CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, AND MATERIA MEDICA.

CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, AND MATERIA MEDICA.

154 old plan, the depression and re-action is to be kept up by repeated with Dr. Schmitz ; but, owing to a disagreement, in which Mr. baths during the...

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154 old plan, the depression and re-action is to be kept up by repeated with Dr. Schmitz ; but, owing to a disagreement, in which Mr. baths during the day, the system being said to gain Mayo had the advantage, and, on his own showing, the right this constant alternation. during also, in a Prussian court of law, he soon removed from MarienThe next is the reductive course, the staple element in which berg to Muhlbad. Now, Mr. Mayo may have had good cause is the profuse sweating caused by packing patients in blankets for condemning Dr. Schmitz, but we observe that throughout his and wet sheets, or by adventitious heat, with a small admixture book he gives his cases chiefly from Marienberg and Mühlbad; and of cold bathing. This is promised to be serviceable in select it is singular that the successful cases all occur at Muhlbad, the forms of acute rheumatism, rheumatic fever, rheumatic gout, &c. unsuccessful, at Marienberg. The title of the book might indeed The alterative course is based upon the alternate use of sweat- have beenThe Cold Water Cure, its Use at Mühlbad under Mr. ing and cold bathing, the indications being, to empty the Mayo; its Misuse at Marienberg under Dr. Schmitz." We have system by sweating, and to prevent reduction by the tonic effects reckoned the cases, and find about a dozen from Miihlbad, all of cold bathing. This is to be used in nervous cases, head disorder, cured or benefited, and just twelve from Marienberg, all either confirmed dyspepsia, irregular gout, and various other maladies. unrelieved, injured, or with a fatal result. Not a single favourBesides these three chief divisions, Mr. Mayo speaks of a able case is given to his quondam partner at Marienberg. sedative course, depending solely on the application of cold as a Anything so remarkable could hardly have sprung from chance. depressant, and suitable in cases of inflammation, fever, spas- It would be simply even-handed justice for Dr. Schmitz to give the world his version of any unsuccessful cases treated by Mr. Mayo. modic affections, and insanity. And now for a few words on Mr. Mayo’s own case. The Such, fairly given, are the views of Mr. Mayo concerning hydropathy, which he considers of the utmost importance, profession is aware that for several years he had been suffering and deserving to be engrafted upon the stock of legitimate grievously from rheumatism, and gradually growing worse, in medical science. We cannot coincide with him in his opinions, spite of all medical treatment. In 1842, " following the advice still less do we think he has succeeded in the object he has pro- of Sir James Clark," he resolved to go to Germany, to try the posed to himself. There are far more signs of his sinking to an cold-water cure. He thus describes his condition at the time of equality with hydropathy, than of his raising it up to the level of his departure. " The setting in of warm weather, as usual, made medical science. There is so much of rose-colouring, and yet in- me worse, and I became again in more pain, my joints were more decision, in Mr. Mayo’s own estimate of its powers-at one time contracted, and I again wasted, and became weaker, and was frelauding it, as he does, above all medicines, in a vast number of quently obliged to lie down nearly the whole of the day ; what much diseases, and then treating it merely as an amplification of interested or excited me, however, would almost always enable me bathing, and chalybeate waters, that if hydropathy is ever made to crawl, with assistance, about a room, and I was not so bad, at of use to regular medicine, it will certainly be by less of a the worst, as I had been at Bath." Up to the date of the present partizan than Mr. Mayo. If the legitimatists cannot look with publication, he had been on the Rhine two years and eleven favour on his exertions, neither can the hydropathists, however months, and at this period of the cold-water training, we have they may affect to do so. We believe that among the many another report of his condition by his own pen. " In September, (1844) I found myself, almost suddenly, much better; my feet cases given as occurring in the practice of others, there is not and ancles, which, up to this time, had regularly, by the evening, one in which there is not much of evident censure thrown upon the system. Our own impression, on reading the many instances become large and heavy, ceased to swell, and were hardly larger of aqueous martyrdom, is, that more will be deterred from at night than in the morning; my knees, at the same time, bethe cure than will be tempted to it by Mr. Mayo’s work. Mr. came reduced in size, and I could stand every day, and most days Mayo shows that great risks are run by patients, even under the could walk a few steps. As I expected, I have since fallen barbarous sagacity of Priessnitz himself, and it is very evident back a little; but I can now always stand, without support, on that Mr. Mayo’s medical knowledge prevented two or three both legs, and I am confident that next summer I shall make the hydropathic murders at Boppard, and perhaps saved himself , remaining step of walking. In general strength, I palpably imfrom the rash treatment he at first pursued. Of the crises, those prove every quarter of a year : the rheumatism burns out more extraordinary eruptions of boils and tetters which promised so slowly." We should be loth to damp the certain hope of remuch, Mr. Mayo speaks in deprecatory terms. He gives several covery in which Mr. Mayo happily indulges, but we cannot see the palpable difference between these two portraits of himselt; cases of injury, some of death, and says that pure chance which Mr. Mayo believes to exist. Nevertheless, we most sinis the presiding power between good and harm, when crises are that we may be mistaken, and that the long-continued cerely hope provoked. By way of illustrating the random mode in which be slowly effecting his recovery. We should rejoice change may cold water asserthe plan is recommended by our author with to see him restored to health, to his friends, and to the legitimate and of we a The tion, hint, query, give specimen :—" efficacy the cold bath in spasmodic affections has been occasionally practice of his profession. We would by no means wish to put evinced in tetanus. But what would be the effect of repeated this book, the production of an invalid, as a veil ’betwixt Mr. the packings in the wet sheet wrung out of iced water?" Now, Mayo and the high reputation he deservedly obtained before advent of his Still a owe to the there is we calamity. duty first, for the assertion that cold bathing has been serviceable in whom less advocates of upon scrupulous hydropathy tetanus : local cold to the head and spine has been said to be public, useful in tetanus from its sedative effects on the nervous centres, attempt to prey with such rapacity, and who will be delighted to in an iced sheet, is another. use Mr. Mayo’s name as an authority for their system of quackery. but a plunge into a cold bath, or stimulus to the morbid motor. This duty, though painful, we have but attempted to perform. and would be a most

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action. We know that sudden action of the respiratory muscles is induced by cold immersion, and yet in tetanus, where it is the CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, AND MATERIA MEDICA. spasm of the respiration which kills, the cold bath is to be recommended. But beyond and above all this reasoning, it is a ON THE FORMATION OF FAT IN ANIMALS. fact, that placing a tetanic patient in a cold bath has been known A LETTER addressed to M. Arago, by M. Boussingault, contains suddenly and instantly to destroy him. A vein of rashness the following highly interesting remarks:— similar to the above runs throughout the work. " researches appear to establish, 1st. That pigs, at the age Aly We observe in the preface that Mr. Mayo first made an ar- of eight months, fed in the usual manner, have much more fat rangement to practise hydropathy at Marienberg, in conjunction than they can have derived from their food. 2nd. That pigs fed

155 for six months solely on potatoes, produce no more fat than is to for the nourishment of these creatures, is a new proof of thejustbe found in the tubers themselves. 3rd. That in fatting pigs (I ness of the physiological principle, deduced by a member of the have made experiments upon nine) there is much more fat pro- Academy from his experiments on the feeding of animals with duced than can be found in their food. 4th. That those articles neutral vegetable substances, fecula, sugar, gum, &c., but it still of food which, given alone, do not enable the animal to form fat, remains for us to determine chemically the part which each of acquire the power to do so in an astonishing manner, when these substances performs in the act of nutrition. The use of mixed with some fat, although the fat by itself would cause ina- calcined bones is not doubtful ; the saline materials composing anition. 5th. That fattening food, which contains only the bone act as saturating substances, and assist in rendering the smallest quantity of fat, is always rich in nitrogenous principles. chemical process of digestion continuous, in the same way as the " I have fattened geese, and, as M. Persoz first observed, have carbonate of soda or chalk, operates in the lactic and butyric ferfound that the fat produced considerably exceeds the amount of mentations, according to MM. Fremy, Boutron, Pelouze, and Gelis. This fact I am anxious publicly to We must defer the expression of our opinion respecting the maize. oil found in the acknowledge, as one of the commissioners by the functions of caseine and other azotized bodies, protein, albumen, to examine his communication. and fibrin, until we have completed experiments now in progress; Academy " I can tell you, in two words, how I satisfied myself of the but they seem to have a much greater influence on the formation rapid influence of fat in the process of fattening. Some ducks of fat than is generally supposed. If sugar, added to a mixture were crammed with rice, which contained scarcely a trace of of potato and starch, supports and fattens geese, we suspect the fatty matter. To others of the same weight and brood, 1 gave azotized matter present exerts some important influence, for as the same quantity of rice, adding a little butter. Those fed with we have observed that geese thus fed lose flesh after a time, and the pure rice scarcely increased, whilst the ducks which took the therefore it is more than probable that their own muscular fibre butter and rice became, in a few days, perfect balls of fat. supplies the azotized matter essential to digestion and nutrition. " In all my experiments I have constantly observed the forma- In one individual which had not eaten any maize, the increase of its fat was greater than its increase of weight. We need, howtion of flesh accompany the production of fat." On the reading of this letter M. Milne Edwards remarked, ever, further experiments upon these points. The that the experience of M. Boussingault agreed perfectly with his influence of sugar may arise from its ready conversion into lactic own experiments, made in concert with M. Dumas in 1843, on acid, the effect of which in the digestive process is so well known. The practical bearings of these points upon fattening cattle, the production of wax by bees. " In our experiments," says M. Milne Edwards, " the bees gave render them highly important, and we seem to be approaching to a scientific explanation of the mixtures found by experience to no wax when we fed them with sugar and water only, but they created it when we furnished them with honey, a substance which be useful in feeding animals."-Comptes Rendus, July 7th. contains a very minute proportion of waxy matter. The quantity IMPROVEMENTS IN MARSH’S METHOD FOR THE CHEMICO-LEGAL of fatty matter the bees obtained in their food, combined with RESEARCH FOR ARSENIC. BY M. BLONDLOT. that which pre-existed in the bodies of the insects, was altogether embrace two points:—1st, The disor" My improvements formed insufficient to explain the production of the wax during the course of the experiment, so that we must attribute to these ganization of animal matters containing the arsenic; 2nd, A modification of the apparatus, rendering it more convenient and creatures the powr of making wax at the expense of the in its use. saccharine matter in their food. We have not attempted to certain " First. I decompose the animal matter, tissues, &c., by means assign the principle which thus acts as a sort of ferment in this of concentrated sulphuric acid, as recommended by Messrs. transformation, but if we adopt the views of M. Boussingault, Flandin and Danger, but instead of continuing the application of we can readily account for these facts. At all events, these new heat until a and friable charcoal is obtained, which may experiments of our colleague prove that the same phenomena occasion the dry loss of some of the poison, I discontinue it when occur in mammiferous animals as in insects." M. Payen observed, " these researches demonstrate, in two the mass has assumed a pasty consistence, and then add a quantity different ways, the necessity of a certain proportion of fatty of water, which forms a thick black fluid, and I then pass a cursubstances in the food of animals to determine a speedy and con- rent of chlorine through it for a few minutes. The filtered, siderable accumulation of fat in their tissues; they thus agree limpid liquid is then introduced into the apparatus, and produces or no frothing. with the conclusions deduced by MM. Dumas, Boussingault, and little " The of this process are—1st, that not a particle of myself, from very numerous analyses of vegetable substances arsenic isadvantages the presence of sulphurous acid is precluded, 2nd, lost; in with their effects and in the of formation compared fattening, milk. We attach great importance to these facts, from their being converted by the chlorine into sulphuric acid; and 3rd, the chlorine destroys or precipitates the small amount of organic practical utility. They strikingly show the necessity of know- matter which may remain in the solution. of the immediate kind of and food, ing composition every enabling " Secondly. The design of the modification I propose in the us to decide upon the most appropriate mixtures for nourishing and fattening animals in the most rapid and economical manner. apparatus is, to enable the operator to regulate or to suspend enthe disengagement of gas. For this purpose I Altogether, these investigations prove, contrary to the opinion of tirely at apleasure employ common Woolf’s bottle, with three tubular openings. a learned foreign chemist, that we cannot expect from the use of Into one of the lateral openings a tube is introduced, through potatoes, and similar food, the same results which are so easily which to pour the liquid under examination; to the other is effected by bran, maize, bread, and other substances rich in oily attached the tube, the construction of which may vary according Thus find those matter. we traditional practices fully justified, to the method adopted for the decomposition of the arsenuretted As of giving malt, the refuse of distilleries, chopped straw, &c. The third opening affords a passage to a glass rod, to the purely scientific question, the truth seems to lie between hydrogen. which may be moved at pleasure, long enough to the two extreme opinions which have been entertained, and thus through a cork, be whilst slips of zinc are wound spirally round easily, managed the experiments on both sides have been useful in bringing us to its lower end, and may be more or less immersed in the acid a definite conclusion."—Comptes Rendus, June 16th, 1845. so as to give the experimenter the command over the At a meeting of the Academy, July 7th, an extract from a solution, of the gas during the whole process. These, I disengagement communication of M. Persoz was read. He considers that his are advantages not hitherto possessed by any other form think, experiments prove that geese are capable of forming fat without of the apparatus."-Comptes Rendus, July 7th, 1845. the intervention of fatty materials in their food, but, nevertheless, the oily matter of maize exerts so marked an influence upon the fattening of these birds, that MM. Boussingault, Dumas, and BRITISH JOURNALS. Payen, are quite justified in their remarks upon it as a fattening article of food. In those geese which formed fat without having THE MALFORMATIONS AND CONGENITAL DISEASES OF THE fatty matter in their food, the growth of the liver was extremely ORGANS OF SIGHT. small, (in the lean animal it weighed from sixty-seven to seventyeight grammes,) and retained its normal reddish-brown colour; Mr. WILDE, in a clever communication to the Dublin Journal, whereas whilst the birds are fed upon maize, the liver is white, and the following remarks on the non-occurrence of congenital weighs as much as four hundred grammes. This is an important makes strabismus :fact in reference to diseases of the liver. " We have said," continues M. Persoz, " that potato-starch, ,,One of the most frequent and popular errors (and it is one given, unmixed, to geese, produces diarrhoea, and that this common even among the profession) is, that the great majority symptom is relieved by calcined bones, which in this case acts as of cases of squinting are congenital ; yet I believe a rarer form a base; we have also seen that, notwithstanding the intervention of congenital disease scarcely exists-and where it does prevail of this saline matter, the goose only lives and thrives when a at birth, it is generally the result of some diseased condition of small quantity of sugar or caseous matter is added to potato the sensorium, such as congenital hydrocephalus, and then, most fecula. The necessity for a mixture of aliments of various kinds, likely, it would affect both globes. Von Ammon has figured a

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