CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, AND MATERIA MEDICA.

CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, AND MATERIA MEDICA.

137 cramps. These symptoms were succeeded in about the process ; it had a powerfully alkaline re-action. Now it three weeks by most violent and prolon...

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137 cramps. These symptoms were succeeded in about the process ; it had a powerfully alkaline re-action. Now it three weeks by most violent and prolonged hiccough, brought is evident that this fluid must necessarily contain in solution on in the same manner as the convulsions, by the least noise any alkaline carbonates which existed in the blood. For a period of six months she conOn evaporation in a retort, (consequently not exposed to or excitement of mind. tinued to be subject, daily, either to convulsion or hiccough, contact with the atmosphere,) until it occupied about forty (according to the degree of irritation,) the only amelioration cubic centimetres, it became a thick greenish-brown liquid, of of her condition being a recovery of sight. The vomiting, the consistence of syrup, and had still a strong alkaline repain of head, and loss of sensation, remained the same. Al- action. I took half this concentrated fluid, and placed it in a though, from the commencement of her illness, she has taken graduated tube in contact with carbonic acid gas, and allowed barely sufficient to sustain life, there is but little emaciation, the mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, when I found the bowels regular, and tongue clean. At Christmas, 1841,I first fluid had absorbed three times its own volume of the carbonic noticed a remarkable feature in the case. Immediately on acid. Now it is evident, that if the capacity of this fluid for raising the head from the pillow, she became perfectly insen- absorbing three times its own volume of carbonic acid gas sible ; if raised merely by the addition of a couple of pillows, depended on the presence of carbonate of soda, and, consethe insensibility lasted for five or six minutes; but if bolstered quently, the formation of bi-carbonate by the addition of the up in a sitting posture, until she was again laid on the bed. acid, the other half of the liquid obtained from the blood Instantly on raising her, the action of the heart became must evolve carbonic acid gas when acted on by a stronger scarcely perceptible, the countenance bloodless, the eyes acid, to the extent of about two-thirds that of the gas absorbed partly open, having a fixed and glassy stare. When in this by the first half. But this liquid, when brought into contact with hydrostate, the attendants could dress an issue in the loins, or attend to her in other ways, without the slightest consciousness being chloric acid in a bell jar over mercury, mixed with the acid perceptible, whereas, if attempted when in the supine posi- without evolvingthe slightest perceptible trace of carbonic acid. This experiment confirms the conclusions of Enderlin’s tion, it would almost directly occasion either a violent fit of hiccough or convulsion. In January, 1842, for the space of a analysis of the ashes of the blood of the graminivora—namely, fortnight, the vomiting was so constant and intractable, that that this blood contains no perceptible amount of alkaline she was principally supported by enemata of beef-tea and carbonates. A subsequent and more minute examination has chicken-soup-all attempts at relieving it by counter-irritation shown that the alkaline re-action of the fluid, obtained from. over the stomach, along the course of the phrenic, exhibition the blood in the manner described, is owing to the presence of hydrocyanic acid, effervescents, creasote, &c., proving futile. of phosphate of soda. The residue was examined for urea "The above notes were made in August, 1842. From that and for sugar, but we failed to detect the presence of either period to June, 1845, her condition has been much the same. of those substances. The sensation of the left half of the body has been principally ON THE PREPARATION OF TINCTURES. By J. PERSONNE. restored by the use of strychnine, sprinkled on a blistered The Societe de Pharmacie of Paris having instituted a prize surface. Some time after the use of this, obstinate constipation and retention of urine, requiring the daily employment of the for the best answer to the following questions :1st.—Whether the proportion of alcohol employed in the catheter, occurred. The insensibility on change of posture remains unchanged. At the commencement of her illness, preparation of tinctures is sufficient to dissolve the active before the irritability of the stomach was excessive, suspect- principles of the substances acted on ? and if not, what is the ing there might be visceral obstruction, I administered croton proper proportion ? oil in combination with extract of colocynth, giving alter2nd.-What degree or degrees of strength should the alcohol nately with it neutral salts. The treatment afterwards con- used in making tinctures possess ? sisted in long-continued counter-irritation by blisters, setons, It was awarded to a memoir by M. Personne. This paper gives in detail 300 experiments, (we may observe, &c., along the course of the spine, nape of neck, and temples. Hydrocyanic acid, in combination with hyoscyamus, for a long en passant, that the author is very little of a chemist,) from time afforded some relief to the pain and vomiting ; after- which he deduces the following conclusions :1st.—The different degrees of strength of alcohol prescribed wards, when it failed in arresting them, morphine sprinkled With the by the French codex (0.848, 0.865, 0.923,) are not always the on a blistered surface was of temporary use. exception of one short interval during the whole period of most favourable for dissolving the greatest amount of the this long illness, she has menstruated regularly; and to judge principles contained in the substances employed in the prepaby her appearance in a recumbent posture, a stranger wouldration of tinctures. 2nd.-These degrees can scarcely be admitted in a general imagine her to be in perfect health. Convulsion or protracted hiccough is now of rare occurrence, but still occasionally resultsway; except for certain tinctures, experiments only can show from sudden noise or emotion of mind." which is suited for each. 3rd.-Four parts of alcohol to one of substance, as prescribed It is probable that iron might be advantageously adminisby the codex, is scarcely sufficient, in any case, to extract all tered in this case. the soluble parts of substances. 4th.-Five parts of alcohol are generally required, and even this is not alwaysenough. AND CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, 5th.-It is sufficient that the vehicle should thoroughly MATERIA MEDICA. moisten the substance acted on. 6th.-The most suitable degrees of strength in the alcohol

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WHETHER ALKALINE CARBONATES EXIST BLOOD. By BARON LIEBIG.

0.865, 0.923, and 0.942. 11 When the proportion of alcohol employed in making tincTHE food of the carnivora contains only alkaline phosphates;; tures," says M. Personne, "is greater than is necessary to exthat no alkaline carbonates, therefore, can be found in theirhaust the substances acted on, a less amount of extract is obblood, scarcely requires any special proof. But the case is3 tained on evaporating the spirit, than when only just sufficient altogether with respect to the graminivora, since their food1 is used, so that a double loss is incurred by not adapting accucontains a number of alkaline compounds with vegetable rately the amount of spirit in tinctures." The following table gives M. Personne’s experience relative acids, which pass into their circulation, and are subsequently separated from the blood through the kidneys, and appearr to the strength and quantity of alcohol required in various cases: finally in their urine as alkaline carbonates. Now, if these One part substance and five parts alcohol, of 0.865 specific alkaline carbonates exist as constituents of the blood of thiss gravity, for the tinctures of yellow bark, jalap, cinnamon, class of animals, and if the elimination of carbon in the re- pyrethrum, castor, and myrrh. One part substance and five parts alcohol, of 0.923 specific spiratory process is to be referred to their agency, it is obvious3 that we must be able to detect and to demonstrate their pre- gravity, for the tinctures of rhubarb, grey bark, ipecacuanha, sence in the blood. uux vomica, gentian, yellow bark, digitalis, senna, squills, The following experiment was made to determine the ques- black hellebore, contrajerva, bistort, and ginger. tion whether alkaline carbonates are present in the blood off One part of substance and five parts of alcohol, of 0.942 graminivorous animals or not, and it must, I think, be deemed1 specific gravity, for the tincture of valerian, white hellebore, conclusive. colchicum, (corns,) aconite, hemlock, belladonna, hyoscyamus, A mixture of between four and five pounds of the blood oif and stramonium. an ox was boiled with twice its volume of water, and the The best method of preparing these tinctures is by cold coagulated mass formed subjected to powerful pressure. The maceration. The strength of them is, that twenty minims fluid obtained was about the weight of the blood employed ini equal about five grains of the substance. IN

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