Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Chapter 1 Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges: Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research Rainer Matyssek*,1, Nicholas Clark...

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Chapter 1

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges: Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research Rainer Matyssek*,1, Nicholas Clarke{, Pavel Cudlin{, Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen}, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen}, Gerhard Wieser|| and Elena Paoletti# *

Technische Universita¨t M€ unchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany { Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway { Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic } Centre for Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability (ECO), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark } Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland || Department of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests, Innsbruck, Austria # IPP-CNR, Florence, Italy 1 Corresponding author: e-mail: [email protected]

Chapter Outline 1.1. Why Write This Book? 3 1.2. Aims, Scope and Rationale 10 1.3. Overview of the Book’s Structure 13

1.1

Acknowledgements References

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WHY WRITE THIS BOOK?

We have become used to acknowledging that forest ecosystems worldwide are under pressure, and that this pressure will increase in the future. This idea is substantiated through assessments which demonstrate a global shrinkage in the forested area by about 50% since the last glaciation (Figure 1.1). The Developments in Environmental Science, Vol. 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-098349-3.00001-3 © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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FIGURE 1.1 Global distribution of original and remaining forests: dark green, tropical current; light green, tropical original; medium green, temperate and boreal current; light blue, temperate and boreal original; ‘original’ refers to geohistorically modern, post-Pleistocene climatic conditions, but before the spread of human influence; ‘current’ denotes the result largely of human activity at the beginning of the twenty-first century. After Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO.

forest loss is especially meaningful for the global carbon (C) storage capacity of forest ecosystems, currently comprising 80% of the terrestrial aboveground C and more than 70% of the soil organic C (Dixon et al., 1994). This storage slows the anthropogenic increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration substantially, highlighting the significance of forests in mitigating global warming. As compared with other terrestrial ecosystems and types of land use, forests until the present have been functioning at the global and long-term scales as C sinks (Luyssaert et al., 2008; Schulze et al., 2009). However, can we take it for granted that this sink will persist in the future? Obviously, the pressure on forest ecosystems is anthropogenic and intrinsically generated by the dramatic increase in the population of mankind, for which no stabilization is in sight (Figure 1.2A; Bengtson et al., 2006; Cohen, 2003). Such a development may end catastrophically, both in terms of the finite feeding capacity of the Earth (Lu¨ttge, 2013) and the increasing pressure on the environment, gradually threatening the ecological foundations of human existence (Lovelock, 2009). This kind of crisis appears to be imminent, as the human population has more than doubled since the 1950s to about seven billion at present, and is expected to reach nine billion people by 2050. The increase is dramatic and unprecedented in mankind’s history, given that reaching the first billion people on Earth by the early nineteenth century took as much as 40,000 years (Fritsch, 1990). Although being of paramount significance for the global C balance, forest ecosystems represent a major casualty of the development of civilization. Land area has been exploited for feeding and settling, and increasingly for

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Meat (kg person-1)

B 8

Grain area (ha ´ 106)

800

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

600 500 400 300 200 100

D

50 40 30 20 10 0

E

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

F N fertilization (t ´ 106)

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Paper (kg person-1)

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0

Grain area person-1 (ha)

Human population (´ 109)

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Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research

400 300 200 100 0 1961

1971

1981

1991

Year

2001

2011

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

Year

FIGURE 1.2 Time courses between 1961 through 2011 of (A) world population, (B) world grain area harvested, (C) per capita world meat production, (D) per capita world grain area harvested, (E) per capita consumption of paper and paper board and (F) nitrogen fertilizer use. Data derived from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO.

providing biogenic energy, and all such demands are met at the expense of forest ecosystems. Given the steady population growth of mankind, the resource of arable land has become exhausted, as reflected by the plateau in the harvested grain area since the 1950s (Figure 1.2B). Nevertheless, the C release into the atmosphere through agricultural practices and land-use change, often through forest burning, has remained high (Figure 1.3). In particular, the ratio of CO2 emission versus atmospheric CO2 removal is large in Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia (Figure 1.3). In parallel, the per capita consumption of natural resources worldwide, exemplified by paper and meat production, has clearly increased (Figure 1.2C and E). Hence, the demand for resources has been more than proportional relative to the global population increase. Such enhancements in resource use, in particular through agriculture, have become achievable only through tremendously increased fertilization (Figure 1.2F), given the limitation in arable land. This limitation is strikingly mirrored by the decline in harvested grain area per capita since the 1950s (Figure 1.2D).

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C emission – removal (Gg)

6 5 4 Africa 3 Northern America 2 South America 1 South-Eastern Asia 0 Europe -1 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Year

FIGURE 1.3 Time course of the net balance of continental carbon (C) emission into and removal from the atmosphere related to ecosystem conversion; negative numbers denote removal higher than emission. Data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO.

Intensive agriculture in combination with forest destruction has substantially enhanced the releases of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere, in addition to CO2 release from the altered ecosystems and usage of fossil energy sources (Figure 1.4). CO2, CH4 and N2O are the main greenhouse gases that drive climate change. In addition, high gaseous N emissions from agriculture and fossil fuel burning cause eutrophication of forests, bearing progressive risks of damage by nutritional imbalances, acidification decrease in frost hardiness and raised susceptibility to pathogens and herbivores. Damage will also arise from atmospheric warming and the associated soil water limitation. For example, the area of tropical rain forests is predicted to be reduced by 25% through changing climate during the upcoming decades (Figure 1.5), which exacerbates the loss by land conversion and burning. However, the effects of atmospheric warming and altered precipitation patterns may develop quite variably depending on latitude and longitude, topography and zonobiome (Figure 1.6). This regional variation in climate change effects generates uncertainty about the future shifts in C sequestration and storage versus C release. Apart from its immediate relevance for climate warming, forest burning is a major source of air pollution at the global scale. In Brazil, for example, about 75% of emissions can be related to land-use change (MCT, 2009). The fire-released emissions comprise precursors of secondary pollutant formation, which inter alia contribute to enhanced formation of ground-level ozone (O3). Remarkable is the congruency, in particular in the tropics and subtropics, between regions of distinct enhancement in O3 levels predicted towards the end of the twenty-first century (Figure 1.7; Sitch et al., 2007) and extensive forest burning. However, with the exception of some urban areas, little is known across the low latitudes worldwide about O3 regimes

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A CO2 concentration (mmol mol-1)

390 370 350 330 310 290 270 250

CH4 concentration (nmol mol-1)

B

1900 1700 1500 1300 1100 900 700 500

N2O concentration (nmol mol-1)

C

330 320 310 300 290 280 270

1750 1770 1790 1810 1830 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010

Year FIGURE 1.4 Global atmospheric concentration of (A) carbon dioxide, (B) methane and (C) nitrous oxide from 1750 through 2010. Data provided by EEA (http://www.eea.europa.eu/legal/ copyright).

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A

Desert Dry forest

Grassland Wet forest

B

FIGURE 1.5 (A) Current and (B) predicted future expansions of wet and dry forests, grasslands and deserts in the tropics and subtropics of South America and Africa. After Smith et al. (1992).

and especially about their effects on vegetation. This deficit is grave in view of O3 being the potentially most detrimental air pollutant Matyssek and Sandermann (2003). O3 further weakens the capacity of forests for C sequestration and storage, in addition to the destruction by land-use change. Hence, increasing O3 levels may counteract potentially stimulating effects on vegetation of the anthropogenic CO2 enrichment in the atmosphere (Kubiske et al., 2007; Matyssek et al., 2010). The estimated loss in gross primary production of forest ecosystems worldwide due to O3 amounts to 50–100 Gt of C from the second half of the nineteenth century until the present (Sitch et al., 2007). Under the current rate of CO2 enrichment in air, only somewhat more than 1 Gt of C is presumed to be additionally fixed each year by photosynthesis worldwide from the total amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic activity. That latter amount of C per year remains in the global balancing of C fluxes as the ‘missing carbon’ (IPCC, 2007). A recent estimate of forest C balances shows that in the tropics the large sink is more than balanced by deforestation and that the net forest sink of 1.1 Gt C year 1 is due to temperate and boreal forests (Pan et al., 2011). Such considerations mediate the vulnerability to air pollution, in particular that of tropospheric O3, as an intrinsic component of climate change (Matyssek et al., 2013), and if including ecosystem conversion, of global change. Enhanced O3 concentrations in the troposphere also drive warming, as O3 is a greenhouse gas.

FIGURE 1.6 Global distributions of changes in air temperature (left) and precipitation (right) predicted for the summer months of the northern hemisphere; patterns denote the average of predictions provided by several global circulation models; predictions of changes were made for the period 2080 through 2099 as related to 1980 through 1999. After IPCC (2007).

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FIGURE 1.7 Global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration predicted towards the end of the twenty-first century. After Sitch et al. (2007).

As a result of the excursus given above, we can see that forest ecosystems are crucial components within climate change scenarios. Still, the effects of climate change on C sequestration and storage capacities of forest ecosystems, along with influences on forest hydrology and freshwater resources, are apparently complex and difficult to predict. Although this book must acknowledge the apparently ungovernable global population growth with its ecological consequences, capacities will be explored in forest research by which the anthropogenic pressure on forests during the upcoming decades by climate change and air pollution can be understood and tackled. We feel that the need for process-based understanding prior to effectively adopting mitigation strategies provides well-reasoned arguments for writing this book. To this end, the current state of understanding forest ecosystem functioning will be examined as a key pre-requisite towards stress and risk mitigation. Upcoming research needs and innovative methodological concepts will be explored, along with implications for socio-economy and environmental policy making. Given this kind of direction, the subsequent sections of this chapter will introduce the scope and aims, and the chapter structure of this book.

1.2 AIMS, SCOPE AND RATIONALE The need for writing this book arises from the ecologically significant, anthropogenic pressures forests currently face. In summary, such pressures result in a loss of forested area (Figures 1.1 and 1.5) and forest capacity for carbon sequestration and storage, mediated, for example, through exacerbating water limitation and air pollution reducing forest functionality. Consequences

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altogether contribute to the excessive atmospheric CO2 contamination. Other climate-effective gases apart from CO2 are also released (Figures 1.3 and 1.4) which through enforcing temperature increase and drought (Figure 1.6) curtail the photosynthetic CO2 resorption from the atmosphere. O3 in rising concentrations (Figure 1.7) both as a climate-effective gas and as a noxious agent weakens photosynthesis and, by this, adds to atmospheric overheating. Land-use changes apparently are determinants of climate change and air pollution, and as drivers of ecosystem–atmosphere interactions they are part of the conflicting ecological and socio-economic demands. On such grounds, the aims pursued by this book emerge as follows: a. clarifying mechanistic, that is, cause–effect, bases of the above relationships between anthropogenic pressures, forest ecosystem responses and atmospheric regimes for comprehending the current state and potential of forests to acclimate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment, and to mitigate adverse impacts; b. comprehensively reconciling process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and modelling of environmental changes and forest ecosystem responses; c. next, introducing the novel ‘forest Supersites for Research’ concept for promoting and integrating ecosystem monitoring and empirical knowledge acquisition on soil–plant–atmosphere process interactions; d. and finally, preparing grounds for mechanistically anchored and policyoriented modelling tools with scientifically sound risk indication for atmospheric changes and ecosystem responsiveness, and eventually, for sustaining ecosystem services within prevalent socio-economic contexts. In pursuing such aims, the scientific scope of topics covered by the book must be wide. In view of (b) and (c), one important topic is the exploration of the information potential which is presently available in the databases of largescale programmes and projects, but overlooked or unused because of nonstandardized database structures and, hence, impeded information flow between and access to databases (Clarke et al., 2011; Danielewska et al., 2013). What are in view of (a) and (d), bottlenecks for proficient, integrative information drain across databases and the means for overcoming present limitations? Progress here will facilitate the identification of current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs, which is a prominent task of this book from the perspectives of both empirical analysis and theoretical modelling approaches (see a, b and d; Matyssek and Mohren, 2012). How far have we come in reaching integrative knowledge related to the topic of this book, and where do further efforts need to be directed to for augmenting and consolidating evidence (see a and c)? Emerging directions will provide and sharpen arguments for using or developing novel conducive methodologies and integrated, ecologically meaningful research concepts. This will guide interpretation of findings and help to prioritize research needs.

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For prioritization, it is necessary to be aware that the previous acquisition and accumulation of knowledge related to the book’s subject has been focused mainly on forest ecosystems of the northern hemisphere, in particular those of the temperate zonobiomes, whereas a high need for clarification exists in the southern hemisphere (Figures 1.3 and 1.5; Calfapietra et al., 2009; Matyssek et al., 2012a). Which are the needs and means for optimizing the geographical focus of research activities towards achieving globally balanced acquisitions of evidence and holistic integration at the global scale, given the worldwide distribution of woody-plant systems (Figure 1.1)? This latter question indeed poses a major challenge towards understanding planetary ecology and its spatial finiteness and, hence, limitations in exploitable resources, which is crucial in face of the human population growth and its resource demands (Figure 1.2). One part of this book is dedicated, therefore, to exploring southern hemispheric needs for approaching a balanced planetary scope. The global perspective brings us to the socio-economic context (see d), with implications for raising efficacy in impacting research and environmental policies. Having elucidated the scientific scope of the book, its innovation is borne by the overall rationale towards integrating modelling, monitoring and empirical experimentation, and in such view, stimulating scientific networking across northern and southern hemispheres on ecological analysis, socioeconomic relevancy and policy making. Political farsightedness in decision making is to be encouraged, based both on what we know today and what we still need to find out through support of innovative research, for the sake of ensuring ecosystem integrity, and hence, the survival of mankind. On such grounds, the ambition of the book is to develop new perspectives which also support the post-Kyoto debate. The book’s rationale has originated from the COST Action FP0903 (Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment, MAFor, which was active from 2009 through 2013; http://cost-fp0903.ipp.cnr.it/). COST standing for European Cooperation in Science and Technology represents a funding instrument of the European Union (EU) in support of network cooperation in science and technology within the EU and associated countries. The book represents the concluding publication from MAFor, which pursued two main objectives, namely i. to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment, and ii. to reconcile process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modelling at comprehensive forest research sites (Supersites). Regarding these objectives, including the newly introduced Supersite concept (see c), MAFor gave rise to the publications by Clarke et al. (2011), Fischer et al. (2011), Paoletti and Tuovinen (2011), Matyssek and Mohren (2012), Matyssek et al. (2012a) and Danielewska et al. (2013). These publications, in particular that by Matyssek et al. (2012a) on collocating gaps in understanding

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and future directions for research, provided inspiration for this book in exploring the addressed objectives in depth and towards an integrative rationale. The essence of that rationale is mirrored by the chapter structure of this book, as shown below.

1.3

OVERVIEW OF THE BOOK’S STRUCTURE

After introducing the concept and rationale of this book (Part I, this chapter), the book’s first major focus will be on interactions between trace gases, climate change and vegetation (Part II), relevant for the aspects shown in Figures 1.3–1.7 (see a). Key issues are the mechanistic grounds of interactions between CO2, O3, different N species and VOCs as well as the atmosphere– biosphere exchange of these compounds, the arising significance for aerosol formation and dynamics related to the formation of O3 in the troposphere from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursor emissions. What kinds of feedbacks exist with regard to climate change? Five chapters will be dedicated to such considerations. Another six chapters will elucidate the significance of biotic processes in forest ecosystem response to climate change and air pollution (Part III), underlying the large-scale phenomena of Figures 1.3–1.7, while being drivers related to (a). Factorial biotic–abiotic associations impacting on C cycling and C sink formation in forest ecosystems in concert with water and nutrient relations will be elucidated at the tree and stand level. This implies consideration of trace gas fluxes as determined by stomatal regulation and respiratory processes along with interactions between elevated CO2 and O3 regimes in tree and ecosystem response. Particular attention is directed to influences through the genotype, ontogeny and phenology of trees, as well as competitive facilitative, mutualistic and parasitic above- and belowground interactions, weighting the role of edaphic factors (e.g. soil moisture and nutrients) within the analysis. Part IV is the extension of Part III leading over to highlighting the mechanistic and diagnostic understanding of ecosystem response for conducting risk assessment and tree-ecosystem process-scaling. Five chapters are assigned here, dealing with the empirical and modelling perspectives on the subject. Empirical assessment to integrate the molecular level of metabolic control and the biochemical and physiological process levels of metabolic activity will be stressed, looking for biological markers of environmental impact (Matyssek et al., 2012b; Sandermann and Matyssek, 2004). Such integration will yield the mechanistic grounds for process up-scaling in spatio-temporal terms to the ecosystem level and beyond, by promoting tool development for differential stress diagnosis and process-based risk assessment (see a and d). Empirical research is stressed to provide databases for establishing and validating numeric models in order to enable their crucial function in research: as models representing hypotheses, guidance is provided for empirical research towards mechanistic consolidation in understanding (Priesack et al., 2012).

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Part V is dedicated to the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change, being one key concern of this book, in comprehending rationales in relation to Figures 1.1 and 1.5–1.7. Five chapters will contribute to a global perspective (see a), with particular attention to ‘hot spots’ in climate change and air pollution arising during the course of the twenty-first century. Scenarios will be exemplified from South America, South Africa, India and East Asia and set into perspective with the knowledge presently available from the temperate zonobiome of the northern hemisphere. Major gaps in information will be identified worldwide on the book’s subject and the potential of the newly introduced concept of ‘Supersites’ for research on forest ecosystems (see c; Fischer et al., 2011; Matyssek et al., 2012a). The potential of research Supersites will be explored in Part VI, as represented by two chapters, and reference will be made to facilitating information flow between databases across sites and to research networking across hemispheres. Parts V and VI will lead us to the three chapters of Part VII, examining the socio-economic context of the book’s subject and the means of knowledge transfer to practice and policy making (see d). Rationales are related to Figures 1.1, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.7. Ways of translating findings from empirical research and process-based, numeric modelling into silvicultural, political and socio-economic dimensions are key issues in this part of the book. Perspectives are on post-Kyoto policies, cost–benefit relationships of ecosystem services, and human health. It will be stressed that research outcomes can become effective only within and for the sake of society through appropriate communication to the public. Special attention will be directed to the expectations and needs of policy makers and various stakeholders. In Chapter 27 of Part VIII, we will arrive at the conclusions and perspectives derivable from the book. Can unification of air pollution and climate change research at ‘Supersites’ in forest ecosystems, interlinked within global research networks, provide breakthroughs in understanding the resilience of the ecosystem Earth under the increasing anthropogenic pressure? Will aims and scopes as propagated by this book enable strengthening of communication between experimentalists, monitoring experts, modellers, policy makers and stakeholders—for the sake of forest ecosystems, and ultimately, mankind? These are the key questions to which this book and its conclusions intend to give compelling answers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The constructive suggestions by Allan Legge on the manuscript are highly appreciated.

REFERENCES Bengtson, M., Shen, Y., Oki, T., 2006. A SRES-based gridded global population data set for 1990–2100. Popul. Environ. 28, 113–131.

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Calfapietra, C., Ainsworth, E.A., Beier, C., De Angelis, P., Ellsworth, D.S., Godbold, D.L., Hendrey, G.R., Hickler, T., Hoosbeek, M.R., Karnosky, D.F., King, J., Ko¨rner, C., Leakey, A.D.B., Lewin, K.F., Liberloo, M., Long, S.P., Lukac, M., Matyssek, R., Miglietta, F., Nagy, J., Norby, R.J., Oren, R., Percy, K.E., Rogers, A., Scarascia Mugnozza, G., Stitt, M., Taylor, G., Ceulemans, R., 2009. Challenges in elevated CO2 experiments on forests. Trends Plant Sci. 15, 5–10. Clarke, N., Fischer, R., de Vries, W., Lundin, L., Papale, D., Vesala, T., Merila¨, P., Matteucci, G., Mirtl, M., Simpson, D., Paoletti, E., 2011. Availability, accessibility, quality and comparability of monitoring data for European forests for use in air pollution and climate change science. iForest 4, 162–166. Cohen, J.E., 2003. Human population: the next half century. Science 302, 1172–1175. Danielewska, A., Clarke, N., Olejnik, J., Hansen, K., de Vries, W., Lundin, L., Tuovinen, J., Fischer, R., Urbaniak, M., Paoletti, E., 2013. A meta-database comparison from various European Research and Monitoring Networks dedicated to forest sites. iForest 6, 1–9. Dixon, R.K., Brown, S., Houghton, R.A., Solomon, A.M., Trexler, M.C., Wisniewski, J., 1994. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263, 185–191. Fischer, R., Aas, W., De Vries, W., Clarke, N., Cudlin, P., Leaver, D., Lundin, L., Matteucci, G., ¨ ztu¨rk, Y., Papale, D., Potocic, N., Simpson, D., Matyssek, R., Mikkelsen, T.N., Mirtl, M., O Tuovinen, J.-P., Vesala, T., Wieser, G., Paoletti, E., 2011. Towards a transnational system of supersites for forest monitoring and research in Europe—an overview on present state and future recommendations. iForest 4, 167–171. Fritsch, B., 1990. Mensch, Umwelt, Wissen. Evolutionsgeschichtliche, London. IPCC, 2007. Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Summary for policymakers. WG1, AR4. Available from: http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/wg1-report.html. Kubiske, M.E., Quinn, V.S., Marquardt, P.E., Karnosky, D.F., 2007. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or O3 on intra- and interspecific competitive ability of Aspen. Plant Biol. 9, 342–355. Lovelock, J., 2009. A Final Warning: The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Penguin Books, London. Lu¨ttge, U., 2013. The planet Earth: can it feed nine billion people? Nova Acta Leopold. 391, 345–364. Luyssaert, S., Schulze, E.-D., Bo¨rner, A., Knohl, A., Hessenmo¨ller, D., Law, B.E., Grace, J., Ciais, P., 2008. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455, 213–215. Matyssek, R., Mohren, G.M.J., 2012. Special topic: integrating modelling and experimentation. Trees. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-012-0778-4. Matyssek, R., Sandermann, H., 2003. Impact of ozone on trees: an ecophysiological perspective. Progress in Botany, vol. 64. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 349–404. Matyssek, R., Wieser, G., Ceulemans, R., Rennenberg, H., Pretzsch, H., Haberer, K., Lo¨w, M., Nunn, J.J., Werner, H., Wipfler, P., Oßwald, W., Nikolova, P., Hanke, D., Kraigher, H., Tausz, M., Bahnweg, G., Kitao, M., Dieler, J., Sandermann, H., Herbinger, K., Grebenc, T., Blumenro¨ther, M., Deckmyn, G., Grams, T.E.E., Heerdt, C., Leuchner, M., Fabian, P., Ha¨berle, K.H., 2010. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)—resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest. Environ. Pollut. 158, 2527–2532. Matyssek, R., Wieser, G., Calfapietra, C., de Vries, W., Dizengremel, P., Ernst, D., Jolivet, Y., Mikkelsen, T.N., Mohren, G.M.J., le Thiec, D., Tuovinen, J.-P., Weatherall, A., Paoletti, E., 2012a. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research. Environ. Pollut. 160, 57–65. Matyssek, R., Schnyder, H., Oßwald, W., Ernst, D., Munch, J.C., Pretzsch, H. (Eds.), 2012b. Growth and defence in plants—resource allocation at multiple scales. In: Ecological Studies, vol. 220. Springer, Heidelberg, p. 467.

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Matyssek, R., Kozovits, A.R., Schnitzler, J., Pretzsch, H., Dieler, J., Wieser, G., 2013. Forest trees under air pollution as a factor of climate change. In: Tausz, M., Grulke, N. (Eds.), Trees in a Changing Environment: Ecophysiology, Adaptation and Future Survival. Springer, Heidelberg (in press). MCT, 2009. Ministe´rio de Cieˆncia e Tecnologia, Inventa´rio brasileiro das emisso˜es e remoc¸o˜es antro´picas de gases de efeito estufa: informac¸o˜es gerais e valores preliminares. http://www. mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/310922/Segundo_Inventario_Brasileiro_de_Emissoes_e_ Remocoes_Antropicas_de_Gases_de_Efeito_Estufa.html. Pan, Y., Birdsey, R.A., Fang, J., Houghton, R., Kauppi, P., Kurz, W.A., Phillips, O.L., Shvidenko, A., Lewis, S.L., Canadell, J.G., Ciais, P., Jackson, R.B., Pacala, S.W., McGuire, A.D., Piao, S., Rautiainen, A., Sitch, S., Hayes, D., 2011. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333, 988–993. Paoletti, E., Tuovinen, J.-P., 2011. COST Action FP0903: research, monitoring and modelling in the study of climate change and air pollution impacts on forest ecosystems. iForest 4, 160–161. Priesack, E., Gayler, S., Ro¨tzer, T., Seifert, T., Pretzsch, H., 2012. Mechanistic modelling of soil– plant–atmosphere systems. In: Matyssek, R., Schnyder, H., Oßwald, W., Ernst, D., Munch, J.C., Pretzsch, H. (Eds.), Growth and defence in plants—resource allocation at multiple scales. Ecological Studies, vol. 220. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 335–354. Sandermann, H., Matyssek, R., 2004. Scaling up from molecular to ecological processes. In: Sandermann, H. (Ed.), Molecular Ecotoxicology of Plants. Ecological Studies, vol. 170. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 207–226. Schulze, E.D., Luyssaert, S., Ciais, P., Freibauer, A., Janssens, I.A., et al., 2009. Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe’s terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance. Nat. Geosci. 2, 842–850. Sitch, S., Cox, P.M., Collins, W.J., Huntingford, C., 2007. Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink. Nature 448, 791–795. Smith, T.M., Leemans, R., Shugart, W.H., 1992. Sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to climate change: Comparison of four scenarios based on general circulation models. Clim. Change. 21, 367–384.