Pollution (see also B350-Atrnospheric pollution, C l l 0 - R a d i o a c t i v i t y , radioisotopes, E300-Effects of pollution, F250Waste disposal) 88:3843 Eder, Gerhard, Renate Sturm and Wolfgang Ernst, 1987. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in sediments of the EIbe River and the Elbe Estuary. Chemosphere, 16(10-12):2487-2496. Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Mar. Res., D-2850 Bremerhaven, FRG.

88:3844 Johnsen, Staale, 1987. Interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and natural aquatic humic substances. Contact time relationship. Sci. total Environment, 67(2-3):269-278.

Eight PAH compounds were dissolved in NAHS and recovered by cyclohexane extraction after storage times ranging from 4 to 70 days. Natural water containing low concentrations of humus was used for the blanks. In general, recoveries of all PAH, except for triphenylene, decreased with increasing contact time. Results suggest that strong bonds were formed between PAH and NAHS. Early in the experiment (4 and 7 days) recoveries of the different PAH decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient or decreasing water solubility of the compounds. For the longest stored samples (70 days), recovery of the PAH decreased with increasing compound reactivity. Center for Industrial Res., P.O. Box 350, 0314 Blindern, Oslo, Norway.

88:3845 Kaise, Toshikazu, Ken'ichi Hanaoka and Shoji Tagawa, 1987. The formation of trimethylarsine oxide from arsenobetaine by biodegradation with marine microorganisms. Chemosphere, 16(1012):2551-2558. Kanagawa Prefectural Public Health Lab., Nakao-cho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama 241, Japan.

88:3846 Murray, A.P., C.F. Gibbs and P.E. Kavanagh, 1987. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) in sediments of Port Phillip Bay (Australia). Mar. environ. Res., 23(1):65-76. Mar. Sci. Lab., Dept. of Conserv., Forests and Lands, P.O. Box 114, Queenscliff, 3225, Australia.


88:3847 Riedel, G.F., J.G. Sanders and R.W. Osman, 1987. The effect of biological and physical disturbances on the transport of arsenic from contaminated estuarine sediments. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 25(6):693-706. Acad. of Nat. Sci., Benedict Estuarine Res. Lab., Benedict, MD 20612, USA.

88:3848 Samanidou, V. and K. Fytianos, 1987. Partitioning of heavy metals into selective chemical fractions in sediments from rivers in northern Greece. Sci. total Environment, 67(2-3):279-285. Environ. Pollution Control Lab., Univ. of Thessaloniki, Greece.

C240. Corrosion 88:3849 Fischer, K.P., T. Sydberger and R. Lye, 1988. Field testing of deep water cathodic protection on the Norwegian continental shelf. Mater. Perform., 27(1):49-56.

In-situ field tests at depths down to 500 m, using automatic monitoring of cathodic protection (CP) and environmental data, were aimed at formulating effective design strategies for future installations. Together with analyses of polarization behavior and current density design in relation to environmental parameters, the tests reveal that high design current densities are required for fast and efficient cathodic polarization, and that they promote the formation of dense calcareous layers which insulate the system against sea-flow changes and reduce the overall current expense of CP maintenance. Norwegian Mar. Tech. Res. Inst. A/S, P.O. Box 173, N-3201, Sandefjord, Norway. (emm)

88:3850 Nisancioglu, K., P.O. Gartland, T. Dahl and E. Sander, 1987. Role of surface structure and flow rate on the polarization of cathodically protected steel in seawater. Corrosion, 43(12):710-718. Dept. of Chem., Norwegian Inst. of Tech., SINTEF, N-7034 Trondheim-NTH, Norway.