Composition of the “GaAs” quantum dot, grown by droplet epitaxy

Composition of the “GaAs” quantum dot, grown by droplet epitaxy

Superlattices and Microstructures 48 (2010) 351–357 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Superlattices and Microstructures journal homepage: ww...

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Superlattices and Microstructures 48 (2010) 351–357

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Superlattices and Microstructures journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/superlattices

Composition of the ‘‘GaAs’’ quantum dot, grown by droplet epitaxy Á. Nemcsics a,b,∗ , L. Tóth b , L. Dobos b , Ch. Heyn c , A. Stemmann c , A. Schramm c , H. Welsch c , W. Hansen c a

Institute for Microelectronics and Technology, Tavaszmező u. 17. H-1084 Budapest, Hungary

b

Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49 H-1525 Budapest, Hungary

c

Institut für Angewandte Physik und Zentrum für Mikrostrukturforschung, Jungiusstraße 11, D-20355 Hamburg, Germany

article

info

Article history: Received 14 September 2009 Received in revised form 21 July 2010 Accepted 21 July 2010 Available online 12 August 2010 Keywords: MBE GaAs Droplet epitaxy Quantum dot (QD) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Composition map

abstract Self-assembled strain-free quantum dot (QD) structures were grown on AlGaAs surface by the droplet epitaxal method. The QDs were developed from pure Ga droplets under As pressure. The QDs were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both techniques show that the QDs are very uniform in size and their distribution on the surface is also homogeneous. The high resolution cross-sectional TEM investigation shows perfect lattice matching between the QD and the substrate, and also the faceting of the side walls of QD can be identified exactly by lattice planes. Analytical TEM (elemental mapping by EELS) unambiguously identifies the presence of Al in the QD. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Recently, the growth of self-assembled quantum structures has been intensively investigated for basic physics and device applications. It is very important to understand their growth process and to know their particular shape. The archetypal system of these nanostructures is the lattice-mismatched system such as InAs on GaAs, where the strain-induced process leads to the formation of quantum dot (QD) [1,2]. Detailed electronic structure of QD, which governs electronic and optical properties, depends on the shape [3,4]. It is generally accepted, that one of the essential

∗ Corresponding author at: Institute for Microelectronics and Technology, Tavaszmező u. 17. H-1084 Budapest, Hungary. Tel.: +36 1 666 5185; fax: +36 1 666 5199. E-mail address: [email protected] (Á. Nemcsics). 0749-6036/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.spmi.2010.07.006

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driving forces, for coherent lattice mismatched QD formation, is strain relaxation [5]. In this field, the self-assembled lattice matched quantum structures, employing droplet epitaxy, is an interesting and novel alternative for the the estabilished technology of strain-driven QD formation [6,7]. Today, no theoretical description is available for the underlaying growth mechanism, the development of the facetting, in the case of droplet epitaxy. It is very important to understand the growth kinetics. In this paper, we focus on the composition and evolution of the dropletepitaxial QDs, investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We compare the corresponding atomic force microscopy (AFM) results with TEM images. 2. Experimental We studied the process responsible for the droplet epitaxial formation of GaAs QDs on AlGaAs by various experimental techniques. The growth experiments were performed in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system equipped with effusion cells for Ga and Al evaporation and a valved cracker cell for As. The evolution of the growth front was monitored with reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The substrate material was an exactly oriented GaAs(001) wafer with a diameter of 50 mm. On the substrate, at first, a pure GaAs layer was grown, followed by an Al0.3 Ga0.7 As layer, with a thickness of 180 nm. The droplet-epitaxial QDs were prepared in the following manner. After the growth of the Al0.3 Ga0.7 As layer, the sample was cooled down to 200 °C. The θ = 3.75 ML Ga was deposited with a flux of 0.19 ML/s without As flux. After the deposition of Ga we waited 60 s still without As ambient pressure, that was followed by a 120 s processing under an As pressure of 6.4 × 10−5 Torr. The process of annealing, at 350 °C, was carried out under the same As pressure for 10 min. The formation of the quantum objects was tracked continuously in the direction of the [1–10] with the help of RHEED. Immediately after the growth process the samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM measurement was carried out in the tapping mode on the middle part of the wafer. After the AFM study, the surface was covered with photoresistant lacquer (product of Shipley) to protect the quantum objects. Thinned cross sectional specimens were prepared for TEM by the usual way (cutting, embedding into a special holder, mechanical grinding and polishing and finally ion beam milling with 10 keV Ar ions). A conventional TEM study of the samples was performed with a Philips CM20 electron microscope working at 200 kV. The high resolution images and the elemental maps were taken by a 300 kV JEOL 3010 dedicated high resolution microscope, equipped with an imaging filter (GATAN Tridem model). 3. Discussion The formation of the QDs on AlGaAs (001) surface were observed by in situ RHEED. At the start of the process, the RHEED pattern of the surface shows sharp streaks. After the Ga deposition, the pattern becomes diffused on the RHEED screen (stage A). Almost at the same time with the opening of As cell (pressure of 6.4 × 10−5 Torr), the RHEED pattern changed from diffused to spotty (stage B). During the annealing phase, the pattern has changed slowly (some minutes) from spotty to spots with chevron tails [8]. Fig. 1 shows the quantum dots as observed on the AlGaAs surface by AFM (A) and by TEM (B). To make the latter image, the cross sectional TEM specimen was tilted by 30°. Both images show, that the QDs have uniform shapes and the sizes were distributed homogeneously on the surface. A part of the region of 1 µm × 1 µm is recorded in perspective and shown in Fig. 1(A) (upper insert). The mean dimensions of QDs (60 nm base width and 7.5 nm height) were determined from individual line scans of the height. An example of one of these scans (from the marked QD at the middle of the image) is shown on the lower insert of Fig. 1(A). The surface density of QDs was determined from AFM pictures as 1.5 × 1010 cm−2 . The TEM image of the tilted sample (Fig. 1(B)) confirms the presence of the homogeneously distributed QDs of uniform size. Their density (calculated from the TEM image taking into account the tilt angle) was found 2.5 × 1010 cm−2 , slightly different from the value measured by AFM. This small deviation may come from the little macroscopic inhomogeneity of the sample (the

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A

B

Fig. 1. (A) AFM image of QDs; The density of QDs calculated from the AFM image is 1.5 × 1010 cm−2 ; The inserted pictures show the perspective of QDs (taken by AFM) and the profile of a typical QD (the direction of the scan is marked), respectively. (B) QDs on the tilted surface with the angle of 30°. The image is taken by TEM. The density of QDs calculated from the tilted TEM image is 2.5 × 1010 cm−2 .

AFM was performed at the wafer centre while the TEM specimen was prepared close to the wafer edge, because the two measurement locations were positioned at least 2 cm from each other) or from the different measuring method. The atomic resolution structure of a typical quantum dot is shown on Fig. 2 (the image was taken with the electron beam parallel to the [110] zone axis of the AlGaAs single crystal substrate). The amorphous film above the surface consists of two distinct layers: a thin photoresistant protecting layer (darker contrast, marked by ‘‘a’’) and the glue applied between the two faces of the cross sectional specimen (brighter, marked by ‘‘b’’). The presence of these layers on the image makes sure that the original surface morphology was preserved during the complex process of specimen preparation. Fig. 2 shows that all the lattice fringes of the AlGaAs substrate are continued in the GaAs QD without any distortion. It is well known that the lattice parameters of these two substances are practically the same. No crystal defects were observed within the QD or at the interface with the host crystal. The feature mentioned is shown in a darker contrast of the QD, also a few atomic surface layers of AlGaAs crystal between the QDs. The darker contrast on the AlGaAs surface can be interpreted

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Fig. 2. High-resolution cross-sectional TEM image of a droplet epitaxial QD. The lattice parameters of the substrate and QD materials are about the same. No lattice defects are visible at the interface. Two amorphous layers are visible on the surface (a) surface is covered by lacquer for protection (b) adhesive required for sample preparation. The QD visible in the TEM image is less than mean size of QD measured by AFM (see inserted profile in Fig. 1). This can originate from the non-diameter cross-section (see inserted figure).

as follows. The AlGaAs layer, at low temperature, shows an As rich c (4 × 4) surface. Nominally θ = 3.75 ML Ga is deposited on the surface without arsenic flux. In the duration the Ga supply, a few ML of Ga is combined with excess arsenic surface atoms, thus a thin GaAs layer forms on the surface, while the rest of the Ga forms nanodroplets (stage A). During the crystalization, the droplet and the surface layer go into a similar composition (stage B). As a result the QD and the surface layer shows a similar darker contrast compared to the host material. The existence of this GaAs surface layer was predicted earlier from the comparison of the photoluminescent measurement and the energy levels calculation [9]. The dimensions of the QD in Fig. 2 were 35 nm base width and 4.5 nm height. These are somewhat lower than the average measured by AFM. The probable cause is that during preparation, the QD might have been sectioned not at its largest diameter (see insert). The steepness of the QD side wall was measured on the TEM image as well as by AFM. The results were about 25° measured by both methods, which also correlates with the RHEED image showing a chevron angle of 50° [10]. Fig. 3 shows the high resolution micrograph of a similar QD together with Ga and Al elemental maps (composed from energy filtered TEM) of the same area. The elemental maps were taken with the three windows technique using the Ga L edge and the Al K edge. Although their spatial resolution (typically a few nm) is far from that of the high resolution image (0.17 nm) these images clearly show that the QDs contain both Ga and Al. The presence of Al within the QDs is supported by the explicit protrusion of bright contrast on the Al map at regions corresponding to the QDs. The formation mechanism of droplet-epitaxial GaAlAs QDs is explained as follows. The first step is the deposition of Ga resulting in the formation of small Ga droplets on the AlGaAs surface (stage A). The appearance of liquid aggregate on the surface is proved by the change of the sharp diffraction streaks in RHEED to a diffused pattern [8]. It is known from the liquid phase epitaxy, that thermal etching takes place at the Ga melt/GaAlAs crystal interface [11] and Al or AlAs species dissolve into the Ga melt. This dissolution occurs when the Ga is in a liquid state. The Al contaminated volume of the droplet spreads out from the bottom interface to the outer shell (see Fig. 4(A), process (1)). This dissolution and mixing of the constituents takes place continuously during the whole 60 s waiting

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Fig. 3. Composition of the QD with the help of electron energy loss spectroscopical (EELS) scan; upper part: High-resolution cross-sectional TEM image of a QD, middle part: Ga-L map on the same cross-section, lower part: Al-K map on the same crosssection; The dotted line serves as guide for the eye to recognize the interfaces.

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Fig. 4. The scheme of the Ga droplet on GaAlAs surface; (A) during the waiting time; (B) after the opening of arsenic cell; (process (1)): Dissolution of AlAs at the gallium (liquid)–GaAlAs (solid) interface; (process (2)): growth of crystalline GaAs starting from the droplet edge.

time since the surface aggregate is in liquid status during this time (according to the RHEED result). On the Al elemental map (Fig. 3) a slight enrichment of aluminum can be observed in a thin surface layer of the substrate. This might be the result of the demixing effect similar to that observed in the case of GaAs/AlGaAs [12]. The next step (processing) begins with the opening of arsenic cell (stage B). The appearance of the crystalline phase is confirmed by in situ RHEED as well, showing the transformation of the diffuse pattern to a spotty one as soon as the As background emerges [8]. It is known, that the formation of the droplet epitaxial nanostructures is caused by As diffusion and Ga migration together. While at a higher temperature and lower arsenic pressure, the Ga migration is the dominant process during nanostructure formation, at a lower temperature and at a higher arsenic pressure, the As diffusion dominates the formation [13]. In the case of dot formation, the spread out process is suppressed and the As diffusion is dominant. The lateral spread out of the structure, due to the Ga migration helps the formation of rings. The process of GaAs crystallisation starts at the edge of the droplet, initialised by the three-phase-line at this point, serving as discontinuity for the seeding [14]. Although in principle interaction can take place at any point of the droplet, due to the thermal movement, the species, arriving to the edge, will start the seeding of the crystallisation process. The described mechanism for this process have been accepted by other authors too, otherwise it would be difficult to explain the formation of the quantum rings [15–17]. In the case of a dot, the seed grows inwards, whilst in the case of ring it tends to grow outwards, which is maintained by the Ga migration. Since we are dealing with dot shape, the dominant process is As diffusion [13]. The crystal seed grows inwards into the droplet, and also upwards simultaneously. This process of growth can only be explained quantitatively because, in the case of nano-sizes, the observed bulk processes and properties like diffusion and binding energy can not be applied. Although similar crystallization processes have been observed, but till now no attempt has been made to explain them (see Fig. 4(B), process (2)) [18]. The growth of the GaAs crystal occurs in a direction opposite to the penetration of Al (see Fig. 4). The crystallization of GaAs (process (2)) can start only after the opening of arsenic cell, while the dissolution of AlAs species (process (1)) occurs immediately upon deposition of the droplets. Process (2) is quicker than process (1). So, process (2) is dominant during the processing time. An important part of the above discussed process is the dissolution. The phase diagram of the Ga–Al–As system is known. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the processes can be given only qualitatively. The thermodynamically calculated and measured values differ from each other [19]. The nanoscale material properties (also thermodynamical properties) may differ drastically from the macroscopic case. These nanoscale properties are as yet known only partially. The description of the

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phase transitions is partly incomplete even in the macroscopic case. So in our nano-sized case, the above mentioned thermodynamical description is a rough qualitative approximation. 4. Conclusion This paper is dealing with the investigation of droplet epitaxial QD formation. QDs were prepared from Ga droplets on an AlGaAs surface. The cross-section of QD was investigated by TEM. The TEM picture shows that all lattice fringes of the AlGaAs substrate are continued in the GaAs QD without any distortion. EELS elemental mapping proved the presence of Al content inside the droplet epitaxial ‘‘GaAs’’ QDs. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a grant of the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst for. Á.N., and by a grants of the Hungarian Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA K75735 and K77331), and by a grant of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 508). We dedicate this paper to the memory of our colleague Prof. I. Mojzes, who died in the recent past. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

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