13 eleven months, and so is their manner of copulating; thus there is a concurrence of these three important particulars, essential to pregnancy in cross-breeds. The same similarity occurs between the male organs of generation in the jack and the stud, as occurs between those of the females of the same species. But here a circumstance should be mentioned which shews very strongly the antiphysical nature of such abnormal productions. The hybrids of these animals never possess the power of reproduction, although, as far as the investigations of the anatomist can ascertain, they are furnished with all the necessary organs of generation, and the male mule is vastly more lecherous than either the jack or the stud. Aristotle, however, a celebrated ancient philosopher, contended that the male mule could impregnate the female ass, because the organs of generation seemed so perfect; but Dr. Goldsmith very shrewdly remarks, that there being no instance of its occurring since the death of Aristotle, he should think two thousand years quite sufficient to try the experiment and settle the question. " It has been ascertained, says Cuvier, that the female zebra may successively produce young with the horse and the ass; and here, too, is an exact agreement in the three essential over
A NEW PREPARATION OF CINCHONA BARK.
MR. M. DONOVAN, of Dublin, has collected a considerable amount of evidence from numerous medical authors, tending to are prove that the alkaloids of the barks, quinine, cinchona, &c. not the only constituents which give those barks their medicinal properties, but that their anti-periodic efficaey depends, in part, upon other ingredients, and much upon the combination in which the alkaloids are found in the natural state of the bark. The sulphate of quinine is, at present, the form most commonly employed, but many authorities are adduced by Mr. Donovan, to shew that it cannot in all cases be depended on. Under the impression that these preliminary points are proved, Mr. Donovan proceeds to relate his experiments, made with the view to obtain an agreeable preparation, containing all the virtues of the bark in a small bulk. " Hitherto," he says, "there has been no way of exhibiting bark in its full powers, except in the state of powder, which, to most persons, is so disgusting a dose that it is rarely prescribed." The following is the preparation particulars. " Upon the dog, the wolf, and the fox, (three animals resembling which he conceives accomplishes the purpose :Let eight ounces of yellow bark, in coarse powder, be digested each other so closely, that Cuvier says a written generic and specific description of the one suits the rest, and if it were not with a pint of proof-spirit for a week, in a close vessel, with frefor drawings and specimens, no just idea could be given of the quent agitation. The tincture is to be fully extracted by the differences between them,)-upon these animals fruitless experi- screw-press; the residuum is to be digested with another pint of£ ments have again and again been made, to ascertain whether they proof-spirit for a week, and the tincture again expressed. The would cohabit promiscuously with each other. The organs of residuum is now to be boiled for half an hour with a pint of generation are alike in all three, and the manner of copulation is water, and the decoction strongly pressed out. The boiling of the same likewise; but a difference exists between them in the the residuum a second and third time with a new pint of water is period they go with young. The fox goes six weeks, the dog, to be performed in the same manner; and then the three decoenine, and the wolf, fourteen. This is doubtless the great barrier, tions, mixed, are to be evaporated by heat to eight ounces. It which, together with the almost irreconcilable hatred subsisting will be much the better if this be done in a vacuum. The tincamong them towards each other, the wise Creator has set up to tures, mixed, are to be distilled or evaporated until eight ounces prevent their promiscuous union. If so, we may safely predict remain; and these, still boiling hot, are to be added to the evathat every succeeding experiment will be alike unsuccessful. No porated decoction. A pint of liquid will thus be produced, the naturalist laboured more perseveringly in this field than the chief ingredient of which is dikinate of quinina. To this liquid add 315.31 grains of dinoxalate of quinina, and elegant and indefatigable Buffon. He procured pups of the wolf and the dog when they were under a fortnight old; he brought boil for a few moments; then add 21 troy ounces of refined them up together in a large retired enclosure, suffered no indi- sugar, and four ounces of best gum arabic, both in powder, and vidual to molest them, and none to visit them but their keeper; previously mixed. The whole is to be kept stirring until soluand although the wolf, which was the female, was regularly in tion is effected; and if the resulting syrup, when cold, does not heat at the season, no kind of sexual intercourse was ever observed amount to 32 ounces by measure, water is to be added to make between them; and although the experiment lasted three years, up that amount. When cold, filter through flannel. In each ounce of this syrup there will be 16 grains of anhydrous and every regulation was adopted calculated to favour the end proposed, the result was the same as in all preceding experiments, dikinate of quinina. This syrup is twenty-five times stronger than the decoction of bark. having the same end in view." It remains to offer a few suggestions relative to the pharmaceuThere is one point, however, which, notwithstanding Dr. Blatchford has strongly fortified his opinion on every side, we are tical employment of this syrup. In general it may be used in -any disposed to contest-namely, his denial of the fruitful cohabitation mixture of compatible liquids, when the powers of bark are reof the dog, the wolf, and the fox. Our own experience among quired, and when the other liquids are already sufficiently voluthe Seminole Indians led us to believe that the dog and wolf pro- minous, and would be altogether too bulky if decoction of bark ereated together, and this is the universal opinion both among the were employed. Thus, in the simultaneous exhibition of decocred and the white men on the frontier. We have seen many dogs tions of bark and sarsaparilla, in equal quantities, the smallest whose wolfish characteristics were so obvious as to excite the re- efficient dose of the mixture is six ounces three times a day. By mark of the most superficial observer. Indeed, the question altering the formula to fifteen and a half ounces of decoction of would often arise-is that a dog or a wolf ? Moreover, we have sarsaparilla, and five and a half drachms of syrup of bark, the same powers are exhibited in half the foregoing bulk. a strong confirmation of this opinion in a recent communication The following contains all its energy in a state of perfect received from Dr. W. J. King, of the Medical Staff, U. S. army, on the " Vital Statistics of the Winnebagoes," Dr. King having development and activity, and is a pleasant carminative tonic :Cinnamon water, six ounces and a half; syrup of bark, half an been stationed four years among that tribe. own the question of different species of animals," says Dr. ounce ; compound tincture of bark, an ounce. An ounce measure King, " it having become a matter of some importance, on accountof this mixture is equivalent to thirty-six grains of bark in subof its bearing on another great question, I have instituted inquiries stance. When bark and iron are indicated, the following is the formula from time to time respecting the dog and wolf, which Dr. Godman, I believe, describes as two distinct species. The result here! in which the leastchemical action takes places between the tannin is, that the dog and wolf breed as readily together as when confined! and the iron, as no discoloration appears for several days :to their own race respectively; and succession and constant succesPrecipitated carbonate of iron, syrup of bark, of each an ounce. sion follow their union. Nearly all the dogs owned by them are, Mix. Dose, the size of a small nutmeg. a mixture of the two ; and it is the opinion of the old men among The strength of this syrup is such, that one drachm is a full the Indians here, who are the best judges in the world on this dose, either by itself or in water. Aromatics, such as anise or subject, that the same is true of the dog and fox; thus proving, fennel, are said perfectly to mask the bitterness of preparations of according to the best authorities on this subject, the identity ofF quiuina. M. Pierquin says, that thirty-two grains of carbonate of magnesia conceal the taste of six grains of sulphate of quinine the three species." The following rational conclusion is arrived at by Dr. Blatch- without interfering with its virtues. ford:To conclude: this preparation of bark seems deserving of the " These are some, at least, of the reasons which influence me attentive consideration of physicians, as it contains all that is in the opinion already expressed, that it is utterly impossible,, valuable in that medicine, in a state of perfect preservation and under any circumstances whatsoever, for a woman to becomefull energy. It presents the active ingredients exactly in their pregnant by cohabiting with a dog, and bring forth any offspring; natural state, which good judges have declared to be in many as the result of such a connexion; and much more, the regular forms of disease absolutely necessary. It contains nothing but offspring of the dog. The thing, to my mind, is an utter impos- what is an unaltered proximate principle of bark. The form is sibility, unless the immutable laws of nature can be supposed to) commodious, not liable to spoiling, is less disagreeable than any change."—New York Journ. of Med., Sept. 1844. other, and may be rendered even agreeable.—Pharm. .