03 Gaseous fuels (derived gaseous organic polymer membranes. Product yields are increased through permreactor equilibrium shift and reaction separation process integration. CO and Hz can be combined in first step to be used for chemical synthesis or as fuel in power generation cycles. Mixtures of COz and Hz in second step can be used for synthesis as well (e.g. alternative methanol synthesis) and as direct feed in molten carbonate fuel cells. Pure Hz from the above processes can be used also for synthesis or as fuel in power systems and fuel cells. The process can be considered environmentally benign because it offers an in-situ abatement of the greenhouse CO1 and CH4 gases and related hydrocarbon-CO2 feedstocks (e.g. coal, landfill, natural, flue gases), through chemical reactions, to the upgraded calorific value synthesis gas and Hz, Hz mixture products. 02/00305 Biogas production by optimized use of special meat wastes Schneider, R., Prechtl, S. EnrsorgungsPraxis, 1999, 17, (7/8), 19-21. (In German) Slaughterhouse wastes were hydrolysed above 150” in a continuously operating pressurized reactor at more than 10 bar with a yield greater 80%. The composition of the hydrolyzate was determined, and increased saponification of the fat and an increased pH value were observed, which indicated that the biopolymers were hydrolysed to monomers and oligomers. The hydrolysates were converted in art anaerobic process into biogas, and first results demonstrated that the described method was reliable process to convert hazardous slaughterhouse wastes in an economical, ecological and hygienic procedure. 02/00306 Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. hot gas cleanup with selected commercial and full-size nickelbased catalysts Caballero, M.A. et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2000, 39, (5), 1143-l 154. Three selected common, full-size steam-reforming catalysts for naphthas, BASF Gl-50, ICI 46-1, and Topsoe R-67, are tested at pilot-scale level for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification in a fluidized bed. Gas composition and tar content in the flue gas are measured before and after the catalytic bed. Variations of the catalytic bed in Hz, CO, COz, CH4, and Hz0 contents are reported for different operating conditions. Tar conversions and an apparent first-order kinetics constant for the overall tar removal reaction are calculated. Tar contents at the exit of the catalytic reactor as low as 10 mg/mn3 are obtained in a test of 50 h-onstream without noticeable catalyst deactivation. Important variations in tar conversion with space time in the catalytic bed, with HzO/C* in the flue gas, and with the equivalence ratio in the upstream gasifier are observed. These results obtained at the pilot-scale level and with the use of full-sized common catalysts are an important forward step in demonstrating the technical feasibility of the overall biomass gasification process. 02lOO307 Burner study for Texaco coal gasification process Wang, X. Shunghai Huagong, 2000, 25, (II), 15-18. (In Chinese) The performance and use of burner for Texaco coal gasification process are studied. Some suggestions for the correct use of the burner are provided. 02lOO306 Catalyst screening for hydrogen production in mobile systems by the partial oxidation of methanol or hydrocarbons Newson, E. et al. Hydrogen Energy Prog. XII. Proc. World Hydrogen Energy Conf., 12ih, 1998, 2, 953-961. Edited by Bolcich, J.C., Veziroglu, T.N. Several methods of Hs supply for mobile fuel cell systems are being evaluated worldwide. For reasons based on full fuel cycle efficiency, available gasoline infrastructure and reaction exothermicity (fast startup), the partial oxidation (POX) of methanol or hydrocarbons to Hz and carbon dioxide is of potential interest. The results of catalyst screening for methanol POX have shown significant conversions (8099%) and Hz yields (40-65%) but with hot spots of 50-150°C and CO levels of 2%. The Hz rates are equivalent to 20-45 kW,,JL reactor volume depending on reaction parameters. In contrast, initial results from hydrocarbon (toluene) POX are dominated by total oxidation giving high conversions (85-95%) but low yields (lo-20%) of Hz. More screening is required for toluene POX and dynamic experiments with stability tests for the methanol route. Palladium-silver foil membranes were tested to reduce the CO content in Hz. but a CO slip of 40 ppm and low permeation rates, 2 W/cmz, make this option uneconomic with this module design. 02/00309 Char gasification reaction rate Harada, M. er al. Sekilan Riyo Gijursu Kaigi Koenshu, 1999, 9, 140-l 5 I. (In Japanese) Effects of operating temperature, pressure, and coal type on char gasification reaction rate are studied experimentally. Experimental devices, operating conditions, experimental results, and future research plan are described.
02fOO310 Coal gasification technology Li, Y. Huafei Gongye, 2000, 27, (1) 10-16. (In Chinese) A review with no references cm coal gasification technology in fertilizer industry including the technical reformation of gas stove, application and development of grate bar, renewing of waste kettle, application of air fan, auto-stoker, and microcomputer, raw material and technological process, and utilization of latent heatomic 02/00311 Coal gasification with gas purification apparatus in combined electric power generation plants Fujimura, H. er al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 178,567 (Cl. ClOJ3/46), 27 Jun 2000, Appl. 1998/357,223, 16 Dee 1998. 9. (In Japanese) The apparatus used in refining coal gas from coal gasification, includes a venturi scrubber for capturing the solid from the gas by water spraying; and a water-washing tower, in its lower portion, having a dual water-tank section divided by partition parts, with the first water-tank storing the water separated from gas-liquid separation of the gas in the scrubber and the seconnd water-tank storing the washing water for supplying to the separated gas for gas-liquid contact, for stable dust removing. 02/00312 Desulfurizer and its maintenance method for city gas and liquefied petroleum gas Honda, K. et a/. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 119,667 (Cl. ClOK1/32), 25 Apr 2000, Appl. 1998/296,359, 19 Ott 1998. 6. (In Japanese) The desulphurizer includes a plurality of adsorption sections, removeable connected in series, each section having porous ceramic layer containing powdered adsorbent on its inner wall, using faujasite-type zeolite having Na+-exchange site as adsorbent, to remove S-containing odorant from the fuel gas. 02/00313 Determination of reactor scaling factors for throatless rice husk gasifier Jam, A.K., Goss, J.R. Biomass Bioenergy, 2000, 18, (3) 249-256. Four open core throatless batch fed rice husk gasifier reactors having internal diameters of 15.2, 20.3, 24.4 and 34.3 cm were designed and fabricated. Each reactor connected with gas cleaning unit was tested for its performance characteristics. On each reactor ten trial runs were conducted varying the air flow rate or specific gasification rate. Gas quality, gas production rate, gasification efficiency specific gasification rate, and equivalence ratio were determined for every run on each of the four reactors. It was found that for each reactor the gasifier performance was the best at a specific gasification rate of around 192.5 kg/h-m’. Under the best operating conditions, the equivalence ratio was 0.40 and the gasification efficiency was around 65%. These parameters may be used for designing rice husk operated throatless gasifiers in the capacity range of 3-15 kW. 02lOO314 Development of coal hydrogasification technology Katsukura, K. Kagaku Kogaku, 2000, 64, (4), 192-196. (In Japanese) A review, with no references, of the title subject, including necessity for coal derived substitute natural gas, characteristics of advanced rapid coal hydrogasification, and development of key elements. 02lOO315 Development of FBR measurement of char reactivity to carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures Luo, C. et al. Fuel, 2001, 80, (2), 233-243. Gasification kinetics of char is thought as a key factor in designing and operating gasifiers. The widely used present technique, TGA method, is limited in temperature and heating rate ranges. A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) method is described which is suitable for measuring char reactivity at elevated temperatures up to 1873 K by using COz as the gasifying agent. It is capable of carbonizing coal samples under various conditions including rapid heating as well as slow heating, and in-situ measuring char gasification rate directly after carbonization. Char reactivity is evaluated from the time variation of CO concentration in the exit gas. The heterogeneous global model, incorporated with the two-phase model, is used to describe the reaction of chars. On the basis of the model, the tilm mass transfer resistance and the bubble-emulsion mass transfer resistance are calculated and their influence on the measured results is assessed. Proper selection of operating parameters for assuring reasonable measurement is discussed. Data processing methods have been developed to give fundamental, quantitative measurements of char reactivity, allowing direct comparison of reactivity between chars. 02/00316 Development of spouted-bed gasifier simulation technology Asahiro, N. er al. Sekitan Riyo G&usu Kaigi Koenshu, 1999, 9, 152-162. (In Japanese) Fuel and Energy Abstracts