Eastern Himalayan alpine plant ecology, Tibetan ethnobotany, and climate change

Eastern Himalayan alpine plant ecology, Tibetan ethnobotany, and climate change

Global Environmental Change 19 (2009) 147–155 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Global Environmental Change journal homepage: www.elsevier.c...

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Global Environmental Change 19 (2009) 147–155

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Global Environmental Change journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/gloenvcha

Eastern Himalayan alpine plant ecology, Tibetan ethnobotany, and climate change Jan Salick a,*, Fang Zhendongb, Anja Byg c a

Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St Louis, MO 63166, USA Shangri-la Alpine Botanical Garden, Shangri-la, Yunnan, China c Systematic Botany, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Denmark b

A R T I C L E I N F O

A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Climate change Himalayas Arctic–Alpine Plant diversity Sky islands Tibetan medicine

Tibetan culture and livelihoods depend on native plants for medicine, food, grazing, wood, as well as cash from market sales. The Medicine Mountains (part of the Hengduan Mountains) of the eastern Himalayas, with tremendous plant diversity derived from steep gradients of both elevation and precipitation, have traditionally been an important source of Tibetan medicinal plants. We examine climate change in this area and vegetation patterns influenced by biogeography, precipitation and elevation (NMS and CCA ordinations of GLORIA plots). The Alpine environment has the highest plant diversity and most useful plants and is the most susceptible to climate change with impacts on traditional Tibetan culture and livelihoods—particularly Tibetan medicine and herding. ß 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction After the Polar regions, Alpine environments are amongst those most affected by global climate change (Kullman, 2004). Global warming was detected early due to Alpine glacial and meteorological measurements dating back as far as the 19th century (Barry, 1992; Haeberli et al., 1996). In the eastern Himalayas, early plant explorers took high quality photographs of glaciers that show glacial retreats of more than 1 km during the last century (Moseley, 2006). Elevational advances in tree and shrub line in the 1930s and 1940s added data to an accruing scenario (Parmesan, 2006). Now, treeline advance has been reported worldwide (Bulgaria: Meshinev et al., 2000; Urals: Moiseev and Shiyatov, 2003; Scandes: Kullman, 2002, 2003; North America: Sturm et al., 2001; New Zealand: Wardle and Coleman, 1992; and again, see Moseley, 2006 for repeat photograph evidence from the eastern Himalayas). Predicted extinctions of montane populations of animals and plants have drawn further attention to the plight of alpine species (Thomas et al., 2004; Thuiller et al., 2005; Parmesan, 2006). Climate warming has now reached a level where substantial ecological impacts can be easily detected in alpine and arctic environments around the world (Kullman, 2004). Cold-adapted alpine species are stressed by climate warming, and more importantly, must compete with species from lower elevations extending their ranges upward. On mountains around the world, increasing temperatures force alpine plants to migrate upwards until they reach the highest elevations (summit trap

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 314 577 5165; fax: +1 314 577 0800. E-mail address: [email protected] (J. Salick). 0959-3780/$ – see front matter ß 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.008

phenomenon, e.g., Pertoldi and Bach, 2007). Mountain ranges, where large numbers of endemic plants are distributed, are very likely to suffer critical species losses (Theurillat and Guisan, 2001; Halloy and Mark, 2003; Pauli et al., 2003; Pickering and Armstrong, 2003). Climate-induced differential migration rates could lead to the formation of new plant assemblages and result in changes in ecosystem functioning (Root et al., 2003). Increased competition and new plant assemblages in alpine areas are evidenced by increases in alpine species richness reported from the Alps (Hofer, 1992; Grabherr et al., 1994, 2001; Pauli et al., 2001; Bahn and Ko¨rner, 2003) and from Scandinavia (Klanderud and Birks, 2003). The increased competition and new plant assemblages are presumed to be harbingers of resultant alpine plant extinctions. Thus, alpine vegetation and species distributions respond to climate change despite the long-lived and slow-growing nature of alpine plants. Alpine plant diversity is higher than the global average (Ko¨rner, 1999; Va¨re et al., 2003). Indeed, our own studies in the eastern Himalayas (Salick et al., 2004) confirm that the highest plant diversity and richness is found in Alpine environments between 4200 and 4500 m. Furthermore, useful plants (e.g., Tibetan medicines, non-timber products, traditional foods, fodder, etc.) are most abundant in Alpine meadows. As a result, climate change that threatens alpine plants, also impacts a significant portion of earth’s biodiversity and of biodiversity useful to humans. Climate models for China present ominous results; for example, nival areas are shown to have decreased rapidly since 1960 and are predicted at present rates to disappear in 159 years (Yue et al., 2005). Most recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007, http://www.ipcc.ch) released reports including projections for climate change in the Himalayas with high

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model agreement for temperature increases of 5–6 8C and precipitation increases of 20–30%. These are some of the most drastic climate changes in the world after the Polar Regions. Reports (Cyranoski, 2005) from the Himalayas suggest that with climate warming and glacial melting the livelihoods of millions of ethnic peoples are severely threatened. To monitor the effects of this climate change on Himalayan plant populations and communities, we have joined the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA, see http://www.gloria.ac.at). Responding to the increasingly apparent ecological impact of climate change in alpine environments, GLORIA developed a long-term observation strategy for documenting biodiversity and habitat changes, and also for verifying models and assessing risks. The GLORIA network was established in response to numerous research recommendations (e.g., Messerli and Ives, 1997; EEA, 1999; Heal, 1999; Becker and Bugmann, 2001; Ko¨rner and Spehn, 2002; Price and Neville, 2003). Launched in 2001, GLORIA has made great progress towards implementing a standardized alpine long-term observation network on the global scale. To date, our studies include the establishment of baseline data sets for climate change monitoring. To GLORIA’s ecological mandate, we have added Ethnobotany to ask, ‘‘What are the human impacts of climate change in the Himalayan Alpine?’’ As noted above, useful plants are most

abundant in the Alpine (Salick et al., 2004). Furthermore, traditional Tibetan medicine includes many Alpine plants (Salick et al., 2006) and traditional Tibetan land use depends on Alpine meadows for grazing (Salick and Yang, 2005). This would suggest that climate change threatens not only alpine plant diversity but also Tibetan peoples and their traditional ways of life. 2. Methods 2.1. Sites Three sites in the easternmost Himalayas were sampled within northwest Yunnan Province, China (Fig. 1). At each site, we sought to identify representative summits in four relative elevation classes (summit elevations: 1 = lowest summit, 4 = highest summit in region) between 4000 and 5000 m: A. Da Xue Shan, near the Yunnan-Sizhuan border, including three separate summits: 1. 47 R 0579-623 E, 316-0964 N, 4461 m, rhododendron shrub, 2. no summit available, 3. 47 R 0583-142 E, 316-1361 N, 4676 m alpine meadow and dwarf rhododendron shrub, 4. 47 R 0584-853 E, 316-3650 N, 4858 m scree.

Fig. 1. Mountain ranges sampled: (A) Ma Ji Wa; (B) Ruizila; (C) Da Xue Shan. Monsoons come from the Indian Ocean to the southwest producing more precipitation by orographic lifting in the mountains first encountered (thus precipitation of Ma Ji Wa (A) > Ruizila (B) > Da Xue Shan (C)).

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Fig. 2. GLORIA sampling components: (A) Selection of appropriate mountain summit; (B) sinking permanent markers for future resampling; (C) intensive sampling of 1 m2 plots subdivided into 10 cm  10 cm squares in which species, frequencies, and cover are tallied; (D) Tibetan doctor (left) is interviewed by first author (right); (E) temperature datalogger is buried 10 cm in center of 3 m  3 m quadrats; and (F) team pressing plant voucher specimens in herders’ hut at night.

B. Ruizila northeast and above the town of Deqin, including four separate summits: 1. 47 R 0494-118 E, 315-1637 N, 4478 m, just above tree line, shrub, 2. 47 R 0495-019 E, 315-0888 N, 4550 m, alpine meadow, 3. 47 R 0494-980 E, 315-0351 N, 4668 m gravel, 4. 47 R 0495-743 E, 315-2289 N, 4906 m scree. C. Ma Ji Wa north of Weixi, between Mekong and Salween River, including 4 separate summits: 1. 47R 0493-143 E, 306-9979 N, 4118 m, just above tree line, rhododendron shrub, 2. 47R 0490-317 E, 306-9245 N, 4236 m, alpine meadow and shrub, 3. 47R 0494-252 E, 307-0917 N, 4354 m, alpine meadow and dwarf shrub, 4. 47R 0494-532 E, 307-4267 N, 4548 m, scree. 2.2. Sampling Sampling design followed the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) protocol (Fig. 2; see http:\\www.gloria.ac.at for publication of methodology). Four summits (Fig. 2a) were chosen along an elevational gradient between treeline and permanent snowline at ecotones: subalpine-lower alpine, lower alpine-upper alpine, upper alpinesubnival, and subnival–nival. Each summit was divided into eight sections facing the cardinal directions (N, S, E, W; Fig. 2b) with four sections ranging from the summit down 5 m in vertical elevation and another four sections ranging from 5 to 10 m vertical elevation. Within summit sections, species were recorded and cover was categorized. At the cardinal direction corners down 5 m elevation from summits, a cluster of four 1 m2 plots (at the corners of a 3 m  3 m grids with temperature data loggers buried 10 cm in the middle) were intensively sampled in 10 cm  10 cm grids (Fig. 2c). Sampling included data on species, frequencies, and cover estimates. Environmental data – latitude, longitude, elevation, aspect, precipitation, temperature (Fig. 2e; Onset StowAway TidbiT Temperature Loggers record hourly data) – were collected using GPS units, altimeters, compasses, temperature loggers, and data from nearby govern-

ment weather stations (Shangri-la for Da Xue Shan, Deqin for Ruizila, and Weixi for Ma Ji Wa from which data on total annual precipitation were used for available years 1988, 1989, and 1996). Plant voucher specimens (Fig. 2f) were deposited at Missouri Botanical Garden and Shangri-la Botanical Garden identified in reference to the Flora of China (Wu and Raven (Eds.), 1985-continuing and http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/ Search/FOC/projsfoc.html). In addition to this standard GLORIA sampling, this study was carried out in collaboration with Tibetan doctors and with reference to literature on Tibetan useful plants (Yang, 1987– 1989). After obtaining prior informed consent from the Tibetan doctors, specific plant uses and general information on habitat uses were recorded for each species and summit respectively (Fig. 2d). These ethnobotanical data entered analyses along with the vegetation data. Traditional Tibetan religious ceremonies were performed by the accompanying doctors as prescribed to receive permission from Tibetan gods to enter sacred spaces and to collect voucher specimens. 2.3. Analyses PC-Ord (McCune and Grace, 2002) was used to order data by similarity using Sorensen index of similarity and both non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS without environmental data) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA with environmental data). 3. Results 3.1. Non-metric multidimensional scaling NMS produces high cumulative correlations between ordination distances and distances in the original n-dimensional space for the first two axes (Table 1) and orders both summit sections and quadrats similarly whether based on species (presence– absence), frequencies, or cover (Fig. 3a and b: only 2 of the comparable 5 ordinations are presented). Primarily, vegetation is distinguished by sites (ovals A, B, and C in figure) and less so by summits. However, similarity among sites and summits is most notable at the highest subnival sites (dashed ovals on ordina-

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Table 1 Vegetation similarities of eastern Himalayan peaks (4000–5000 m) ordered by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA): statistical results. Sample

Data type

Units

NMS r2 (%)

CCA % variation

Axis 1 r2 (%)

p

Axis 2 r2 (%)

p

Quadrat Quadrat Quadrat Summit section Summit section

Species Frequency Cover Species Cover

Presence–absence Counts % Presence–absence %

60 67 50 58 36

8 6 7 15 9

96 91 90 99 95

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

89 87 87 95 93

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

NMS r2 = cumulative correlation for axes 1 and 2 (%); CCA r2 = axis species-environment correlation (%); p = Monte Carlo test, 999 runs (proportion of randomized runs with species-environment correlation greater than or equal to the observed); bolded samples and data presented in Fig. 3.

tions). Thus, geography defines Alpine vegetation except at the highest subnival summits. 3.2. Canonical correspondence analysis CCA with the ordination of samples and species constrained by their relationships to environmental variables – predominantly elevation and precipitation – produces significant axis correlations (Table 1, Fig. 3c and d). However, little of the variation is explained by environmental data (maximally, in the summit sections, 15% of species presence–absence is explained by environmental data).

3.3. Useful Tibetan plants These plants (predominantly medicinal plants) are present in proportion to overall species richness with an average of 61% useful species (Fig. 4). Overall, species richness declines with elevation from the lowest summits (summits 1 from 4118 to 4478 m) to the highest summits (summits 4 from 4548 to 4858 m) but the proportion of useful plants stays approximately constant. Additionally, Tibetan doctors relate that they are trained to go to the mountains for one month per year to collect medicinal plants. Alpine environments are vital for the collection of

Fig. 3. Ordinations of cover and frequency data from 1 m2 quadrats: (A) NMS ordination of species; (B) NMS ordination of frequency data; (C) CCA ordination of species; (D) CCA ordination of frequency data. The NMS ordinations show the predominance of geography in determining plant composition, except for the central dashed ovals that show a similarity among sites at the highest subnival sites. The CCA ordinations show that environmental data, especially elevation and precipitation, also explain Alpine vegetation composition and also show the similarity among sites at the highest subnival sites. Symbols: relative locations of sites within Northwest Yunnan, China—Red A: Da Xueshan (northeast with least rain), Green B: Rizila (northwest with intermediate rainfall), and Blue C: Ma Ji Wa (southwest most rain); relative elevations of summits within sites—& lowest summit quadrats from 4118 to 4478 m, + low-intermediate summit quadrats from 4236 to 4550 m,  high-intermediate summit quadrats from 4354 to 4676 m, and & highest summit quadrats from 4548 to 4906 m (just subnival). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.)

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Fig. 4. Useful plant species, predominantly Tibetan medicines, represent 61% of all species. This percentage of useful plants is constant regardless of elevation (summit elevations: summits 1 (lowest) = 4118 to 4478 m; summits 2 = 4236 to 4550 m; summits 3 = 4354 to 4676 m; and summits 4 (highest) = 4548 to 4906 m) although total species decrease with elevation.

traditional Tibetan medicines. Alpine meadows are also very important for yak grazing but this study, in compliance with GLORIA requirements, includes sites with least disturbance, thus excluding grazing areas; nonetheless, grazing represents an important use of alpine meadows that might be affected by climate change. 4. Discussion Vascular plant communities at the elevational limit of plant life are unique (Pauli et al., 1999). Within the Alpine vegetation of the eastern Himalayas, only this very highest subnival–nival ecotone shows an extended geographic distribution, corresponding to extensive ‘‘Arctic–Alpine’’ plant distributions described by Dwight Billings (see Caldwell, 1997). Unfortunately, with climate change, these more widespread plants are often caught in ‘‘summit traps’’: as species inhabiting mountain summits are forced to move to higher elevations with temperature increase, they have no escape route and may become locally extinct (e.g., Pertoldi and Bach, 2007). Below this highest alpine vegetation zone in the eastern Himalayas, geography, elevation (temperature) and precipitation are the main variables determining alpine plant distributions. Such geographically limited species are subjected to isolation imposed by ‘‘sky islands’’ (Heald, 1967)—high mountain ecosystems which are spatially isolated from one another by elevation, as island groups are by water. With their limited geographic range, endemic species of sky islands are particularly susceptible to climate change (e.g., Kupfer and Balmat, 2005). Elevationally determined species ranges, as found here and previously (Salick et al., 2004), have been shown to change with climate change (Grabherr et al., 1994). Precipitation is expected to increase by 20–30% in the Himalayas (IPCC, 2007), so species ranges that depend on precipitation are also expected to change considerably. Since these three factors – geography, elevation and precipitation – are acting in concert to determine Alpine vegetation distribution and since climate change has large effects either on or together with each factor, there seems little doubt that climate change will have equal or greater effects on Himalayan Alpine vegetation than those found elsewhere. Additionally, these effects will be exacerbated by the fact that some of the greatest effects of climate change are found in the Himalayas (Cyranoski, 2005) including a predicted temperature rise of 5–6 8C (IPCC, 2007).

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To draw a parallel, vegetation at a GLORIA mastersite in the Alps (Pauli et al., 2007) shows increases of species richness of about 12% in only 10 years, with presumably concomitant increases in competition. The species that decline in cover are all common nival plants (which seem to have been caught in a ‘‘summit trap’’). Interestingly, increasing cover was most noticeable in an alpine pioneer species. Rapid growth rates and production of large amounts of small, easily dispersed seeds – characteristics of pioneer species that suit their role in early succession – may preadapt pioneers to take advantage of climate change by facilitating rapid upward movement. If these trends are indicative of Himalayan patterns, we may expect the demise of some of the most threatened, slow growing, endemic plants (e.g., the Snow Lotus; Law and Salick, 2005) and increases of the most common ‘‘weedy’’ species which would further threaten one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world (Mackinnon et al., 1996; Mittermeier et al., 1998). A high proportion of eastern Himalayan alpine biodiversity is useful (at least 61% on average)—predominantly Tibetan medicines. However, Tibetan medicines are already threatened by overharvest (Law and Salick, 2006). Additional threats posed by climate change to these plants and their alpine habitats could be the final straw. We have promoted the recognition of Tibetan sacred space for potential conservation of Tibetan medicinal and other threatened endemic plants (Anderson et al., 2005; Salick et al., 2007). Although sacred space may offer protection from rampant commercial collection for newly emerging Chinese and international markets for traditional medicines, sacred space offers no protection from global warming—as attested by the melting snows and retreating glaciers of Tibetan sacred mountains (Moseley, 2006). Tibetan doctors recount the tradition of yearly collecting expeditions to the Himalayas to renew their stocks of medicine. However, if climate change poses the threats to alpine plants, including Tibetan medicines, as suggested above (Snow Lotus, for example is a highly popular medicinal plant), what is the future of Tibetan medicine, a very fundamental component of Tibetan livelihoods, culture and religion? Cultivation of Tibetan medicines has only limited success for a few species; and high alpine plants, in particular, are notoriously difficult to cultivate. This situation will be made more difficult by increasing temperatures. Only immediate actions to reduce carbon emissions on an international scale can fend off the effects of climate change. Like the Alps, the Andes, and most of the world’s mountains, grazing is a primary component of traditional montane livelihoods. The difference in Tibet, of course, is that grazing is done much higher and by Yaks (Salick and Yang, 2005). Now, with climate change, trees and shrubs are moving into higher elevation and taking over alpine meadows traditionally used for grazing. With climate change what is the future of alpine yak grazing, so fundamental to Tibetan livelihoods, culture and religion? However, even considering medicines and grazing, we are not beginning to understand how climate change impacts Tibetans. To plumb Tibetan perceptions of climate change we must go to the local people themselves, which we do in the following article (Byg and Salick, 2009). Ultimately, traditional peoples – in this case Tibetans, doctors and local people – have much to offer the discourse on and actions countering climate change. Indigenous peoples have traditional knowledge on how to live carbon neutral, indeed carbon negative livelihoods. In the eastern Himalayas, Tibetans release minimal amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, they afforest their lands, and they accumulate organic mater in their soils. Indigenous peoples offer local observations and techniques for adapting to and mitigating climate change. Indigenous peoples must exercise self-determination and be empowered to deal with climate change that threatens their traditional livelihoods, indeed their very

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existence. Integration and feedback loops between climate change science and indigenous peoples must be established and employed. We can and should gain knowledge from each other and support each other in action to counter climate change (Salick and Byg, 2007). Acknowledgements Financial support for research comes from the Ford Foundation, the National Geographic Society, and The Nature Conservancy. GLORIA provides both infrastructural and technical support, as well as friendship. Institutional support is provided by the Shangrila Alpine Botanical Garden, the Kunming Institute of Botany, the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Environmental Change Institute of Oxford. Fellowship funding is received from the Christensen Fund (to JS) and the Danish Research Council (to AB). The fieldwork was inestimably aided by the research team of the Shangri-la Alpine Botanical Garden. Appendix A. Appendix A Plant species in 1 m  1 m quadrats and summit sections. Region names: A = Da Xue Shan, B = Rizila, C = Ma Ji Wa; Summit elevations: 1 = lowest summit, 4 = highest summit in region. Species

Occurrence (region + summit elevation)

Abies ernestii Rehder Abies georgei Orr Abies sp. Mill. Achania sp. Sw. Agrostis sp.1 L. Agrostis sp.2 L. Agrostis sp.3 L. Agrostis sp.4 L. Agrostis sp.5 L. Aletris pauciflora (Klotz.) Franch. Allium forestii Diels Allium prattii C.H. Wright Allium sp.1 L. Allium sp.2 L. Allium sp.3 L. Alnus sp. Mill. Anaphalis flavescens Hand.-Mazz.

B1 A1, C1 B1 C1 A3, A4 B1, B2, B3, B4 B2 B3 C1, C2 B2, C1, C2, C3 A3, B2 A3, A4 A3, A4 B2, B3, B4 C3 C1 A1, A4, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, C4 C1

Anaphalis nepalensis (Spreng.) Hand.-Mazz. Anaphalis sp.1 DC. Anaphalis sp.2 DC. Anaphalis sp.3 DC. Androsace delavayi Franch. Androsace rigida Hand.-Mazz. Androsace sp.1 L. Androsace sp.2 L. Androsace sp.3 L. Androsace spinulifera (Franch.) R. Knuth Anemone delavayii Franch. Anemone demissa Hook. f. & Thomson Anemone obtusiloba D. Don Anemone sp.1 L. Anemone sp.2 L. Apiaceae sp.1 Lindl. Apiaceae sp.2 Lindl. Apiaceae sp.3 Lindl. Apiaceae sp.4 Lindl. Arenaria barbata Franch. Arenaria brevipetala Y.W. Cui & L.H. Zhou Arenaria forestii Diels Arenaria polytrichoides Edgew. ex. Edgew. & Hook. f.

A1, A2, A3, A4 B1, B2, B3, B4 C3 A3, A4, B2, B3, B4, C2, C3, C4 C2 A4 B1 C1, C2, C3 B1 A3 A1, A3, B1, B3, C1 B2, B3, C2, C3 A1 B1 B2 A1, A3, A4 B1, B2, B3 C1, C2, C3, C4 A3, B3, B4, C2, C3 A4 A4 A3, A4, B2, B3, B4, C2, C3, C4

Appendix A (Continued ) Species

Occurrence (region + summit elevation)

Arenaria sp. 4 L. Arenaria sp.1 L. Arenaria sp.2 L. Arenaria sp.3 L. Aster diplostephioides (DC.) C.B. Clarke Aster sp. L. Astragalus sp. L. Berberis dictyophylla Franch. Bergenia purpurascens (Hook. f. & Thomson) Engl. Betula sp. L. Boschniakia himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson Boschniakia sp. C.A. Mey. ex Bong. Botrychium lunaria (L.) Sw. Cacalia sp. L. Caprifoliaceae sp. Juss. Cardamine hirsuta L. Cardamine sp. L. Carex sp.1 L. Carex sp.2 L. Carex sp.3 L. Carex sp.4 L. Cassiope pectinata Stapf Cassiope selaginoides Hook. f. & Thomson Cassiope sp.1 D.Don Cassiope sp.2 D.Don Chesneya nubigena (D. Don) Ali Codonopsis bulleyana Forrest ex Diels Codonopsis sp. Wall. Comastoma sp.1 (Wettst.) Toyok. Comastoma sp.2 (Wettst.) Toyok. Comastoma sp.3 (Wettst.) Toyok. Corydalis sp. 2 DC. Corydalis sp. DC. Cotoneaster sp.1 Medik. Cotoneaster sp.2 Medik. Crassulaceae sp.1 J. St.-Hil. Crassulaceae sp.2 J. St.-Hil. Crawfurdia speciosa Wall. Cremanthodium campanulatum (Franch.) Diels Cremanthodium helianthus (Franch.) W.W. Sm. Cremanthodium sp.1 Benth. Cremanthodium sp.2 Benth. Cyananthus sp.1 Wall. ex Benth. Cyananthus sp.2 Wall. ex Benth. Cyananthus sp.3 Wall. ex Benth. Delphinium sp. L. Diapensia purpurea Diels

C1 A3, A4 B2, B3, B4 C1, C2, C4 B1 B1 B4 B1 B2, B3, C1, C2, C3

Diapensia sp. L. Diplarche multiflora Hook. f. & Thomson Diplarche pauciflora Hook. f. et Thoms. Draba sp.1 L. Draba sp.2 L. Draba sp.3 L. Dryopteris acutodentata Ching Dryopteris alpestris Tagawa Dryopteris sp. Adans. Epilobium sikkimense Hausskn. Epilobium sp.1 L. Epilobium sp.2 L. Epilobium sp.3 L. Epilobium sp.4 L. Eupatorium sp. L. Euphorbia sp. L. Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss. Festuca pamirica Tzvelev Festuca sp.1 L. Festuca sp.2 L. Festuca sp.3 L. Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. Gentiana arethusae Burkill Gentiana atuntsiensis W.W. Sm. Gentiana caelestis (Marq.) H. Smith

B1 A1, B1, C1 B1 C3 C1 A1 A4 B3, B4 A3, A4 B1, B3, B4 B3 C1, C2, C3 A3, B1, C1, C2, C3 A1, A3, B2, B3 A1, A3 B1, B2, B4 A1 C1 C1 A3, A4 B1, B2 C1 C1 C1 B1 B1 A1 B3 B4 A1, A3, C3 B2 A3 B4 A1, A3 B1, B2 C1, C2, C3 B1 A3, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, C4 B3 C3 C2, C3 A3, A4 B4 C2 C1 A1, B1 C4 C1 B2 B2 B2 C1 B2 B1, B2, B3, B4 A1, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2, C3 B2 A1, A3, A4 B1, B2, B4 C1 C2, C3 A3, A4, B2, B3 A1, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3, B4, C2, C3 C1, C2, C3, C4

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Appendix A (Continued )

Appendix A (Continued ) Species

Occurrence (region + summit elevation)

Species

Occurrence (region + summit elevation)

Gentiana dichotoma Pall. Gentiana filistyla Balf. f. & Forrest Gentiana handeliana Harry Sm. Gentiana nubigena Edgew. Gentiana sp. L. Gentiana sp.2 L. Gentiana sp.3 L. Gentiana szechenyii Kanitz Gentiana trichotoma Kusn. Halenia elliptica D. Don Juncus effusus L. Juncus sp.1 L. Juncus sp.2 L. Juncus sp.3 L. Juniperus indica Bertol Juniperus sp. L. Juniperus sp. L. Juniperus sp.2 L. Juniperus squamata Lamb. Kobresia sp.1 Willd. Kobresia sp.10 Willd. Kobresia sp.11 Willd. Kobresia sp.12 Willd. Kobresia sp.13 Willd. Kobresia? sp.14 Willd. Kobresia sp.2 Willd. Kobresia sp.3 Willd. Kobresia sp.4 Willd. Kobresia sp.5 Willd. Kobresia sp.6 Willd. Kobresia sp.7 Willd. Kobresia sp.8 Willd. Kobresia sp.9 Willd. Koenigia islandica L. Lagotis alutacea W.W. Sm. Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth. ex Hook. f.) Kudoˆ Leontopodium sp. R. Br. ex Cass. Leontopodium sp.2 R. Br. ex Cass. Leontopodium stracheyi (Hook. f.) C.B. Clarke ex Hemsl. Lepisorus sp. (Sm.) Ching Ligularia sp. Cass. Lilium bakerianum Collett & Hemsl. var. delavayi (Franch.) E.H. Wilson Lilium lophophorum (Bureau & Franch.) Franch. Lilium souliei (Franch.) Sealy Lilium sp. L. Lilium sp.2 L. Lilium sp.3 L. Lomatogonium sp. A. Braun Lonicera hispida Pall. ex Roem. & Schult. Lonicera myrtillus Hook. f. & Thomson Meconopsis horridula Hook. f. & Thomson Meconopsis impedita Prain Meconopsis sp. Vig. Meconopsis speciosa Prain Morina nepalensis D. Don Morina sp. L. Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC. Orchidaceae sp. Juss. Orchis sp. L. Oxygraphis delavayi Franch. Oxygraphis glacialis (Fisch. ex DC.) Bunge Oxygraphis sp.1 Bunge Oxygraphis sp.2 Bunge Pedicularis dichotoma Bonati Pedicularis elwesii Hook. f. Pedicularis likiangensis Franch. ex Maxim.

C2, C3 B1 A4, B1 B4 A4, B1, B2, B3 A1 A4 A4 B4 B1 A1 A1 B1, B2, B4 C1, C2, C3, C4 B1, B3, C1 B1 A3 C1 A1, B1, C1 A1, A3, A4 C2 B3, C2, C3 C3, C4 C4 B1 B1, B2, B3, B4 A3 B1, B2 B3 B4 B4 B1, B4 C2, C3, C4 B4 A3, A4 A3, A4 A3, B1, B2, B4 C1, C4 A1

Pleurospermum amabile Craib & W.W. Sm. Pleurospermum nanum Franch. Pleurospermum sp. Hoffm. Pleurospermum sp.2 Hoffm. Pleurospermum sp.3 Hoffm. Poaceae sp.1 Barnhart Poaceae sp.2 Barnhart Poaceae sp.3 Barnhart Poaceae sp.4 Barnhart Poaceae sp.5 Barnhart Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle Polygonum forrestii Diels Polygonum griffithii Hook. f. Polygonum islandicum Meisn. ex Small Polygonum macrophyllum D. Don Polygonum nepalense Meisn. Polygonum nummularifolium Meisn. Polygonum sp.1 L. Polygonum sp.2 L. Polygonum sp.3 L. Polygonum sp.4 L. Polygonum sp.5 L. Polygonum viviparum L. Polystichum silaense Ching Polystichum sp.1 Roth Polystichum sp.2 Roth Polystichum sp.3 Roth Potentilla articulata Franch. Potentilla coriandrifolia D. Don Potentilla cuneata Wall. ex Lehm. Potentilla fruticosa L. Potentilla fruticosa L. var. arbuscula (D. Don) Maxim. Potentilla glabra Lodd. Potentilla griffithii var. velutina Cardot Potentilla parvifolia Fisch. ex Lehm. Potentilla peduncularis D. Don Potentilla saundersiana Royle var. jacquemontii Franch. Potentilla sp.1 L. Potentilla sp.2 L. Potentilla sp.3 L. Potentilla stenophylla (Franch.) Diels

B1, B3 C4 B3, B4 A1, A3 B2 A1, A3, A4 A4 B2 C1, C2, C4 C1 A1 C1, C2 C1, C2, C3, C4 B4 B1, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4 C1 A4 A1, A3, A4 B1, B2, B4 C2 B4 B1 A1, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3, B4 C1 A1 B1 C1, C3 B3, B4 A3, B2, C2, C3 C1 C3, C4 A1, B1

Pedicularis Pedicularis Pedicularis Pedicularis Pedicularis Pedicularis

roylei Maxim. rupicola Franch. ex Maxim. sp.1 L. sp.2 L. trichoglossa Hook. f. vialii Franch.

B1 A1 A4, C3 B1 C2, C3 B1 C3 B1 B3 A4 A1, B1 A3, A4 C1, C2, C3, C4 A4 B3, C3, C4 B1 B1 B1, B2, B3 B1, B3 B1 C1 A1, A3, B2, B4 A1 B4 A3 A1, B2, C3 A3, A4, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3 A3, B1, B4 B3 A1, A3, A4 B4 B2, B3 B1

Primula bella Franch. Primula blinii H. Le´v. Primula dryadifolia Franch. Primula polyneura Franch. Primula serratifolia Franch. Primula silaensis Petitm. Primula sp. L. Pyrethrum sp Medik. Pyrethrum tatsienense (Bureau & Franch.) Ling ex C. Shih Ranunculus sp. L. Rheum delavayi Franch. Rheum forrestii Diels Rheum nobile Hook. f. & Thomson Rhodiola alsia (Fro¨d.) S.H. Fu Rhodiola atuntsuensis (Praeger) S.H. Fu Rhodiola coccinea (Royle) Boriss. subsp. scabrida (Franch.) H. Ohba Rhodiola fastigiata (Hook. f. & Thomson) S.H. Fu Rhodiola nobilis (Franch.) S.H. Fu Rhodiola sp.1 L. Rhodiola sp.2 L. Rhodiola sp.3 L. Rhododendron aganniphum Balf. f. & Kingdon-Ward Rhododendron alutaceum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. Rhododendron beesianum Diels Rhododendron cephalanthum Franch. Rhododendron forrestii Balf. f. ex Diels Rhododendron glaucum (Lam.) Sweet Rhododendron nakotiltum Balf. f. & Forrest Rhododendron nivale Hook. f.

C1, C2, C3, C4 B2 A1, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3 C1 C1 A1, A3, A4 B1, B2, B4 A1 A1, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4 B2, C1, C2, C3, C4 A1 A4, B4, C2 A1 B4, C1 C1, C2, C3 B4 A3 A1, A3, B2, B3, C2, C3 B3 A1, A3 A1, A3, A4, B3 A4 B2 A4, B2, B4 C3 A1, A3, C1 C2,C3 A1, A3, A4 B1, B2, B3 B1 A1, A3, C1 C1, C3 C1 C1 C1 C1 B1 A1, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3

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References

Appendix A (Continued ) Species

Rhododendron phaeochrysum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. Rhododendron primuliflorum Bureau & Franch. Rhododendron proteoides Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. Rhododendron rupicola W.W. Sm. Rhododendron saluenense Franch. Rhododendron sanguineum Franch. Rhododendron sp.1 L. Rhododendron sp.2 L. Rhododendron sp.3 L. Rhododendron tapetiforme Balf. f. & Kingdon-Ward Rhododendron timeteum Balf. f. & Forrest Rhododendron traillianum Forrest & W.W. Sm. Rubus fockeanus Kurz Salix lindleyana Wall. ex Andersson Salix sp.1 L. Salix sp.2 L. Salix sp.3 L. Salix sp.4 L. Salix vaccinioides Hand.-Mazz. Saussurea gossypiphora D. Don Saussurea graminea Dunn Saussurea hieracioides Hook. f. Saussurea leontodontoides (DC.) Sch. Bip. Saussurea medusa Maxim. Saussurea minuta C.G.A. Winkl. Saussurea quercifolia W.W. Sm. Saussurea sp.1 DC. Saussurea sp.2 DC. Saussurea sp.3 DC. Saussurea sp.4 DC. Saxifraga diversifolia Wall. ex Ser. Saxifraga filicaulis Wall. ex Ser. Saxifraga hirculus L. Saxifraga melanocentra Franch. Saxifraga sp.1 L. Saxifraga sp.2 L. Saxifraga sp.3 L. Saxifraga sp.4 L. Saxifraga sp.5 L. Saxifraga sp.6 L. Saxifraga sp.7 L. Sedum sp.1 L. Sedum sp.2 L. Sedum sp.3 L. Sedum sp.4 L. Selaginella pulvinata (Hook. & Grev.) Maxim. Selaginella remotifolia Spring Selaginella sp. P. Beauv. Sibbaldia cuneata Hornem. ex Ktze. Sibbaldia purpurea Royle Sibbaldia purpurea Royle var. macropetala (Murav.) T.T. Yu & C.L. Li Silene nigrescens (Edgew.) Majumdar Silene sp. L. Silene sp.2 L. Sinocrassula ambigua (Praeger) A. Berger Sinolimprichtia alpina H. Wolff Solms-Laubachia linearifolia (W.W. Sm.) O.E. Schulz Solms-Laubachia minor Hand.-Mazz. Sorbaria sp. (Ser. ex DC.) A. Braun Sorbus rehderiana Koehne Soroseris gillii (S. Moore) Stebbins Soroseris hirsuta (J. Anthony) C. Shih Stipa sp. L. Trollius yunnanensis (Franch.) Ulbr. Veratrilla baillonii Franch. Viola biflora L. var. rockiana (W. Becker) Y.S. Chen Viola sp. L.

Occurrence (region + summit elevation) A1, A3, B1, B2, B3 A3, B2, B3, C2, C3 C1, C2, C3 B1, C1 A3, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3 C1, C2, C3 A1 B1, B4 B2 A3, B1, B2, B3, B4, C3 A3 B1, C1, C2, C3 C1 B2 A1, A3, B1, B2, B3, B4 B1, B3, B4 B3 C2, C3 B1 B4 A3, A4, B2, C2, C3, C4 A3, B1 B1, B2, B3, B4 A4, B4 B4 B3, B4 A4 B1, B2, B3, B4 B1 B1 A1, C1 B1, B4, C1, C3, C4 C1, C3 A1 A1, A3, A4 B1, B3, B4 A3, A4 A3, A4 B4 C1 C1 A1, A3, A4 B1, B3, B4 A3 C1 B4 B1 B2, B4 A4, C1 B2, B3, B4, C3 B4 A4, B3 A4 C1, C3 B1 B1, B3 B4 B2, B4 B4 A1, B1 B2 A3, A4, B3, B4 A3 B2 B1, B2, C1 A1, A3, B1, B2, C1, C3 B1, B3

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