Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography

1010 OLR (1992)39 (12) 0.139 ppb (n-pentane), 0.039 ppb (iso-pentane), 0.006 ppb (neo-pentane), and 0.179 ppb (acetylene). All showed a slight tende...

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OLR (1992)39 (12)

0.139 ppb (n-pentane), 0.039 ppb (iso-pentane), 0.006 ppb (neo-pentane), and 0.179 ppb (acetylene). All showed a slight tendency to increase over the tropics. The sum of relative reactivities of these light hydrocarbons to methane was estimated to be about 26% of methane, which signifies that the effect of light hydrocarbons on atmospheric chemistry in the unpolluted troposphere can not be ignored. Natl, Inst. for Environ. Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan.

8380. Forecasting 92:6272 Bayler, Gail and Howard Lewit, 1992. The Navy Operational Global and Regional Atmospheric Prediction Systems at tbe Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center. Weather Forecasting, 7(2):273-279. At the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, two computer models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System, NOGAPS, and the Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System, NORAPS, generate a twice-daily suite of atmospheric analyses and forecasts . NOGAPS is the driving force behind many of the center's products and has become a complex, highly structured system designed to run automatically. The execution of NOGAPS and NORAPS within the operational schedule is described. The systems consist of automated data processing and quality control, a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis, initialization and forecast, and ou tput. Lewit: Models Dept., FNOC, Monterey, CA 93943-5005, USA. 92:6273 Guard, C.P. et al. , 1992. Joint Typhoon Warning Center and the challenges of multibasin tropical cyclone forecasting. Weather Forecasting, 7(2):328-352.

The JTWC in Guam is the busiest tropical cyclone warning center in the world. Its areas of responsibility encompasses four broad oceanic areas of

tropical cyclone activity stretching from the international date line to the east coast of Africa, in both hemispheres. Our paper discusses the challenges imposed on the center as a result of its vast multi basin area of responsibility, the products the center produces, its warning philosophy, observational networks, analysis and forecast schemes, and the military aspects of the operation. The challenges of information and time management, an alysis and forecast improvement, expansion of meteorological understanding, and enhancement of the warning process are discussed. Current methods used to meet these challenges are presented. Naval Oceanogr. Command Center, JTWC, COMNAVMAR, PSC489, Box 17, FPO AP 96540-0051, USA. 92:6274 Puri, K. et aI., 1992.The (Australian) BMRC tropical limited area model. Aust, met. Mag., 40(2):81104. Bur. of Meteorol. Res. Ctr., GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia. 92:6275 Yamazaki , Koji, 1991. Further study 01 the impact 01 sea surface temperature anomaly on dynamical long-range forecast in the early summer. Pap. Met . Geophys., Tokyo, 41(4):129-138.

The impact of SST anomalies on the dynamical long-range forecast of monthly mean fields in the early summer of 1983 is examined again. Shortcomings in the previous results (TYC 87) are eliminated by including SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean , using a modified Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization and using the 15-layer model. In the tropics, anomaly correlation coefficients are high both in the first and the second month in the present study, while they are low in the second month in TYC 87. The model simulates the intraseasonal variation in the tropics. The forecast skill in midlatitudes for the second month is higher than that of TYC 87 both in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Meteorol. Res. Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 304 Japan.

C. CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY CIO. Apparatus and methods 92:6276 Cresser, M.S. et aI., 1992. Atomic spectrometry update-environmental analysis. J . analyt , atomic Spectrometry, 7(1): IR-57R.

This volume is one of a series of annual reviews on applications of analytical atomic spectrometry. In general , the emphasis is on the new and novel , rather than the more routine types of applications. The review is divided into four sections treating spectrometric analysis of air, water, soils and plants and

OLR (1992) 39 (12)

C. Chemical Oceanography

related materials, and geological material; each section includes a discussion of sample preparation, an update of recent developments and instrumentation, and a summary of analyses. It is noted that sample preparation of environmental materials remains the most time consuming aspect of analysis. Selection of the 'best' available technique must consider the elements to be determined, detection limits, concentration ranges, required precision , and available hardware, software, and manpower. Dept. of Plant and Soil Sci., Aberdeen Univ., Meston Bldg., Old Aberdeen AB9 2UE, UK (hbf) 92:6277

Shabani, M.B., Tasuku Akagi and Akimasa Masuda, 1992. Preconcentratlon of trace rare-earth elements in seawater by complexation with bis(2etbylhexyl) bydrogen phosphate and 2-ethylhexyl dihydrogen phosphate adsorbed on a CIS cartridge and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analyt, Chem; 64(7):737-743. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113, Japan. 92:6278

Volkov, 1.1. and N.N. Zhabina, 1990. Detennination of thiosulfate and sulfite in seawater. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiiay; 30(4):427480. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanol., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, USSR.

C50. Seawater composition 92:6279

Wei , C .-L., S.-J. Sun and c-s. Huang, 1991. Manganese distribution in the water colwnn off northeast Taiwan-a preliminary investigation. Acta oceanogr. taiwan; 26:85-93 . (In Chinese, English abstract.)


Dept. of Geochem., Univ. of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands. 92:6282

Oh, J.R ., 1991. Chemical speciation of dissolved nickel in Chinbae Bay. Ocean Res; KORDI, 13(2):11-18. Chern. Oceanogr. Lab., KORDI, Ansan P.O. Box 29, Seoul 425-600, Korea.

C90. Salinity, chlorinity, conductivity 92:6283

Newell, R.E. et al., 1992. Global salinity patterns from the MOODS [Master Oceanographic Data Set], Ocean-air Interactions, 1(4):311-343. Global salinity patterns are examined using tbe 3.6 million measurements of MOODS. The major patterns found in this study confirm those established by earlier surveys. In some areas surface salinity shows annual variations dominated by river runoff or the Zehrung field (evaporation minus precipitation). In particular, salty water of the subtropical gyres extends down to 400 m in the North Atlantic. The Mediterranean is a significant source of salt to tbe Atlantic as deep as 3000 m, Below this, three water types are recognized by their salinity values. The greater overall salinity of the North Atlantic vs. the Pacific is attributed to greater poleward transport of surface waters in the Atlantic due to wind stress patterns. Salinity evidence for the 'global conveyor belt' of thermohaline circulation is also examined. Dept. of Earth, Atmos., and Planetary Sci ., 54-1824, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. (rjw)

C120. Dissolved gases 92:6284

C80. Physical chemistry in seawater 92:6280

Estrada Maldonado, C.F. et al., 1992. The dissolution of calcite in seawater from 40°_90 °C at atmospheric pressure and 35 ppt saJinity. Chern. Geol., 97(1-2): 113-123. Lab. de Geochim, V.R .A. No. 67 du eN.R.S., Univ. Paul Sabatier, 38 rue des Trente-six Ponts, F-31400 Toulouse, France. 92:6281 Hegeman, W.J.M., C.H. van der Weijden and J.J.G. Zwolsman, 1992. Sorption of zinc on suspended particles along a salinity gradient: a laboratory study using mite and suspended matter from tbe River Rhine. Ne/h. J. Sea Res., 28(4):285-292.

Garccon, V.C. et al., 1992. Gaining insight into tbe seasonal variability of CO 2 at Ocean Station P using an upper ocean model. Deep-Sea Res; 39(6A):921 -938. Seasonal variability of dissolved CO2 at Station P (Gulf of Alaska) during 1971-72 is examined using an eddy-kinetic model of vertical mixing. Results of the model show weak seasonal variations of surface water CO 2; all pertinent processes appear 'to contribute to the same order of magnitude of change. The total annual production appears to be most significant in controlling CO 2 changes. The model also shows a strong short-term variability of pC0 2 during episodic events. UMR39, CNES/GRGS, 18 Ave. Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France. (rjw)


C. Chem ical Oceanography

92:6285 Goyet, Catherine, D.R. Walt and P.G. Brewer, 1992. Development of a fiber optic sensor for measurement of pC0l in sea water: design criteria and sea trials. Deep-Sea Res; 39(6A): 1015-1026.

This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a prototype pCO l sensor based on dye fluorescence and fiber optic technology. Results of both laboratory and at-sea tests show a precision of 3% in the range of 400-500 ppm pCO z. The instrument is complementary to existing optical detectors of pH in marine waters and holds promise for full characterization of the COz system. Dept. of Chem., WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. (rjw)

C130. Organic compounds 92:6286 Fulton, D.B., B.G. Sayer and A.D. Bain, 1992. Detection and detennination of dilute, low molecular weight organic compounds in water by SOO·MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analyt. Chem ; 64(4) :349-353. Bain: Dept. of Chem., McMaster Univ., Hamilton , ON L8S 4MI, Canada. 92:6287 Peresypkin, V.I., 1990. Determination of lignIn in bottom sediments. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiia), 30(4):499-501. Shirshov Inst, of Oceanol., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, USSR. 92:6288 Seiki, Tohru, Etsuji Date and Hirofumi Izawa, 1991. Decomposition characteristics of particulate organic matter in Hiroshima Bay. J . oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 47(5):207-220. Hiroshima Prefectural Res . Ctr. for Environ. ScL, 1-6-29, Minamimachi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734, Japan.

C140. Nutrients 92:6289 Bildstein, K .L., Elizabeth Blood and Peter Frederick, 1992. The relative importance of biotic and abiotic vectors in nutrient transport. Estuaries, 15(2):147-157. Estuarine nutrient transport mechanisms are examined in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina. A colony of wading white ibis produces significant and variable nutrient in put to the system. For a 'healthy year' (1984) ibis activities accounted for 11 times

OLR (1992) 39 (12)

more nutrient input to the estuary than during a drought-affected year (1985). Most nutrients are imported to the estuary from freshwater bottomland forest where the birds prey on crayfish. Findings suggest that the nutrient regime in estuaries with large wading bird populations may differ greatly from those lacking such populations. Dept. of Biol., Winthrop College, Rock Hill, SC 29733, USA. (rjw) 92:6290 Borodkin, S.O. and L.I. Korzhikova, 1990. Determination of suspended total phosphorus In seaOceanology (a translation of water. Okeanologiia), 30(4):431-433. Shirshov lost. of Oceanol., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, USSR. 92:6291 van Raaphorst, Wim et al., 1992. Nitrogen cycling in two types of sediments of the southern North Sea (Frisian Front, Broad Fourteens): field data and mesocosm results . Neth, J. Sea Res; 28(4):293316.

Benthic nitrogen cycling within sandy and silty substrates is examined at two stations in the southern North Sea. For both stations Oz consumption and ammonium release are highest during the summer months. Maximum denitrification occurs during spring with minimum rates in the fall. At both sites, >50% of the ammonium produced by benthic remineralization is regenerated to the water column. At the silty site, benthic nitrification supplies more than 85% of the nitrate needed for denitrification. The addition of detrital matter in mesocosms at both sites altered the nitrogen budget; system recovery occurred with in 2 months. Netherlands Inst. for Sea Res., P.O. Box 59, 1790 Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. (rjw)

C150. Particulate matter 92:6292 Asper, V.L. et al., 1992. Rapid coupling of sinking particle fluxes between surface and deep ocean waters. Nature, Lond., 357(6380) :670-672.

Transformation processes and advection have the potential to modify the transmission of surface signals to the deep sea. If these mechanisms overwhelm surface production signals , seasonal and annual variations in deep-sea geochemistry and biology would be controlled largely by lateral processes associated with ocean circulation rather than by surface processes. Here we report direct measurements of seasonal variations in upper-ocean primary production concurrent with particle fluxes

OLR (1992) 39 (12)

C. Chemical Oceanography

measured at several depths ranging from the upper to the deep ocean in the Atlantic. The productivity signal can be transferred rapidly to the deep sea by settling particles, yielding close temporal coupling between the surface and deep oceans. Ctr. for Mar. SeL, Univ. of So. Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA. 92:6293 Asper, V.L., Susumu Honjo and T.H. Orsi, 1992. Distribution and transport of marine snow aggregates in the Panama Basin. Deep-Sea Res; 39(6A):939-952.

Depth profiles of marine snow in the Panama Basin are obtained using a photographic technique. Results show that concentrations of aggregates are highest in surface waters and near the bottom. Mass fluxes based on aggregate abundances are several orders of magnitude larger than those measured by sediment traps and submersible pumps. These findings suggest that the observed aggregates are not responsible for particle fluxes in this area. A particle transport model is presented in which fast-sinking (relatively rare) aggregates are the chief mechanism of particle flux to the sea floor. Ctr. for Mar. SeL, Univ. of So. Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA. (Ijw) 92:6294 Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko and B.D. Johnson, 1992. Measuring physical characteristics of particles: a new method of simultaneous measurement for size, settling velocity and density of constituent matter. Deep-Sea Res., 39(6A): 1057-1066.

This paper describes the development and testing of a linear density column that permits direct measurement of constituent matter density in particle aggregates in seawater. The density column is integrated into a system which also measures settling velocity and aggregate size and shape. Initial results include the first direct constituent density measurements of any type. Although settling velocity was not directly correlated with these measurements, as expected, they are considered valuable in constraining estimates of other physical properties of particle aggregates. Dept. of Oceanogr., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS B3H 4Jl, Canada. (rjw) 92:6295 Fontolan, Giorgio and Sergio Panella, 1991. Distribution and chemistry (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and chlorophyll a) of suspended particulate matter in the Strait of Magellan: austral spring 1989. Boll. Oceanol. teor. appl., 9(2-3):179-192. 1st. di Geo!. e Paleontol., Univ, di Trieste, Italy.


92:6296 Rao, LN., K. Annapurna and N.S. Sarma, 1991. Biochemical composition of suspended particulate matter in the shelf waters between Visakhapatnam and Bhimavaram coast, central east coast of India. Indian J. mar. Sci., 20(2): 123-126. School of Chem., Andhra Univ., Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. 92:6297 Tanoue, Eiichiro, 1992. Occurrence and characterization of particulate proteins in the Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res; 39(5A):743-761.

In samples from a water column profile taken in the North Pacific and the Bering Sea, two characteristic groups of proteins were identified from the vertical changes in their molecular distribution. The first, derived mainly from phytoplankton, was made up of a large number of proteins with widely ranging molecular weights. Concentrations of proteins in this group decreased rapidly with depth, indicating susceptibility to biological degradation. The second group included specific proteins distributed over a limited range of molecular weights. These were the most abundant protein constituents in particulate organic matter form the intermediate and deep waters, and may be resistant to biological attack, although the source and chemical nature of the specific proteins are not clear. Geochem. Lab., Meteorol. Res. Inst., Nagamine I-I, Tsukuba 305, Japan. 92:6298 Wei, C.-L., 1991. Studies of scavenging phenomenon in the upper water column off northeast Taiwan-application of 234ThlJ8U disequilibriulD. Acta oceanogr. taiwan; 26:13-19. Here the first set oP34Th and 238U profiles in the water column off northeast Taiwan is reported. 234Th activities are lower than its progenitor 238U in the upper part of the water column. The deficiency of 24Th relative to 238U in the upper 200 m was about 1.15X 105 dpm m-2, which gives a residence time of about 122 days and an estimated flux of about 3000 dpm m-1Cl-1 for 234Th in the upper water column. Inst. of Oceanogr., Natl. Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan.

C180. Geochemistry, biogeochemistry (see also D-SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS)

92:6299 Bauer, J.E., P.M. Williams and E.R.M. Druffel, 1992. 14C activity of dissolved organic carbon


C. Chemical Oceanography

fractious in the north-central Pacific and Sargasso Sea. Nature, Lond.; 357(6380):667-670. We present a comparison of 6.14C (the deviation in ppt from the 14C activity of nineteenth-century wood) of the DOC measured by high-temperature catalytic combustion, DOC oxidizable by UV radiation, and humic substances in profiles from the oligotrophic north-central Pacific and Sargasso Sea. For each ocean, the AI4C values of all three fractions are remarkably similar, yielding no evidence for a component of DOC that is cycled through the system on timescales shorter than several thousands of years. We observe an age difference between the two oceans of -2000 yr for the deepest DOC, which can largely be accounted for by differences in the A14C of the DOC sources to the deep basins, and by the different deep-water circulation patterns and transit times in the two oceans. Dept. of Oceanogr., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

92:6300 Forster, Stefan, 1991. The significance of biogenic structures to oxygen nux into the sediment. Ber. [nsf. Meeresk. Christian-Albrechts- Univ., 206: 98pp. (In German, English abstract.)

The relationship between burrowing organisms and oxygenation of sediment is examined for two stations in the German Bight. Results show that oxygen transport through the burrow walls is linked to burrow structure and behavior of the burrowing organism. Oxygen concentration varies with the advective flow produced within the burrows during the 'irrigation phase' of organism activity. Irrigation intervals for one species were measured in pulses of 3 to 70 minutes. The total O2 flux budget for one site shows that approximately half of all oxygenation of sediments is through burrow walls. Inst. fur Meereskunde, Abteilung Meeresbotanik, Dusternbrooker Weg 20, 2300 Kiel I, FRG. (Ijw)

92:6301 Glibert, P.M. et al., 1992. NH. + regeneration and grazing: Interdependent processes in size-fractionated 15NH. + experiments. Mar. Ecoi-Prog,



NH4 + regeneration dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay are examined using size-fractionated experiments. Results show significant differences in NH4+ regeneration rates between large «202 p.m) and small « 10 Jim) zooplankton. These findings suggest that total regeneration in a natural food web may be greatly different from estimates based on a single size fraction of the zooplankton. The effect of differing size-fractionated rates appears to be a

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nonlinear function of zooplankton density or multiple trophic interactions. Horn Point Environ. Lab., CEES, Univ. of Maryland, P.O. Box 775, Cambridge, MD 21613, USA. (Ijw) 92:6302 Laima, M.J.C., 1992. Extraction and seasonal variation of NH 4+ pools in different types of coastal marine sediments. Mar. Ecol.-Prog, Ser., 82(1):75-84.

Seasonal variability and extractability of pools of porewater NH 4 + are examined for three stations in Danish coastal waters. A multi-extraction technique demonstrates the existence of a 'tightly-bound' pool of NH4+ which exhibited significant seasonal fluctuations and exchange with the normal N cycle. The size and nature of this material has not been previously recognized. In addition, it was found that the adsorption coefficients varied with station, depth, and season and were generally higher than those previously reported. Dept. of Bio!., Univ. of Evora, Aptdo. 94, P-7001 Evora Codex, Portugal. (rjw)

92:6303 Orr, J.C. and J.L. Sarmiento, 1992. Potential of marine macroalgae as a sink for CO 2: constraints from a 3·D general circulation model of the global ocean. Wat. Air Soil Pollut; 64:405-421.

'Seaweed farming' (macroalgal cultivation) as a means to enhance oceanic drawdown of atmospheric CO 2 is examined using a 3-D GCM. Results indicate that CO2 invasion from the atmosphere does not match carbon removal from the surface waters via sinking of fertilized organisms. In order to achieve the assumed enhanced growth of I Gt C yr l , a nutrient supply greater than the world's current fertilizer production would also be required. These findings suggest that seaweed farming is an inefficient scheme for sequestering anthropogenic CO2 , The suggested use of farmed macroalgae as an additional world fuel source would also result in a greater net transfer of CO 2 from the ocean to the atmosphere. Prog. in Atmos. and Oceanic Sci., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544-0710, USA. (rjw)

92:6304 Ritschard, R.L., 1992. Marine algae as a CO 2 sink. Waf. Air Soil Pol/uf., 64:289-303.

This paper reviews technical, engineering, economic and environmental aspects of using marine algae as a sink for anthropogenic atmospheric CO 2 , Both large-scale Fe fertilization of phytoplankton and

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C. Chemical Oceanography


C210. Pollution (see also B350-Atmospheric 'kelp-farm' plans are assessed. It is estimated that these two approaches combined would sequester from 0.7 to 3 Ot C yr l at a cost of $5-300 per ton. Because of numerous uncertainties involved in both schemes more credible assessments can not presently be made. Ctr. for Atmos. and Biospheric Effects of Tech., Lawrence Berkeley Lab. , Univ, of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. (rjw) 92:6305 Spaargaren, D.H., 1991. The biological use of chemical clements: selection on environmental availability and electron configuration. Oceanologica Acta, 14(6):569-574.

The molal concentrations of 34 elements in marine organisms were compared with the availability of these elements in their natural environment and some physico-chemical properties of the elements, viz. the charge /radius ratio or ionic potential and the 'noble gas deviation' or NOD-index, a value which expresses the deviation of the electron configuration of an element with that of the previous and subsequent noble gas configuration. The concentration factor (ratio of element concentration in biological material and in the environment) appears to be a periodic function of the element number, very similar to the NOD-index. The close fit between the concentration factor and the NGD·index offers, with some limitations, a possibility to assess the concentration factors of elements for which up till now no data have been available. Netherlands lnst. for Sea Res., P.O. Box n059, 1790 Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. 92:6306 Wisniewski, Joe and AE. Lugo (guest editors), 1992. Natural sinks of CO 2 , Refereed papers from the International Workshop, Palmas Del Mar, Puerto Rico, 24-27 February 1992. Wat. Air Soil Pollut ; 64(1-2):466pp; 25 papers.

When it comes to the global carbon cycle, which at the moment can't even be balanced, carbon sources have been emphasized and carbon sinks ignored. This workshop sought to partially redress the balance by questioning the modellers' assumption of a steady state, identifying numerous potential carbon sinks not considered in the models, and by emphasizing that 'substantial potential exists for capturing and sequestering carbon in natural systems,' Separate sections are devoted to the (1) importance of carbon sinks, (2) effects of CO 2 on natural systems, (3) managing natural sinks, and (4) modelling carbon fluxes. Part 5 synthesizes the findings and makes recommendations for further work. (fcs)

pollution, ClIO-Radioactivity, radioisotopes, E300-Effects of pollution, F250Waste disposal) 92:6307 Gonzalez, J.-L. et aI., 1991. Distribution of Cd and Hg in the Bay of Marennes-Oleron, Oceanologica Acta, 14(6):559-568. Jnst. Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (lFREMER), Ctr. de Nantes, B.P. n° 1049, 44037 Nantes Cedex 01, France. 92:6308 Maehiwa, J.F., 1992. Heavy metal content in coastal sediments off Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environment int ; 18(4):409-415. Dept. of Zool. and Mar. Biol., Univ. of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 92:6309 NAf, Carina et aI., 1992. FJux estimates and pattern recognition of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxlns, and dibenzofurans in the waters outside various emission sources on the Swedish BaJtic coast. Environ. Sci. Technol., 26(7):1444-1457. Dept. of Zool., Stockholm Univ., S-I06 91 Stockholm, Sweden. 92:6310 Park, Y.-C. et aI., 1991. Identification of spilled oils in the marine environment by Iluorescence fingerprints and library search system. J. oceanol. Soc . Korea, 26(4):295-303. Dept. of Oceanogr., Inha Univ., Inchon, Korea. 92:6311 Picer, Nena and Mladen Pieer, J992. Inflow, levels and the fate of some persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Rijeka Bay area of the Adriatic Sea. Wat, Res; 26(7):899-909. Center for Mar . Res., Rudjer Boskovic Jnst. , Zagreb, Croatia. 92:6312 Tkalin, A.V., 1991. Present state of organic chemical pollution of the western Pacific Ocean surface waters. Ocean Res; KORDI, 13(2): 103-108.

Distribution of phenols, anionic detergents, aromatic hydrocarbons and total non-polar hydrocarbons in surface waters of the Japan, Yellow, East China and Philippine seas from March- June 1990 are presented. Higher concentrations of these organic pollutants were observed in the Sea of Japan. Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorol. Res . lnst., 24 Dzerzh insky St., Vladivostok 690600, USSR.