Condensed Molasses Solubles in Poultry Feeds1

Condensed Molasses Solubles in Poultry Feeds1

Condensed Molasses Solubles in Poultry Feeds1 B. L. DAMRON, M. F. HALL, and R. H. HARMS University of Florida, Department of Poultry Science, Gainesvi...

179KB Sizes 0 Downloads 183 Views

Condensed Molasses Solubles in Poultry Feeds1 B. L. DAMRON, M. F. HALL, and R. H. HARMS University of Florida, Department of Poultry Science, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (Received for publication October 18, 1978)

1980 Poultry Science 59:673-675 al. (1954) and Wakelam and Jaffe (1961) reported an unidentified growth factor associated with fermentation products from cane molasses. This factor was felt to be similar to that found for dried whey or dried brewers yeast. Combs' group also noted that antibiotics exerted a sparing action on the need for these factors. The studies included in this report were initiated to investigate the effects of including condensed molasses solubles in the diets of broilers and laying hens.

INTRODUCTION Condensed molasses solubles (CMS) is the name collectively given to the by-product from fermentation industries using molasses. It can be derived from the manufacture of alcohol, yeast, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, or similar products. During processing the fermentable sugars of molasses are consumed by various microorganisms to produce an end product, leaving the organic non-sugars as molasses solubles. Molasses solubles have been studied for use in cattle and swine feeds with generally favorable results; however, information on its value as a poultry feedstuff appears rather limited. Bearse et al. (1940) reported that "Vacatone", a commercial product resulting from the fermentation of molasses to alcohol, was a good source of riboflavin and could adequately replace 2.5% dried skim milk or whey powder in chick diets. The end liquor resultant of glutamic acid production from desugared beet molasses was found by Madsen (1952) to consistently improve growth rate of chicks. The best results were obtained with 2% of the material, and it was suggested that the liquor was a good source of methyl groups in low-choline diets. Combs et

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1431.

Broilers. Levels 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10% condensed molasses solubles were incorporated into the broiler starter feed shown in Table 1 for a feeding period of 8 weeks. Nutrient levels of all diets were maintained at 23% protein, 1.09% calcium, .76% total phosphorus, and 2966 kcal ME/kg finished feed using the nutrient analysis of CMS provided by Baccardi Corporation. Four replicate floor pens, each providing 2.32 m 2 of floor area, were assigned to each dietary treatment with a starting population of 9 male and 9 female Cobb color-sexed broilers. Pen equipment included one tube feeder, a bowl-type automatic waterer, a heat lamp for brooding, and ground peanut hulls as litter over a concrete floor. Lighting was continuous. At termination, group body weights were taken by sex and feed efficiency

673

Downloaded from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Pennsylvania Library on January 17, 2015

ABSTRACT Condensed molasses solubles levels of 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% were fed in mashtype diets to broilers from one day through 8 weeks of age. Four replicate pens, each containing 9 male and 9 female birds, received each experimental diet. No significant differences were found among treatments for body weight and daily feed intake of broilers. All condensed molasses solubles treatments supported numerically heavier body weights than those of the control. The feed to body weight ratio was found to be numerically improved for those groups receiving above 2.5% solubles. A significant improvement of this criterion was associated with the 7.5% condensed molasses solubles level. Diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5% condensed molasses solubles were also fed to commercial laying hens maintained in individual cages. Eight replicate groups of five hens received each of the dietary treatments for six 28-day periods. There was a significant improvement of hen-day egg production with hens fed 2.5% or higher levels of condensed molasses solubles. Egg weight and Haugh unit scores were significantly reduced by the presence of condensed molasses solubles with no difference found among the three levels fed. Egg specific gravity was not affected by treatment.

674

DAMRON ET AL. TABLE 1. Composition of basal diets (%)

TABLE 2. Performance of broilers fed various levels JJ n ; « u c ,

Broilers

Ingredients

66.97 20.00 2.50 6.88 2.25 .50 .35 .50 .05

Treatment

Body Daily weight feed (g/bird) (g)

Control 1.0% CMS 2.5% CMS 5.0% CMS 7.5% CMS 10.0% CMS

1804" 1825 a 1827 a 18231 1872a 1845a

a

Ingredients supplied per kilogram of diet: Vitamin A, 6600 IU; vitamin D 3 , 2200 ICU; menadione dimethyl-pyrimidinol bisulfite, 2.2 mg; riboflavin, 4.4 mg; pantothenic acid, 13.2 mg; niacin, 39.6 mg; choline chloride, 499.4 mg; vitamin B 1 2 , 22 meg; ethoxyquin, .0125%; manganese, 60 mg; iron, 50 mg; copper, 6 mg; cobalt, .0198 mg; zinc, 35 mg.

values calculated. Mortality was recorded on a daily basis t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l period. Laying Hens. Diets containing 0, 2 . 5 , 5, or 7.5% CMS were also fed t o individually caged White Leghorn hens (Babcock 300-V) for six 28-day periods, starting w h e n t h e birds were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 weeks of age. T h e various levels of p r o d u c t were s u b s t i t u t e d into t h e basal diet of Table 1 with n u t r i e n t levels maintained at 16% protein, 3.25% calcium, . 7 3 % total p h o s p h o r u s , and 2 8 4 0 kcal ME/kg using t h e n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of CMS provided b y Baccardi C o r p o r a t i o n . Eight replicate 5-bird groups received each of these dietary t r e a t m e n t s in mash form. Evaluation parameters, including hen-day egg p r o d u c t i o n , egg weight, Haugh Units, specific gravity, and m o r t a l i t y were summarized at 28-day intervals. Feed c o n s u m p -

72.0 a 71.7 a 73.4 a 78.8 a 81.0 a 75.la

Feed/body Mortality weight (g) (%) 2.23 a 2.23 a 2.26 a 2.41 ab 2.48 b 2.32ab

2.78 a 0 1.39 a 2.78 a 5.56 a 0

' Means within a column not followed by corn-

Duncan's multiple range test (P<.05).

tion d a t a were collected for only t h e first t w o p r o d u c t i o n periods. Data were subjected t o an analysis of variance and D u n c a n ' s multiple range test p r o c e d u r e s using t h e Statistical Analysis System (Barr et al, 1976) of N o r t h Carolina S t a t e University.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Broilers. Statistical evaluation of t h e performance d a t a (Table 2) indicated n o significant differences a m o n g b o d y weight or daily feed intake m e a n s of broilers. There appeared t o b e a positive numerical response in b o t h criteria t h r o u g h t h e 7.5% CMS addition, and t h e 10% t r e a t m e n t s u p p o r t e d b o d y weights numerically superior t o all b u t t h e 7.5% level. T h e sex b y t r e a t m e n t interaction was n o t significant for b o d y weight; therefore, t h e values were averaged for p r e s e n t a t i o n . Because of t h e increased daily feed intake, t h e mean feed conversion value associated with 7.5% CMS did differ significantly from t h o s e of birds receiving 2.5% or less of t h e

TABLE 3. Performance of White Leghorn bens fed various levels of condensed molasses solubles for six 28-day periods Egg production (% Hen/day)

Daily feed (g/bird)

F. E. (kg/doz)

Egg weight (g)

Haugh units

Specific gravity

Mortality

Treatment Control 2.5% CMS 5.0% CMS 7.5% CMS

65.76 a 70.66 b 70.41 b 71.95 b

96.3 100.5 100.8 103.6

1.68 1.60 1.59 1.65

62.0 a 61.0 b 60.5 b 60.8 b

72.7 a 69.6 b 69.6 b 70.3 b

1.076 a 1.0 76 a 1.076 a 1.077 a

10.0 a 5.0 a 2.5 a 10.0 a

(%)

' Means within a column not followed by common letters are significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test (P<.05). Feed related means represent only the first two production periods.

Downloaded from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Pennsylvania Library on January 17, 2015

Yellow corn 54.70 Soybean meal (49% protein) 36.30 2.50 Alfalfa meal (20% protein) 1.22 Ground limestone Dicalcium and monocalcium phosphate mix (18% P; 22% Ca) 2.05 Poultry fat 2.15 Iodized salt .40 .50 Microingredientsl .13 Coccidiostat .05

Hens

RESEARCH NOTE

^

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The financial assistance and provision of condensed molasses solubles by Baccardi Corporation, P. O. Box 26368, Jacksonville, FL is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES Barr, A. J., J. H. Goodnight, J. P. Sail, and J. T. Helwig, 1976. A User's guide to SAS 76. SAS Institute, Inc., P. O. Box 10066, Raleigh NC. Bearse, G. E„ C. F. McClary, and V. L. Miller, 1940. "Vacatone" in chick starting rations. Pages 52—53 in Western Washington Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep. for 1940. Combs, G. F., G. H. Arscott, and H. L. Jones, 1954. Unidentified growth factors required by chicks and poults. III. Chick studies involving practicaltype rations. Poultry Sci. 33:71-79. Madsen, I. L., 1952. The nutritional values of beet sugar molasses by-products. Poultry Sci. 31:925. Wakelam, J. A., and W. P. Jaffe, 1961. Unidentified chick growth factors in fermentation by-products. J. Sci. Food Agr. 12:335-341.

Downloaded from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Pennsylvania Library on January 17, 2015

product. There were no statistically significant differences attributable to mortality, which was rather variable and not considered to be treatment related. Laying Hens. A significant increase in egg production was associated with the feeding of 2.5% or more of CMS (Table 3). Daily feed intake increased along with the level of CMS—a trend also noted with broilers. There appeared to be no definite effects of CMS upon feed efficiency values. Egg weights and Haugh units were significantly reduced when 2.5% or more of CMS was fed. The authors have no explanation for this trend other than its relationship to the comcomitantly higher rate of egg production. Egg specific gravity and mortality were not statistically related to dietary treatment. The mortality of the 7.5% CMS group was primarily due to an unexplained death rate of 30% for one pen.

675

A