Concentration of heavy metals in seawater and sediments from the Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

Concentration of heavy metals in seawater and sediments from the Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

Chemosphere, Vol.12, No.l, P r i n t e d in Creat Britain :~Concentration i~orthern of heavy Aegean K.Fytianos Sea, pp 83 - 91, metals in 19...

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Chemosphere, Vol.12, No.l, P r i n t e d in Creat Britain

:~Concentration i~orthern

of

heavy

Aegean

K.Fytianos

Sea,

pp 83 - 91,

metals

in

1983

seawater

OO45-6535/83/O10083-09503.00/O © 1 9 8 3 P e r g a m o n Press Ltd.

and

sediments

from

the

Greece.,,

and G . S . V a s i l i k i o t i s

Environmental

Pollution

Thessaloniki,

Thessaloniki,

Control

Laboratory,

Aristotelian

University

of

Greece.

Introduction The p r e s e n c e sing can

be d e t e c t e d has

in

body o f

chain

to

high,

and

been

the

that

sea.

The c i t y

of

for

the

gulfs

it

their

liquid

west

of

u~its

the or

discharged

and are

at

least

treatment

tructed.

This

ge them a f t e r Thermaikos all small

bay

are

oil

treated coast

witll

a main

will

take

and

Axios

about of

Thessaloniki

mean d e p t h

of

about

20m.

the the

the

In

Figure

83

the

recei-

domestic, populated is

mainly

industry,ferindustrial

area,

waste

sewages

without planned

domestic

of

and

final

industrial

any to

are

are treat-

be c o n s -

s e w a g e s and d i s c h a r in

gulf,

two basins,

and G u l f

Aegean 3 .

smaller

domstic is

es-

industrial

treatment of

the

city

The T h e r m a i k o s

consist

(Bay

The

collector

all

biological

river.

70km,

but near

the

steel

12.000

city.

north

receives

in

increa-

Laboratory

contamination

located

so

and

a heavily

refinery,

the

portially

system

from

more than

near

along

mechanical of

from

as

food-

is

face

inhabitants

Gulf

Thermaikos

runoff

in

by o u r

the

distribution

which

Kavala

ago

The h e a v y m e t a l

also

the

and

1.200.000

industries

located

collector

through

perimeter

central

There also

directly

ment~A

wastes

the

areas,

use T h e r m a i k o s of

accumulate

come t h r o u g h

industrialization

a few y e a r s

area.

metals

heavy

of

in the

Thermaikos

The G u l f

threatening

and o t h e r

investigate

than

increaseawater

some f i s h e s 2 consumption

for

to

and n a t u r a l

some o t h e r

city.

which

treated

wastes.

by i n d u s t r i a l plant

of

area

industrialized

affected

due

witi~ more

industrial

content

sediments

started

industrial

fairly

tiliser

closed

Thessaloniki

agricultural, and

ana

problems,

these

they

was t o

of in

reach

mercury

Some o f

unsuitable study

seawater

invustigation

surrounding ver

are

present

pollutants

finally

mercury

a problem

heavy metals

copper,

and

So,

is

of

these

increased.

pollution

in

This

in

seawaters

lead,

organism#

fishes

heavy metals

pecially

of

human b e i n g s . the

in

quantities

same c o a s t s

remarkably

these

marine

in

marine

The aim o f sing

ions

The c o n t e n t

metalz; tile

metal

Considerable

concentrations.

of

of

importance.

the

gulf

which the

Thessaloniki,

I we can o b s e r v e

has

inner

of an o v e r and

having that

the a the

84

two b a s i n s shallow into

communicate together

mouths,

w h i c h do n o t

t h e open sea f o r To e x p l a i n

Aegean s e a , lation

in

the

role

mited

of

the of

bay o f

charged quantity Figure

2,

which

can o b s e r v e

prevalent.

According

between the

to

is

carry

in

this

was s t u d i e d .

mainly

due t o

tidal

and 2 a r e

in

the

which

do n o t

fishing

of

off

the

part

of

wastes

the

The w a t e r

the winds,

currents,

which

the

for

area,

north

circu-

the

dis-

have a l i -

winds

is

of

the

are

wind

a correlation

direction

di-

t h e most

of

in

the

this

currents,

a North-wind 5

six

sampling

Station

Stations

directly

there

w i n d and t h e

deviation

discharged,

receive

mean f r e q u e n c y

and S o u t h - W e s t

we i n s t a l l e d

industrial

sewage a r e m a i n l y

annual

North

the o b s e r v a t i o n s

direction

In T h e r m a i k o s g u l f

3 in

4,5

stations.

the

Stations

a r e a where m u n i c i p a l

and 6 were l a c a t e d

any w a s t e w a t e r

I

and t h e y

in

a r e used

areas, for

and r e c r e a t i o n .

The g u l f the

of of

of

near

the m i d l e

from the

pollution the of

closed

and r e c e i v e s

of

industrialization

from four

the

gulf

the

any t r e a t -

Kavala

not

in

localized

area

Kavala

town w i t h

because o f

had as c o n s e q u e n c e ,

sampling

industrial

oil-platforme.

sewages o f

without

inhabitants.

sea o i l - r e s e r v e s ,

Here we i n s t a l l e d St.2

also

w a s t e s and d o m e s t i c

increase

discovery

uncontrollable

is

about 80.000

The P a p i d recent

Kavala

industrial

a population

in

to

on l o w l e v e l s .

transport

and t h e

shows t h e that

w},ich have a r i g h t - h a n d

bor,

streams

currents

rivers

open sea by n a r r o w and

intensity. In

ment

the

pollution

cdastal

the

pollution

Thessaloniki the

rection,we area

permit

keeping the

better

the

and t o

(asumed

clean

the

somehow

sources.

stations

(Fig.3)

(fertilize~

The c o a s t a l

the

area)

current

St.l

in

producing and S t . 4 ,

were n o t

the

har-

plant),St.3 2km

studied

away for

the

Kavala gulf. Materials

and Methods

Samples o f

water

and s e d i m e n t s were c o l l e c t e d

T h e r m a i k o s and K a v a l a g u l f s Water

Samples:

filtered

Surface

through

sampling,

to avoid

. The w a t e r

HNO3 t o of

the

convert

a period

all

heavy m e t a l s

of

any p o s s i b l e

It

the metals were c a r r i e d

was f i l t e r d

adsorption

samples were then into out

the

of

twice

one y e a r

s e a w a t e r was s a m p l e d i n t o

a 0 , 4 5 - ~ m membrane.

ners

wall

during

a month

from

(1981-1982).

2,81it

containers

immediately

the metals

acidified

with

inorganic

form.

by a P e r k i n - E l m e r

on t h e

lOml

of

and after

contaiconc.

The m e a s u r e m e n t s 403 A t o m i c

85

Absorption cold

Spectrophotometer equipped with

v a p o u r t e c h n i q u e was used f o r

pensate chemical tificial part

and m a t r i x

sea w a t e r w i t h

o f each w a t e r

used f o r

with

in an

agate mortar.

acid

and n i t r i c

Hg-determination,

Water. of

(i~5)

50°C f o r

12h.

The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

After

of the

illustrate

heavy m e t a l s be due t o

and to (St.l

charged.

the

After

the was

(Eckmanhirge)

at

with

lO0°C,and

with

a mixture Ii0°C

~round

of

for

a mixture

t he d i g e s t i o n

maikos g u l f

the g e o l o g i c a l

increasing

perchlo-

2h.

of

For the

lINO3 and

the samples were

during contains

Significant

in

St.3,

the p o l l u t i o n

slightly

the

I

in

fluctuations a slight

rainfalls,which

heavy m e t a l s and e s p e c i a l l y comes from J u g o s l a v i a , the T h e s s a l o n i k i

higher

The s t a t i o n

Seasonal

be due t o

in

in

the wa-

t he c o n c e n t r a -

the w o r l d a r e h i g h ~ f ~ of

t he T h e s s a l o n i k i

industrial

waste and d o m e s t i c

where t h e m u n i c i p a l

high values

the n o r t h - w i n d s

were n o t o b s e r v e d e x c e p t f o r might

from

found

show t h a t

regions

configuration

pollution

in w a t e r which a r e

levels

t h e heavy m e t a l s were o b s e r v e d near i n d u s t r i a l

a r e due to

Kavala G u l f .

The d a t a

compared to o t h e r

and 2) and a l s o

St 4 and S t . 5

heavy m e t a l s

the g e n e r a l

The o b s e r v e d r e l a t i v e l y

and e s p e c i a l l y

in

(M.I.B.K.)

from m e t a l s and

and then h e a t e d a t

t h e samples were t r e a t e ~

sewage. High v a l u e s o f

It

of

w h i c h passed t h r o u g h a 63~m n y l o n

T h e r m a i k o s and K a v a l a g u l f .

of

the

A

Then 2% s o l u t i o n

by a h y d r o - h i e s

The samples were t r e a t e d

in T a b l e I . ,

This might

to

samples.

and D i s c u s s i o n

presented

areas

the

was added and t he formed

was c o n s i d e r e d f r e e

The p a r t i c l e s acid

H2SO4 and h e a t e d a t 6 d e t e r m i n e d by AAS

gulf,

pH 2 . 5 .

To com-

were made in a r -

of

Each sample was washe~, o v e n - d r i e d

s i e v e were a n a l y s e d .

tions

Furnace 76 B. The

blank determinations.

sampler.

ters

that

(A.P.D.C.)

Sediments samples were c o l l e c t e d

R~glts

at

to

methly-isobutyl-ketone

the aqueous l a y e r

botton

ric

standards

salinity

dithiocarbamate

complex was e x t r a c t e d extraction

interferences,

a similar

sample was ~ d j u s t e d

ammonium p y r r o l i d i n e

a Graphite

the mercury d e t e r m i n a t i o n .

lead.

transport levels of

of

The r u n o f f

Fig.2.

currents,

The T h e r -

heavy m e t a l s c o m p a i r e d is

t he most p o l l u t e d .

heavy m e t a l

wash o f f

areas

by t h e c o a s t a l

Kavala Gulf increase

sewage a r e d i s -

t he u n p o l l u t e d

as we can see in

causes an a d d i t i o n a l

Gulfo

in

concentrations

in the b e g i n i n g street

dust

from t h e r i v e r pollution

of

of winter.

rich

in

Axios,which

heavy m e t a l s

86

S e d i me n t s The heavy m e t a l T a b l e 2.

concentrations

These r e s u l t s

higher, especially o n l y a small

the values of

portion

of

nisms.

of

l e a d and z i n c

The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

zinc

Cu and Mn a r e c l o s e

to

the o v e r a l l of metals

the u n t r e a t e d

Ditate

is

mean v a l u e g i v e n in

domestic

sediments

and i n d u s t r i a l

mecha-

sediments of

The v a l u e s ~f Zn,

for

other

near to the

and K a v a l a G u l f s

anaeYobic c o n d i t i o n s

The v a r y i n g

transport

Pb and Hg i n

in

combined wit h

the o p p o s i t e .

Kavala G u l f .

in

areas are

Lead e x i s t e d is

show d i f f e r e n t

than those o f

in T h e s s a l o n i k i

of the G u l f

it

of metals-mainly

The h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

part

to o t h e r

t h e main p o r t i o n

in w a t e r

higher

due to

s e d i m e n t s ar e p r e s e n t e d

l e a d and m e r c u r y 7,9.

Thermaikos are also

a r e a and h a r b o r

the

those refered

the w a t e r s ,

suspended e l e m e n t s I however w i t h relationship

in

c o m p a i r e d to

areas.

industrial are p r o b a b l y

sewage o u t f a l l s ,

in

d o m i n a t e and heavy m e t a l s

these

preci-

as s u l p h i d e s .

Conclusions: From the d a t a concentration diments

is

of

presented

considerably

regions.The

Gulf

Tqe p r e s e n t

situation

cal

and b i o l o g i c a l

in

this

t h e ileavy m e t a l s of

higher

K a v a l a is could

treatment

sewage would be i m m e d i a t e l y

s t u d y , w e can c o n c l u d e t h a t investigated

than lesser

be for set

those found polluted

improved if t he into

both in

the

i n w a t e r and se-

literature

for

other

than Thermaikos G u l f . t he a l r e a d y

industrial function.

planned chemi-

waste and the dornest,~c

FIG.

1

~~

NORTH AEGEANSEA

GULF

OF

TH ES S A L O N I KI

N

s•

R~AL

A~IEA

AIRPORT

4~

OF T H E SSALO N IKI

BAY

\~OOST

,~ ~l~l]~

"11

~n "-4

---I "1"

I i

__----

'~

~ |

"--,.. " " y| ZF

"-" ....

-- ........ +'1

,*"iiif

~

. . . . . . . . .

. . . .

f "++" 4,--"" . . . . .

++""" ,+...~

. . . . . . . . . . .

i_++

li

Jf

~

l

v

j

iI

I ~k

"" ~ ~ I

I

t

[

"

~li

d I

f/

~

~

i I i i ",, ",",,,'

i I tl

t L

. t Z t ~

" "

. . . .

I+""-'--+--i

p'--.

I--,.----.- i

II

~ ~ "<.I

I

1

~Z

t tl

Fig.

KAVAL A

I

3 ~ KAVALA

GULF

r

kARVAL

OF

30

©

40 ,^

g

•~

~

~

-r.J

"~ Z

b4

(;3

0

0

0

0

0

~

r~

CO

0

r~ s..._

c

~

-0

~-

k,O

cO

CO

¢,~

o~

uL~

0

o

h-

0

~J

~

q--

~

Od

ra

c

~-

~"

rG

c

cl

V-

~

og

~

0

0

91

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Environ-