Curricula for Poultry Majors in the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada*

Curricula for Poultry Majors in the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada*

EGG PRODUCTION IN DARKNESS whether adult flies had simply failed to enter the dark rooms, although they could have come in through the ventilators. F...

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EGG PRODUCTION IN DARKNESS

whether adult flies had simply failed to enter the dark rooms, although they could have come in through the ventilators. From the results presented here, it is obvious that the hen does not need light for either ovulation or oviposition. It would seem, therefore, that the influence of psychic factors regulating ovulation and oviposition is more important than the amount of light the bird receives. The hens vocalized but not to the same extent as birds kept in the light. Activity appeared to be decreased considerably. Both light and activity were observed by Bastian and Zarrow (1955) to influence ovulation. SUMMARY

Hens kept in continuous darkness for five weeks continued to lay eggs. Some hens did cease egg production, while others, previously pausing, started to lay

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again. The hens that paused for no longer than five days, laid at a rate of 60.2 and 77.1 percent in the two tests. The decline in egg production was greatest in the hens losing the largest percentage of body weight. REFERENCES Bastian, J. W., and M. X. Zarrow, 19SS. A new hypothesis in the asynchronous ovulatory cycle of the domestic hen. Poultry Sci. 34: 776-788. Rider, P. L., 1938. The influence of light on growth and reproduction of the domestic fowl (unpublished). Master's Thesis, Ohio State Univ. Vaugien, L., 1953. Sur l'apparition de la maturit6 sexuelle des jeunes perruches ondulees males soumises a diverse conditions d'eclairement. Le developpement testiculaire est plus rapide dans l'obscuritfi complete. Bui. biol. France Belgique 87:274-286. Wilson, W. O., and H. Abplanalp, 1956. Intermittent light stimuli in egg production of chickens. Poultry Sci. 35: 532-538.

Curricula for Poultry Majors in the Faculty of Agriculture, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada* JACOB B I E L Y

Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C, Canada (Received for publication December 2, 1957)

T

HE Department of Poultry Science is one of eight major departments constituting the Faculty of Agriculture. While each department is more or less autonomous, each must subscribe to a general philosophy. A student in Agriculture must first of all meet certain basic requirements in the freshman and soph* Presented as part of a panel discussion "The Curriculum for undergraduate Poultry Husbandry Majors" at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Poultry Science Association, Columbus, Mo., 1957.

omore years. In addition, in his junior and senior years he must meet certain specific requirements of the department in which he is majoring. The courses offered in each department and the over-all curriculum of students in Agriculture are subject to approval by the heads of departments and the Dean of Agriculture. Curricula recommended by the various faculties of the University are subject to approval by the Senate of the University. The Senate is that administrative body

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J. BlELY

which controls the academic structure of the University; thus it will be seen that the approved curriculum of any one department reflects not only the thinking of that department but also the ideology of the University faculty as a whole. The primary function of a university is the education of men and women. The concept of education, however, alters with the expansion of knowledge. It is becoming increasingly difficult, even in the various fields of science alone, to provide a broad education within a four- or fiveyear period of study. This means that in drafting any program of studies the ultimate goal of the students must be kept in mind. There are those who still deplore the trend towards more and more professional training in the University. The vast majority of students today, however, rightly ask what practical immediate use they will be able to make of the knowledge they acquire at the University. There is a limit to the length of time which may be spent in preparation for productive work. It is incumbent upon educators to work out balanced programs in the various fields so that graduates, regardless of their major field of study, may be termed educated men and women ready to apply their knowledge in the various activities of life.

required for graduation are offered in other faculties. The basic courses in the humanities, the social sciences and the physical sciences, for instance, are given in the Faculty of Arts and Science. Agriculture students taking courses in other faculties must meet the requirements of the faculty concerned. It is obvious that in planning curricula for poultry majors the problems encountered are not appreciably different from those faced by educators in any of the other scientific fields. The evolution of courses in the department is indicated by the change in name, effected two years ago, from "Poultry Husbandry" to "Poultry Science." Originally, students majoring in poultry followed a curriculum dealing with various aspects of poultry production in a more or less general way. Today, with highly specialized staff and extensive facilities, within the four-year option they have a choice of three curricula: (1) they may follow the "General Course" curriculum in what might still be termed "poultry husbandry"; (2) they may specialize in nutrition; or (3) they may specialize in genetics. Sample outlines of typical courses of study under each of these three curricula, as well as under the five-year honours option are given in Table 1. The student may vary The Faculty of Agriculture was one of these slightly within the range of the electhe three original faculties of The Uni- tives permitted by the department, subversity of British Columbia. It was estab- ject to approval by the head of the delished at a time when it had become recog- partment and the Dean of Agriculture. nized that agricultural science was closely It will be noted from a perusal of the allied to, and dependent upon, other ap- outlines that approximately thirty-five plied and fundamental sciences and that courses are required of students working training in agriculture needed to be broad- towards the degree of Bachelor of Science ened by courses in the humanities and in Agriculture with a major in poultry social sciences. From the beginning, then, science. These courses may be roughly students in Agriculture have not been con- divided into the following categories: (1) fined to courses offered within their own humanities (English, economics, psyfaculty. On the contrary, approximately chology) ; (2) basic sciences (mathematics, one-third to one-half of the total courses physics, chemistry, biology); (3) agricul-

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CURRICULA FOR POULTRY MAJORS TABLE 1.—Sample course outlines recommended for students in poultry science1

5-year option

4-year option Units 2 General course History of Scientific Agriculture English Literature & Composition Chemistry (General) Mathematics (Algebra, Geom. & Trig.) General Zoology General Poultry Husbandry Introduction to Study of Soils General Animal Husbandry

First Year 1 3 3 3 3 14 14 14

Total Units .Second Year English Literature & Composition 3 Chemistry (Analytical, Inorganic and Physical) 3 3 Chemistry (Physical-Inorganic and Analytical)41 3 Introduction to Genetics 3 Fundamentals of Botany 3 Introduction to Agric. Mechanics 14 Introduction to Field Crops 14 Technology of Poultry Products 14 Soil Fertility 14 Introductory Psychology 3 Elementary Physics 3 Introduction to Agricultural Economics 14 General Poultry Husbandry 14 Mathematics (Calculus) 3 Total Units Field Trip Introd. to Organic Chemistry5 Poultry Breeding Animal Breeding Fundamentals of Nutrition Fundamentals of Animal Growth and Energetics Introductory Bacteriology Biometry Poultry Farm Management Principles of Incubation Introduction to Dairying Organic Chemistry6 Principles of Economics Genetics and Breeding of Crops Physical Chemistry Language Introduction to Agricultural Economics Total Units

Third Year 1 3 ii 14 14 14 3 14 14 14 14 3 3 3 3 3 14

Nutrition

Genetics

Nutrition honours course

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

X

X

X

X

-

X

X

X

16

16

16

16

X

X

X

X

-

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

X

X

X

X

X

-

X

-

-

X

X

-

X X X X

X

X

-

X

-

X

X

X

-

X

X

X

-

-

X

18

18

18

18

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

-

X

X

X

X

-

-

X

-

-

X

19

19

19

19

X X

1 Substitutions are permitted within the range of the electives listed in the University Calendar, subject to approval by the head of the department of the Dean of Agriculture. 2 A "Unit" is equivalent to one hour of lectures or two-three hours of laboratory work per week throughout the first and second term. 3 A fundamental course required of students who intend to take advanced courses in inorganic chemistry. 4 A terminal course for students who do not intend to take any further inorganic chemistry. 6 A terminal course for those who do not intend to take any further organic chemistry. 6 A fundamental course required of students who intend to take advanced courses in organic chemistry.

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J. BlELY TABLE 1—Continued 5-year option

4-year option Units 2 G

ZA?

Nutrition

Genetics

Nutrition honours course

Fourth Year Poultry Science Seminar Poultry Nutrition Poultry Feeds and Feeding Poultry Diseases and Hygiene Poultry Science Essay Farm Organization and Management Animal Feeding Marketing Food Mechanics Outline of Biochemistry General Physiology Plant Nutrition Microbiology Dairy Bacteriology Fundamental Genetical Concepts Histology Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry Biometry Field Design Fundamentals of Nutrition Fundamentals of An. Growth and Energetics

H

X

X

X

X

X

H

X

X

X

X

X

x

-

3 3

X

-

-

x

-

X

X

-

X



x

-X

li

X

-

X

-

li li

-

3

li

3

li

H

li li

18

Fifth Year li li li 3 1i l 32 3

U li

Total Units

ture (at least one course in each of four distinct disciplines); and (4) specialized courses in poultry science dealing with genetics, nutrition, incubation and poultry pathology. Our progam of poultry courses is not designed specifically to train students to undertake farming for a livelihood. We should not expect graduates specializing in poultry science, or in any other branch of agriculture, necessarily to set themselves up on farms, any more than we expect an engineer to set up a factory, or a

-X X

3 1* 3 3 2

Total Units Poultry Science Seminar Poultry Nutrition Poultry Feeds and Feeding Poultry Science Essay Nutritional Bio-assay Techniques Advanced Animal Nutrition General Physiology Advanced Organic Chemistry Histology

X X

X

li ii

-

X

-

-

-X X -X X X

-X X X X X

18|

18

184

-

-

X X X X X X X X X

18

graduate in forestry to buy a stand of timber, or a graduate in fisheries to outfit himself with a trawler. The training which we offer does not militate against the pursuit of farming, but the fact that the poultry industry has become highly specialized and involves considerable capital investment tends to limit the number of those who undertake to operate their own poultry farm upon graduation. Some of our graduates have engaged successfully in poultry farming and are leaders in the industry; the majority,

CURRICULA FOR POULTRY MAJORS

however, have become teachers, investigators, extension workers, administrators and consultants in various capacities. The present trend in the poultry industry seems to be towards large-scale operation. In the light of this development, it may be that in addition to training geneticists and nutritionists for specific types of work, we should possibly provide specialized training for individuals to fill managerial positions in poultry farming, processing, marketing, sales and advertising. We are already doing a little in this connection by directing some students to take as their electives specific courses in such departments as food technology, commerce, agricultural economics and marketing. It is possible, even now, at The University of British Columbia, to specialize in the business aspects of poultry science by drawing on courses offered in the departments of commerce and agricultural economics. Such students could undoubtedly get along with fewer basic sciences than we now demand. We are aware of the challenge that the poultry industry presents in fields other than teaching, research and administration. We shall be able to meet the newer demands of the poultry industry and of the allied industries only by adding to our staff men who have broad training in commerce, engineering and technological agriculture, even if their practical experience is in relatively narrow fields. The socalled "expert" in general poultry husbandry no longer exists. With particular reference to the four curricula offered in the department, it will be seen from Table 1 that students majoring in poultry science generally take the introductory course in poultry science in the second year (a few may take it in the first year). This is followed by several poultry science courses in the third and fourth years. In this way the students are

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introduced to various aspects of poultry science over a period of three or four years. During this time they become acquainted with current research projects, participate in departmental activities and generally begin to feel that they belong somewhere in the Faculty of Agriculture. I firmly believe that a student should be introduced gradually and early into the field which he intends to make his life's work. There is a school of thought which takes a different stand. People subscribing to it would have our students take all their basic sciences before taking the prescribed courses in agriculture. I feel that a student under such conditions is not so likely to adapt himself readily to work with poultry as is a student who has been introduced to poultry courses early in his career. The sample course outlines shown in Table 1 are for the four-year option and for the five-year honours option. Most students prefer to take their undergraduate degree in four years. If they find their niche and have sufficiently high academic standing they may then proceed to graduate work. For those who wish a fairly general training in agriculture but who show some particular interest in poultry, a variety of courses is recommended from several agricultural disciplines, such as agronomy, soils, agricultural economics, agricultural mechanics and a number of practical courses in poultry science. These are intended to acquaint the student with general problems that face the commercial producer in farm management, marketing, etc. The curriculum for students majoring in genetics under the Department of Poultry Science lays emphasis on the biological sciences, i.e., biology, zoology and specialized courses in genetics. Through the medium of an essay and seminar, students are offered the opportunity to explore the literature which is

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of special interest to the geneticist. The curriculum for students majoring in nutrition under the Department of Poultry Science is fairly rigid. Emphasis is laid on chemistry and biology, with advanced courses in animal, plant and poultry nutrition offered in the Division of Animal Science, the Division of Plant Science and the Department of Poultry Science. Intensive training in nutrition is fostered through the essay, seminar periods and summer employment in the Poultry Nutrition Laboratory. Minor substitutions in the curriculum are possible, depending upon the general interests of the student. As shown in the outline given in Table 1, for the five-year honours option in poultry nutrition emphasis is placed on advanced courses in chemistry, mathematics and biological subjects. There is not a great deal of leeway in this program, although in the case of one or two of the courses prescribed, some substitution is possible to meet individual needs. In the opinion of both staff and students, the five-year honours option constitutes a very heavy load. It is generally undertaken by students interested in proceeding with graduate work. It will be noted from the outline of courses for students majoring in nutrition or genetics that what might be termed "technological courses" are not included in any of the years. Such subjects as culling and selection, processing, production and marketing of poultry meats and eggs are included as part of various other courses. The reason for this is not that these subjects are necessarily any less complex or scientifically sound than the ones selected for the four options, but rather that in our opinion they are not sufficiently fundamental in nature or scope to take the place of the basic courses in pure or applied science. Furthermore,

they are not prerequisites for other advanced courses or for graduate training. With regard to graduate studies following the five-year course, it is generally possible for the student to obtain his Master's degree in one academic year and two summers from completion of undergraduate studies; in the four-year course, two years of post-graduate enrollment are considered to be the minimum. It is significant that the high degree of specialization taking place in agricultural education has led to the formation of a professional association in British Columbia, called the B. C. Institute of Agrologists. A graduate from the Faculty of Agriculture may be accepted and enrolled as an Agrologist-in-Training. After three years of experience in some field of agriculture he may then become a fully registered member of the association, with the title of Professional Agrologist. This puts graduates of the Faculty of Agriculture on a par with members of the other professions. It will be noted that in the curricula outlined in Table 1 some recognition has been given to the importance of including the fundamental sciences and the humanities along with training in some field of poultry science. The fundamental sciences, of course, are essential as a basis for understanding nutrition and genetics as applied to poultry; moreover, they are especially important in the curricula of those students who intend to proceed to graduate work. In spite of the difficulty of fitting into our program sufficient of the fundamental sciences, we nevertheless insist on a certain number of courses in the humanities and in the broad general field of agriculture. The problem, obviously, is to find time within the limits of a four- or at most a five-year undergraduate program for all the subjects that

CURRICULA FOR POULTRY M A J O R S

might be called essential for a poultry major, as well as for a background in the sciences and some knowledge and appreciation of the humanities. Education is a process which does not end with graduation after four, five or more years at the University; in its widest sense it goes on throughout life.

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The main pattern, however, generally has to be established during the undergraduate years. This the Department of Poultry Science attempts to do by taking cognizance not only of the academic requirements as set by the University, but of the individual interests and potential abilities of the students.

Protein Energy Relationships as Affected by Sex and Management 1 J. V. SHUTZE, 2 ' 3 P. A. THORNTON AND R. E. MORENG

Department of Poultry Husbandry, Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins (Received for publication January 20. 1958) REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Research Council, 1954). This has led to a general increase in the essential nutrients of the ration without adequate research to substantiate such practices in most cases. Much interest has been shown concerning the effect of energy on protein requirements, however. The general concensus of the workers in this field is, that a relationship between the energy level and protein requirements exists. For example, Hill and Dansky (1950) found that concomitant reduction of energy and protein resulted in normal growth while a higher level of protein in a low energy ration resulted in a depression of growth. Biely and March (1954) showed that increasing 1 Published with the approval of the Director of the energy level of a 19 percent protein the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station. ration resulted in a depression of both Project No. 175. growth and utilization of feed. Increasing 2 This paper is a portion of a study conducted by the energy in 24 and 28 percent protein the senior author in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the M.S. degree, Department of Poultry rations had no effect on growth, but did Husbandry, Colorado State University. Published improve feed efficiency. Sunde (1956) with the approval of the Dean of the Graduate found no effect on growth when the School. energy level was increased in a 20 percent s Present address: Department of Poultry Hus- protein ration. Increasing the protein bandry, State College of Washington, Pullman, level to 28 percent resulted in a growth

D

URING the past ten years a great amount of interest in the high energy ration has developed in the field of poultry nutrition. It has been shown repeatedly that increasing the energy of a ration results in a reduced feed intake per unit of body weight gain. Body weight gains and feather development have also been improved at times by increasing the energy level of the ration. Since it has been shown that chickens on high energy rations eat less feed per day and gain more weight per unit of feed, considerable doubt has arisen concerning the presently recommended nutrient levels (National

Washington.