Electric vehicles in Spain: An overview of charging systems

Electric vehicles in Spain: An overview of charging systems

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews journal...

1MB Sizes 300 Downloads 420 Views

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Electric vehicles in Spain: An overview of charging systems Juan Martínez-Laoa, Francisco G. Montoyaa, Maria G. Montoyac, ⁎ Francisco Manzano-Agugliaroa,b, a b c

Department of Engineering, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria Spain CIAMBITAL Research Center on Agricultural, Food and Biotechnology, CEIA3 University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria Spain Department of Informatics, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain



Keywords: Electric vehicle Grid to vehicle charging Spain Electric charging system

The transportation sector is characterized by a high consumption of fossil fuels and a strong environmental impact. Promoting electric vehicles is an alternative to reduce and limit them move towards the sustainability of the automobile sector. In a short period of time, world car manufacturers have built, marketed and sold a million electric vehicles, and a million drivers got used to these new low carbon advanced technologies. Comparatively, this figure represents approximately the average annual sales of conventional vehicles in Spain. The main problem is the battery autonomy, since its maximum range does not exceed 250 km, a restriction that limits the trip. Spain belongs to the group of countries which have longest trip average around 80 km. Then the problem is how to understand electric mobility, for that the types and modes of charging, the types of electric vehicles, and the available charging systems all interact with one another in the charging systems for electric vehicles, which will be specifically analysed. Alternative charging methods are also presented, and the agents involved in the charging process in accordance with applicable regulations are identified. The objective of this article is to analyse the charging of electric vehicles in Spain and to assess the current situation to be able to propose potential improvements or implementation strategies. This paper determines that it is necessary to develop public policies for a structured implementation of charging stations in public places and in common-use areas within large shared spaces, such as parking areas and residential areas in order to improve electric mobility in Spain. This paper also illustrates the need to legislate standards for charging electric vehicles to maximize their implementation in Spain, with the goal of implementing electric vehicles on a larger scale and ultimately allowing society to benefit from the advantages of this technology.

1. Introduction The history of the electric vehicle dates from before the development of fossil fuel vehicles: Scottish entrepreneur Robert Anderson invented what would be the first electric vehicle between 1832 and 1839 [1] and [2]. Starting in 1880, with the invention of the first rechargeable energy accumulators by the Frenchmen Gaston Plant in 1865 and Camille Faure in 1881 [1], these vehicles gained great popularity compared to vehicles powered by gasoline, which were created in 1867 by the German engineer Nicolaus August Otto, or vehicles powered by steam because of the absence of noise and gear changes, the difficulty of finding gasoline and a price that was adapted to the bourgeoisie and the upper classes of the time. The first users of electric cars greatly exceeded the users of gasoline cars [3]. In 1899 the well-known pilot Camille Jenatzy established a new speed record in France by exceeding 100 km/h with his bullet-shaped

electric convertible “La Jamais Contente”. In 1896, the Electric Vehicle Co. introduced electric taxis in New York [4]. At the same time, the British H. J. Dowsing and L. Epstein patented ideas on parallel hybridization [5], which were subsequently used in the U.S.A. to move large vehicles such as trucks or buses. Dowsing mounted a dynamo in an Arnold that started the gasoline engine or recharged the batteries; it was perhaps the first hybrid in history. Also in 1899, Ferdinand Porsche first designed a hybrid car with both an electric and gasoline engine [6]; his design consisted of a gasoline engine that ran at a constant speed, feeding a dynamo to charge electrical batteries. Additionally, the gasoline engine was started with the same dynamo. The electrical energy was used to move electric motors in the front axle placed inside the wheels, storing the excess charge [7]. This car is considered the first produced hybrid car in the world and the first front-wheel drive vehicle [8]. It had a driving range of 64 km running with batteries only [2].

Corresponding author at: Department of Engineering, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (J. Martínez-Lao), [email protected] (F.G. Montoya), [email protected] (M.G. Montoya), [email protected] (F. Manzano-Agugliaro).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.239 Received 12 November 2015; Received in revised form 22 June 2016; Accepted 21 November 2016 1364-0321/ © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Martinez-Lao, J., Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.239

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

adopted by Spain. It can be seen that the Spanish regulations perform on the main strategies to encourage the use of EV. These strategies focus on reducing taxes, funding part of the cost for being EV and reducing CO2 emissions. This analysis shows that national PEV policies differed drastically across countries in intensity and ranging in focus from supply-side innovation policy to demand-side environmental policy. Furthermore it should be noted that for none of the countries studied, the use of EV are implicated by their advantage associated with the reduction of noise emissions; that are responsible for a large environmental impact. So far one of the greatest limitations attributed to the electric vehicle is its lack of autonomy compared to internal combustion vehicles. A significant penetration of electric vehicles in the market is possible only if their use is compatible with mobility patterns of individuals [23]. The nominal size of the battery of 16 kW h was derived from the fact that a vehicle range of about 50–60 km is needed to cover at least 80% of the daily driving profiles of regular customers in many countries [17]. So, the driven distance should be compatible with the batteries range or parking patterns should enable re-charging. In Europe there are three groups of countries that can be identified in consideration of the average the daily driven distance: first group for countries exceeding 70 km or even 80 km (Poland and Spain), second for the ones that are around 40 km (UK) and other countries that fell between 50 and 60 km (Ex: France, Germany and Italy) [23]. In this sense, if these driving patterns are maintained, Spain has better perspectives for the electric vehicle in urban areas. The main research and development of electrical vehicle are focussed on the switched reluctance motor where torque density, efficiency, and operating range can be competitive, compared to permanent magnets motor [24]. Also, Battery Management System (BMS) is a hot topic where the key advantage of this concept is that the existing discharge MOSFETs of the BMS are exploited as a current limiter without significant increase of material costs [25–27]. State of charge (SOC) is another topic of interest, where new mixed algorithms are proposed to overcome the limitations of the conventional algorithms, which cannot be applied in various driving patterns of drivers [28–30], along with battery capacity prediction [31–33] and the charging in low-voltage distribution systems [34–36]. The objective of this manuscript is to provide the reader with an overview of the implementation of electric vehicles in Spain. Section two analyses the current architecture of the charging systems for electric vehicles in Spain, where the first part specifies the charging types and charging modes. The second and third parts describe the charging systems and alternative charging methods. The fourth part describes the agents involved in the process of supplying energy to electric vehicles, and the fifth part analyses the types of electric vehicles that exist in Spain. Finally, the conclusions from section two are presented.

Subsequently, in 1907, the Detroit Electric Car Company began to produce electric vehicles powered by rechargeable lead-acid batteries [9]. Both Thomas Edison and, curiously, Henry Ford invested in the company, convinced that electric vehicles had a promising future. In 1911, Edison also incorporated his nickel-iron batteries to the fleet of vehicles in production [10]. However, the downfall of the electric vehicle occurred around the year 1915; the appearance of the assembly line with the Ford Model T, the eruption of cheap oil, the creation of the first starter motor, the opening of highways, the First World War and the inability to compete in terms of costs all gave greater importance to the driving range [11]. Between the 1960s and 70s, some models appeared within the industrial sector, mainly with an environmental motivation. The oil crisis triggered manufacturers to promote research on electric mobility again, given the foreign origin of oil and the possibility that it would become scarce and its price would increase excessively [12]. In 1990, General Motors introduced the “Impact” in the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the forerunner of the most famous electric car in history: the General Motors Experimental Vehicle 1, or EV-1 [13]. Some of the legislation initiatives on zero-emission vehicles prompted the big automotive companies to research electric vehicles. The state of California, the most polluted in the U.S., was the pioneer with its Zero Emission Mandate in 1990 [14]. With the development of lithium batteries and the rising cost of oil, the scenario in the first decade of the twenty-first century shows that while electric cars are not yet comparable to combustion cars, they are starting to have a major presence and a good medium-term perspective [15]. Various interests put an end to the electric vehicle for a period of time. The oil industry and the interests in favour of fuel cells pushed to create an unfavourable environment for electric vehicles. Current economic developments and the growing ecological mentality have caused electric vehicles to start re-emerging [16,17]. More than 90% of the global transport sector relies on oil [18]. Transportation alone consumes around 49% of oil production and is the most rapidly growing consumer of the worlds energy [19]. The volatility of oil prices has set the transport sector on an unsustainable course [20]. With this concern, studies for several countries exist in the literature such as the case of Australia where it is estimated that emissions can be reduced by between 56% and 73% in 2050 if electricity for hydrogen production, storage and battery charging were sources from the national electricity grid; additionally, emissions can be reduced even further by supplementing grid electricity with standalone renewable electricity dedicated to hydrogen production and storage [21]. Therefore, several European countries, the United States, China, and India are turning to electric cars as an alternative to gasoline driven automobiles [22] mainly as an effect of environmental and energy security concerns. In other countries like Brazil, the energy policy consisting on reducing taxes for 1.0-liter cars could be in detriment of the electric vehicle market; and also one of the main obstacles to the introduction of electric cars in Brazil is the competition with the biofuels program; but anyway the use of electricity for individual transport can generate significant savings in terms of energy efficiency and reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels [22]. Table 1 shows a comparison of main items in several countries policy for promoting the EV. A total of 18 countries have been analysed. Most of them focus their effort strategies on tax incentives and direct grants for the purchase or acquisition of EV. It should be noted that these grants are not offered in Denmark, Italy or France. Along with the above mentioned tax incentives, charging infrastructure and CO2 emissions are also rewarded as a central point in EV policy for major countries. Moreover, it is noteworthy that Portugal and the United States are countries that have opted for a global strategy for the development and implementation of electric vehicles, e.g. the preferential inclusion access to parking areas or restricted traffic areas. The only countries that have encouraged the use of batteries as resulting to their energy policy are Denmark and Germany. These strategies are not

2. Architecture of the charging system for electric vehicles 2.1. Charging speed The type of charge refers to the speed of charging [37], and it can be classified into three categories:

• •


Slow charging. This type of charging uses a single-phase AC outlet of 230 V and up to 16 A [38]. Using this method, 6–8 h would be required to charge a conventional electric car. Electric motorcycles can be recharged in 2–3 h. Fast charging. In this case, the recharge uses a single-phase or threephase AC outlet with an current of up to 63 A. Charging a conventional car with this method would require between 1 and 2 h of charging. An electric motorcycle cannot withstand this type of charging [39].

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Table 1 Main EV policy items comparison.

Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Ireland Italy The Netherlands Portugal Republic of Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States

Tax incentives

Charging infrastructure

Emissions (CO2 reduction)


Urban access areas whit specific entry rules

Preferential parking areas

Yes Yes Yes – Yes – Yes Yes – Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

– Yes – – – Yes – Yes Yes – Yes Yes Yes – – – Yes –

Yes Yes – – Yes Yes – – – Yes – – Yes Yes – – Yes Yes

– – – Yes – – Yes – – – – – – – – – – –

– – – – – – – – Yes Yes Yes – – – – – – Yes

– – – – – Yes – – – – Yes – – Yes – – Yes Yes

2.3. Charging systems

Rapid recharging. This type of charging uses direct current up to 500 V between 50 and 550 A. This method can charge a conventional vehicle in 5–30 min [39,40].

In the types of charging systems, we include two distinct parts, which are the charging infrastructure and the management of the electrical load.

Table 2 compares the different types of charging.

2.3.1. Charging infrastructure The electric vehicle power station or EVPS is the primary set of elements necessary to connect the EV to the fixed electrical installation necessary for charging [47]. These stations are classified as.

2.2. Charging modes and connectors Charging modes are conditioned by the infrastructure [41] and involve the level of communication between the vehicle and the charging station [42,43]. Charging modes are specified in IEC 61851 [44]. Table 3 lists the main specifications of the existing charging modes. There is a great deal of diversity among the connection types because there is still no standardization. Each manufacturer uses the one that it believes is the most suitable, in some cases using a proprietary model. Connectors for electric vehicles are regulated by IEC 62196 [45] and modified by IEC 62196-2 [46] and 3 [46]. The Schuko connector is most widely used to charge electric motorcycles and bicycles. Table 4 shows the different connector types.

• •

Table 2 Comparison of load types.


Charging points: These are composed of the necessary protections and one or more outlet bases or cable-connector sets for charging in mode 1 or 2. Specific power system or electric vehicle charging system (EVCS): These systems contain a set of equipment installed to provide electrical power to recharge an EV, including charging station protections, the connecting cable and the electrical outlet or connector. It enables the communication between the EV and the fixed installation, and it is used for charging in mode 3.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Table 3 Charging mode specifications.

properly, the unification of the user identification system and the creation of a roaming system are essential. This system allows interoperability between different charging management systems. It is responsible for providing information about a user who is using a charging station that belongs to a charging management system that is different to the one that the user is registered to. The introduction of a roaming system is paramount for establishing electric vehicles in the population [50]. Different topologies can be used; among them, the distributed roaming system and the centralized roaming system stand out.

The specifications of these elements (for example protections, insulation, etc.) are included in UNE/EN standard 61851. In general, EVCSs can also be divided into two types, charging posts and wall boxes. The differences between the two are primarily based on outdoor or indoor use. Within this section, it is worth mentioning the smart charging management system (SCMS), which regulates the charging current to manage and flatten the demand curve and avoid overloading the grid, maximizing the availability of the EV charging service. It can also incorporate features such as an hourly programming option or a charging rotation.

– Distributed roaming system: Each of the management systems is responsible for sharing data with others through a network; see Fig. 1. – Centralized roaming system: A database communicates with each of the management systems; see Fig. 2.

2.3.2. Recharge management To effectively develop the electric mobility project, it is essential to implement adequate infrastructure for charging the vehicles in such a way that the electricity distribution grid is not adversely affected [48,49]. The purpose of recharge management is to.

• • • •

Currently, the vast majority of EVPSs either are free because they do not belong to a company registered as a charging management system or use their own systems to receive payments. There are several possibilities associated with this system: payment in cash, by credit card, through a monthly subscription, and using prepaid cards, among others. This system also requires standardization because the only payment method that allows a customer to use any charging station with his or her vehicle, regardless of the charging management system it belongs to, would be with cash payment or by credit card. Furthermore, a help desk system or customer service system is used to increase the quality of service. It allows communicating incidents or questions so that the user can solve possible problems. Its main features are monitoring the state of the management system; attending to queries, questions, complaints or incidents that a user may have; and offering information relating to the charging station or the location of nearby charging stations. Thus, the management system is designed as a centralized system capable of managing data from the charging operation and incidents from different charging stations. The management system can be located at the charging station; in fact, locating it externally, managing several charging stations at the same time, is optimal. In addition, the management system has an associated database that records the necessary data for user access as well as potential incidents and

Implement vehicle charging in the electricity system through the development of systems capable of regulating the charging of batteries based on the availability and cost of electricity. Distinguish between various charging stations in a same parking lot so that the grid is not saturated. Automatically select what type of charging to use depending on the time available. Identify the user to subsequently collect payment for the use of the system or to control available credit.

The first step in the charging process, in charging stations managed by a charging management system, is the identification and authentication of the user. To this end, the user has a physical system that is provided by the charging management system. Users are identified and authenticated by the identification system that the charging station is associated with; it may be external and control several charging stations, or it may be internal. In the latter case, the recharge point would carry out the user identification and authentication directly, without having to connect to an external system. A reservation system associated with the identification system would be established to allow the reservation of a specific charging station. For the system to function 4

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Table 4 Mode 1, 2, 3, 4 connectors and CCS.

2.3.3. Smart charging The goal of smart charging is to manage the user's charging time and power and/or other interactions with the electrical system through regulating the electricity demand [43]. There are several methods to carry out most of the EV recharges in efficient conditions of time and power usage both in terms of the economic cost to the user and the electrical grid capacity [48,51].

statistical data about its usage. The management system has modules that interconnect it with the different elements, allowing them to communicate; see Fig. 3. – Communication with the charging point. It performs transactions with the charging station as well as monitoring it. For communication, a data network will be required; any of a number of different technologies may be used, including GPRS/3 G, Wi-Fi, etc. – Communication with the user. It reports and alerts the user, by mobile phone, smartphone or the web, of the charging state. – Communication with the energy distributor. It informs the energy distributor of the status of the power supply. – Communication with the help desk. It sends information regarding the status of the charging system to the help desk. – Communication with the roaming system. It sends to the roaming system information about users that are utilizing the infrastructure of another charging management system to which they are not registered, ensuring the interoperability of the entire network of charging stations, even if these belong to different charging management systems.

• •


Default rules. This method consists of implementing standardized regulations governing the use of public charging posts. Price improvements. This method consists of promoting the use of off-peak hours through the reduction of the electricity rate during these hours. The introduction of a super-off-peak electricity rate can be included here, which allows charging an electric car or electric motorcycle at a low cost during the off-peak hours, between 1:00 and 7:00. Use of the intelligent management system and smart grid. The capacity of the Spanish electrical system to recharge the batteries of plug-in electric cars will depend on this recharge being controlled through new information and communications technologies (ICTs).

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Fig. 1. Distributed roaming system diagram. Source: IDAE.

The assistance of ICTs, besides avoiding charging during the hours of maximum energy demand, would help to better integrate renewable energies. A “smart” grid of tens of thousands of charging stations in streets and parking lots, with the appropriate software, would tell the vehicle when to recharge and stop and even discharge electricity back into the grid. The majority of the fleet spends most of the time parked and is used only one or two hours a day in most cases [52]. Regarding the three above methods commented above, the use of the intelligent management system and smart grid can integrate all systems, but some regulations are needed by the Government of Spain. Additionally, this way can mitigate the impact on the grid, making the smart grid technologies in advance advantage as for the explotation of local power generations such as renewable energy [53]. Nevertheless, it is clear that the smart grid requires new telecommunication solutions

Fig. 2. Centralized roaming system diagram. Source: IDAE.

Fig. 3. Diagram of the charging management system. Source: IDAE.


Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

• • •

in order to fit the strong requirements needed to fulfil advanced applications as bidirectional communications with the new smart meters and electric vehicles charging points [54]. 2.4. Smart grids and smart recharge The European Technology Platform for Smart Grids [55] defines a smart grid as one that can efficiently integrate the behaviour and actions of all of the users connected to it (generators, consumers and those who do both) to ensure a sustainable and economically efficient energy system, with low losses and high levels of quality and supply security [56,57]. In general, a smart grid is a system that allows a twoway communication between the end consumers of energy, either a private user or an industry, and the electricity companies. The information obtained in this communication process makes operating the electricity grid more efficient. To implement a smart grid, the following aspects should be taken into account [58]:

• • • • •

The drawbacks are that

• • •

The specific stations necessary to exchange the batteries have high costs. It is possible that the cost of the monthly rent of the battery is greater than the cost of fuelling a conventional combustion engine vehicle. There is no standardization with regard to the battery model in electric vehicles, so these stations will have to specialize in a particular model.

Portable rechargable batteries tend to hit an energy-storage-perweight limit. The current research trends are the following:

The massive integration of renewable energies and their impact on transportation and distribution networks, with distributed generation playing an increasingly important role. Energy efficiency, which should be one of the main drivers of change, especially in the transposition process of the recently published Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 25, 2012, concerning energy efficiency [59]. The implementation of smart meters, as a result of Directive 2009/ 72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of July 13, 2009, concerning common rules for the internal electricity market, which will facilitate the process of transforming the grid and taking advantage of new functionalities. Demand management, thanks to which consumers will become active agents of the electricity system. Gradual implementation of electric vehicles.

• • •

One of the existing proposals, to alleviate the problem that the Spanish infrastructure would not be able to withstand massive charging during peak hours, is the use of bi-directional charging. To this end, the vehicle to grid (V2G), vehicle to building (V2B) and vehicle to home (V2H) protocols have been proposed [60]. Through the implementation of smart grids, these protocols attempt to use electric vehicle batteries as an energy storage means for use during peak demand hours [57]. The main difference among the three is the field of application, referring to the whole electricity grid, fleets of vehicles or the home of the owner of the vehicle.

3. Alternative charging methods: exchange of batteries and wireless charging

Lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion batteries are currently used in the majority of electric vehicles, and will be dominant into the next decade. Ex. researchers at Stanford recently made headway on these problems by forming a protective nanosphere layer on the lithium anode that moves with the lithium as it expands and contracts [61]. Graphene batteries will improve significantly the relation between energy storage and weight [62]. Solid state battery. This technology provides several advantages: no worry of electrolyte leaks or fires, extended lifetime, decreased need for bulky and expensive cooling mechanisms, and the ability to operate in an extended temperature range [63]. Aluminum-ion battery. Aluminum-ion batteries are similar to Lithium-ion but have an aluminum anode. This offers significantly decreased charging time and the ability to bend [64]. Lithium-sulfur battery. They offer a higher theoretical energy density and a lower cost than Lithium-ion. The major drawback is their low cyclability, caused by expansion and harmful reactions with the electrolyte [65]. Metal-air battery. Metal-air have a pure-metal anode and an ambient air cathode. Among all electrochemical energy storage devices, metal-air batteries have potential to offer the highest energy density, representing the most promising systems for portable, mobile, and stationary applications [66]. Furthermore, most metal-air or metal-oxygen prototypes have problems with cyclability and lifetime.

3.2. Wireless charging The other alternative method is wireless recharging, which is based on electromagnetic induction [67]; here, a primary coil is placed on the surface or beneath it, and the secondary coil is placed under the vehicle. The mutual coupling within inductively coupled power transfer systems is generally weak. To deliver the necessary power and ensure equipment sizes to remain manageable, it is necessary to operate at high frequencies. At present, the operational frequency for high power applications is limited to below 100 kHz as a result of switching losses. Moreover, resonant circuits are normally employed in the primary and/ or secondary networks to further boost the power transfer capability, while minimizing the required voltage and current ratings of the power supply [68]. The charging process starts by placing the vehicle on the charging station and ends when the battery is fully charged or if the vehicle is removed [69,70]. Contactless energy transfer technology is spreading in city transportation applications because of their high mobility and flexibility in loading [71,72]. The advantages of this system are that

In addition to the different modes of conventional charging, in which the vehicle is recharged using a physical connection to the electricity grid, there are projects that use other technologies with the objective of charging electric vehicles and encouraging their use. 3.1. Battery exchange The battery exchange system or “battery swap” is based on paying for a monthly rental of a battery, which may be exchanged after it is exhausted for a fully charged battery in any of the stations planned for this service. The main advantages of this system are that

• •

The driver does not have to get out of the vehicle. The user is not responsible for the conservation of the battery (service life, failures etc.). Batteries stored at the stations could participate in the V2G (vehicle to grid) initiative [60].

100% of the capacity of the battery is restored in less than 1 min. The driving range is unlimited in the case of a sufficiently broad network of stations. 7

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Table 5 Comparison overview of charging methods. Recharging method Connectors

Induction recharge

Battery swap

• • • •



• Possibility slow, fast and quick recharge. to various locations for recharging. • Access • High efficiency in recharging having direct connection are no problems regarding the standardization of • There connectors. possibility of charging the vehicle in motion could be • The considered. is no danger of cable removal in case of charging on • There a public road. allows charging even on wet ground or in sand, dust or • Itsnow.

regarding the standardization of connectors. • You need to have the vehicle • Problems stopped during recharging. complex recharging infrastructure. • Need • Restrictions on access to the electricity grid. complexity in the location of the transmitter (coil connected to network) • Increased and receiver (coil vehicle). • Increased cost of implementing a system of connectors. underdeveloped. No standard and the development of a system implies a large • System commercial risk.

of the capacity of the battery is restored in less than • 100% • The specific stations necessary to exchange the batteries have high costs. 1 min. driving range is unlimited in the case of a sufficiently is possible that the cost of the monthly rent of the battery is greater than the cost of • The • Itfuelling broad network of stations. a conventional combustion engine vehicle. driver does not have to get out of the vehicle. • The user is not responsible for the conservation of the is no standardization with regard to the battery model in electric vehicles, so • The • There battery (service life, failures etc.). these stations will have to specialize in a particular model. stored at the stations could participate in the • Batteries V2G (vehicle to grid) initiative

not technically fully developed. Moreover, the major drawback of the battery exchange method is the absence of their standardization in vehicles or quick-change system. Not being perfect, the method by charging connectors is the most suitable at this moment, although there is no standardization of these currently, it is easier to introduce all connectors on charging stations. On the other hand, the Spanish electricity grid is constantly developing [74], from 2010 to 2014, the transport grid increased by 2302 km for 400 kV and 1410 km for the grid less than 220 kV.

There are no problems regarding the standardization of connectors. The possibility of charging the vehicle in motion could be considered. There is no danger of cable removal in case of charging on a public road. It allows charging even on wet ground or in sand, dust or snow. The main drawbacks of electromagnetic induction charging are:

• • • •

Greater complexity in the location of the transmitter (coil connected to the network) and receiver (coil in the vehicle). Higher cost of implementing than a system of connectors. System underdeveloped. There is no standard and the development of a system implies a large commercial risk. At present, its development in Spain is not feasible because the lack of induction-recharge ready EV models.

4. Agents involved in the process of supplying to EVs charging The integration of charging electric cars within the electricity system is mainly based on the need to regulate the electrical demand of these electric cars to not overload the grid, thus avoiding, among other things, the spending that would result from the necessary oversizing of the grid and flattening the electricity demand curve. In recent years, new companies have emerged and others have been updated to offer services centred on electric mobility. In this sense, their role within the system is particularly interesting with regard to those that currently act as charging management systems. The companies registered as charging management systems are consumers, but at the same time, they have a commercial nature and supply an end customer; consequently, these companies act more like marketers. That is, they

Finally, the Table 5 shows a comparison of different methods of charging, highlighting their pros and cons in detail. The imminent arrival of electric vehicles in Spain offers the possibility of flattening the load curve, but needs controlling all devices connected to a grid. However it allows us to integrate a higher level of renewable resources to achieve the objectives set by the EU (the famous 20-20-20) [73]. Of the three methods discussed, the electromagnetic induction is Table 6 Suppliers of management systems.

Situation Identification Availability Payment and billing Select type of recharge Reservation Communication Demand Management V2G Roaming Others


Power2 Drive



Blue Mobility



For sale Yes Yes Yes – Yes – Yes No Yes

For sale Yes Yes Yes Yes No – No No No

For sale Yes – Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No

– Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes – Yes No Yes

For sale Yes Yes Yes Yes – Yes Yes No –

For sale Yes Yes Yes – Yes – No No

Project Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No –

Compatible OCPP protocol

Harmonic Filtering


Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

The renewal of transport fleets as one of the measures to reduce energy consumption. The EV is included but These are declared incompatible with any other aid grants from Spain for purchasing vehicles.

Part of plan to boost the vehicle Electric in Spain from 2010 to 2015. PIVE plan (Incentive Program Efficient Vehicle) Specific

• •

Royal decree Law 6/2010

Royal decree 647/2011

Law 2/2011,

Royal Decrees: 648/2011 417/2012 294/ 2013 414/2014 287/2015 Royal Decree: 380/2015




Grant /incentives

Legal. Being corporations duly registered in the registry. Prove whose purpose in their ability to buy and sell electricity without any limitations or reservations. Those companies based in Spain must certify their compliance with statutory requirements and unbundling of accounts.. Technical. Meet in each of the facilities in which to perform the activity of regulatory techniques and safety conditions. Having the necessary authorizations. Having signed a contract toll access to the distributor for each connection point. If they acquire energy directly in the production market must meet the Technical Operating Procedures and Rules of Operation and Liquidation production market. Economic. Meet the techniques and safety conditions for each facility where the activity is performed. Having the necessary authorizations. Sign a contract for a toll access with the distributor for each connection point. If they acquire energy directly in the production market must meet the Technical Operating Procedures and Rules of Operation and Liquidation production market.

Sierzchula et al. [75] studied 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012 using multiple linear regression analysis examining the relationship between consumer financial incentives and other socio-economic factors to determine EV adoption rates. Other studies [76,77] found that financial incentives, the number of charging stations (population dependent), and the presence of local EV manufacturing facility were positive and significant in predicting EV adoption rates. EV-specific factors has been discovered to be significant while broader socio-demographic variables such as income, education level or environmentalism were not good predictors of adoption levels. It has been noted that the number of charging station is a strong predictor of EV adoption, so their installation may be more effective than financial incentives. 5. Types of EVs: manufacturers and technologies Although the electric vehicle concept could be understood as being powered exclusively by electric power, the current status of the technology relating to electrical energy accumulators or batteries has led to the manufacture of different types of vehicles that can also use internal combustion engines. 5.1. Pure electric vehicles These pure vehicles are powered exclusively by electric power; Fig. 4 shows a schematic of these vehicles. Their main advantages are:

Grant /incentives

ITC-BT-52 Technical


have explicit approvals to resell electric power. The main management systems in Spain are shown in Table 6 and the last regulations in the law for EV incentivations are summarized in Table 7. The main requirements to accomplish by the load manager are the following:

General/ Specific

Sustainable Economy Law General

It encourages research, development and innovation in the field of renewable energy, energy saving and efficiency in sections relating to transport and sustainable mobility Direct grants for purchasing electric vehicles are regulated for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015

The article 24 includes the Load Manager role.

measures to boost economic recovery and employment The activity of the Load System Manager is defined General

This Load System Manager has two sides: a consumer and a commercial character. It supplies to end customers, so it resembles the figure of the marketer. The Legal, Technical and Economic Capacity are defined.

For security and industrial quality reason, it needs to be justified: EV recharging electrical schemes, power source characteristics, connection systems, wiring, control equipment and energy meters. Additionally, some instructions are considered in order to regulate the responsibility for installing EV recharge stations. Facilities for special purposes. Infrastructure for recharging EV Specific

The rights and obligations of energy recharge services for electric vehicles is specified and developed.

Summary Name Related to EV Law or Norm Aspect

Table 7 Law regulations for EV incentives 2010–2015.

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Fig. 4. Diagram of pure EVs.


Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

• • •

Reducing the environmental impact, producing less CO2 than a conventional vehicle [43]. Preventing the noise pollution caused by combustion engines. Reducing the costs arising from their use (€/km), from both the cost of electricity compared to fuels and the maintenance of the vehicle. Their main disadvantages are:

• • • •

Lower driving ranges than conventional cars due to the low specific energy (kWh/kg) of the batteries compared to petroleum-based fuels. Long charging times in most cases, leaving the vehicle unusable during that time. Pollution arising from the energy used to charge the batteries from raw materials that pollute in some cases. Higher prices.

Fig. 6. Diagram of range-extended hybrid EVs.

7. Brief considerations of the advantages of EVs and renewable energy In the framework of a transportation sector characterized by a high consumption of fossil fuels and a strong environmental impact, promoting the electric vehicle arises as an alternative to move toward the sustainability of the sector [78]. Thus, faced with the scenario characterized by the increasing price and the growing supply shortage of fossil fuels, the electric vehicle can be seen as a move away from a natural resource that is becoming scarce and may become a real problem in a few years [79]. Electric vehicles reduce the related costs per kilometre travelled (€/km) due to both the cost of electricity compared to fossil fuels and vehicle maintenance [80]. Furthermore, in regard to environmental protection, the electric car is a powerful tool that would enable controlling CO2 emissions [81] and other pollutants produced by transport activity [82]. Furthermore, the noise pollution produced by noisy combustion engines is also an important factor. In addition, electric cars would allow storing electrical energy when there is no demand, allowing stable production and reducing surplus in the electrical grid [83]. These electrical energy surpluses usually occur at night and when the production from renewable energy sources (mainly wind) peaks in production [84]. Electric vehicles can be used for discharging energy stored into the grid and can therefore control the surpluses that occur in specific times or situations [85]. Due the electricity dependence of EV as the sole power source, the impact on the electrical power system must to be evaluated [86]. Related to this issue, the harmonic contamination to the power system by EV battery chargers could be one of major drawbacks [87]. Several solutions have been proposed in the literature to address this situation in order to preserve the power quality of the grid [88,89].

5.2. Hybrid vehicles Hybrid vehicles can be classified into as non plug-in, plug-in and range-extended. The non plug-in hybrid EVs were the first to be commercialized; they have a combustion engine and an electric motor associated with it, and by optimally regulating the use of both, it is possible to reduce the consumption and emissions of the vehicle. Some models are capable of travelling solely with electricity with a greatly reduced driving range. The plug-in hybrid EVs, in contrast, are a variant of the non plug-in hybrid EVs with a somewhat greater driving range in the pure electric mode because of the possibility of being plugged to the electricity grid and recharging. Fig. 5 shows a schematic of both hybrid vehicles. Range-extended hybrid EVs also have combustion engines and electric motors. In this case, the combustion engine does not power the vehicle, but it is responsible for charging the batteries to provide a greater driving range than the electric motor; see Fig. 6.

6. Types of electric vehicles for sale in spain This section summarizes the main features of electric vehicles for sale at the beginning of 2015 in Spain. Table 8 summarizes the main technical features. Table 9 summarizes the energy features, and Table 10 summarizes the charging types. Fig. 7 summarizes, in terms of percentages, the trends of the charging types (summarized in Table 2), charging modes (summarized in Table 3) and connectors (summarized in Table 4). The slow charging type is used by all vehicles, and the fast system is used somewhat more (50%) than the semi-fast system (41%). With regard to the charging mode, modes 2 (slow AC) and 3 (slow but accelerated) are used by all vehicles, and mode 4 (fast DC) is used by 50% of them. With regard to the connectors, out of the 5 possible models, 4 are used, with a tendency to use model CEE 7/4 Type F (Schuko).

• •

On device level, new topologies of battery chargers could be developed [90,91]. On system level the adoption of new filters is a possibility for canceling the harmonics [92] or finding the way to compensating the harmonics generated by EV chargers [93]. The root cause is that the phase angles of harmonic currents generated by different chargers are varied, therefore natural harmonic compensation or even cancellation may occur [92].

Additionally, the electricity demand of EV's can be relatively high, e.g. around 4000–6000 kW h/year for a car [94]. An additional burden on the power system happens if vehicles are recharged during normal or peak periods. Previous research suggest two possible solutions to this problem:

• Fig. 5. Diagram of non plug-in and plug-in hybrid EVs.


To charge during off-peak (at night) hours when electricity consumption is normally low. This one has a clear advantage they will benefit from cheap tariffs, e.g. Considering an off-peak cost of 2.7 cents per kW h, the annual EV electricity cost is reduced

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

Table 8 Technical data (mechanical) of vehicles for sale in Spain. Brand



Maximum speed (km/h)

Power (kW)

Par (N m)

Weight (kg)

Price (€)


BMW BYD Citroën Mitsubishi Nissan Peogeot Renault Renault Renault Smart Think Volkswagen

i3 E6 C-Zero i-Miev LEAF I.ON ZOE Fluence Z.E Kangoo Z.E Fortwo City e-UP!


150 140 130 130 144 130 135 135 130 125 110 130

125 75 49 35 90 49 65 70 44 35 33 40

250 450 196 180 245 196 220 226 226 130 140 210

1,270 2,295 1,450 1,110 1,474 1,195 1,468 1,605 1,426 900 1,065 1,139

35,500 45,000 30,000 30,490 27,000 30,000 21,250 26,600 20,200 23,000 24,000 23,300

– – 16 16 32 16 63 16 16 – – –


max, 125 A max max (1F) max (1F) max (1F) max (3F) max (1F) max (1F)

Table 9 Technical data (energy) of vehicles for sale in Spain. Type of recharge Brand



Consumption (Wh/Km)


Capacity (kWh)

Type of battery

Power (kW)


Semi rapid


BMW BYD Citroën Mitsubishi Nissan Peogeot Renault Renault Renault Smart Think Volkswagen

i3 E6 C-Zero i-Miev LEAF I.ON ZOE Fluence Z.E Kangoo Z.E fortwo City e-UP!


125 160 126 135 173 126 146 140 155 151 144 117

150 250 150 150 199 150 210 185 170 145 200 150

19 45 16 16 24 14,5 22 22 22 17,6 23 18,7

– Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion Litium-ion

125 75 49 35 90 49 65 70 44 35 33 40

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓ x x x x ✓ x x ✓ x ✓

✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x x x ✓

Table 10 Technical data (type of charge) of vehicles for sale in Spain. Brand

BMW BYD Citroën Mitsubishi Nissan Peugeot Renault Renault Renault Smart Think Volkswagen


i3 E6 C-Zero i-Miev LEAF I.ON ZOE Fluence Z.E Kangoo Z.E Fortwo City e-UP!

Way of recharge


Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3



x x x x x x x x x x x x

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x x x ✓

x x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ ✓ x ✓ x

x ✓ x x x x ✓ x x ✓ x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x x x x

✓ x x x x x x x x x x ✓

Fig. 7. Technical data of charge of electric vehicles for sale in Spain.

from €360–€540 to €110–€160 [94]. To make coordination between charging current and charging time in order to charge a group of EVs at the same charging station and minimize the peak current demand [95].

The last concept is related to smartgrid that was dealt before, where the control center receives information about everything that is happening at the end of the power chain, and is also capable of sending information to the lowest level [73]. Therefore, the optimisation of the 11

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

grids is necessary [99]. Current technologies can only provide energy storage in a very limited extent, so that a regulated introduction of EV can help manage this energy. A set of electric vehicles can be considered as a distributed energy storage system. Thus, you can increase the share of renewable energy in an isolated system energy gradually managing an installed capacity of renewable energy. Using these alternative strategies burden, the share of renewables can be increased and CO2 emissions can be reduced [100]. 8. Conclusions

Fig. 8. Inefficient recharge during peak hours for Spain. Source: REE.

The fast evolution of electric vehicles is creating a real alternative as an efficient and sustainable means of transportation, especially in cities. In this paper, we have presented a review of the current state of electric vehicles in Spain, where we have analysed the main aspects related to the current market situation, more specifically the charging modes, charging types, and types of connectors. From the data that we analysed, we observed that all vehicles accept the slow type of charging, which is mainly because there is a lack of specific charging infrastructures to enable accelerated or fast charging. The electric vehicles that accept all types of charging are the ones that have a combinationtype connector with a charging control installed. These vehicles need specific charging stations, which are scarce. With respect to connectors, there are relatively many types, and we understand that legislative regulation in this regard is necessary to facilitate electric charging, regardless of the model or brand of the vehicle. On one hand, this paper highlights the need to legislate regarding the charging standards for electric vehicles to maximize their implementation. On the other hand, we emphasize the need for broad minimal agreement between the companies in the sector to find some common standards, from which the whole society can benefit, avoiding the distribution of models that only carry an unnecessary extra cost to the end user, as has been amply demonstrated in other sectors. In summary, it is necessary to develop public policies for the structured implementation of charging stations in public places and in common use areas within large shared spaces, such as parking areas and residential areas, all with the objective of implementing electric vehicles on a larger scale. The current research gaps are mainly related to battery management system and storage capacity. Efforts must be made in developing charging controllers to manage the technical, environmental and economic factors, in order to supervise the critical task of battery status charge. Current technologies can only provide energy storage in a very limited extent so large research and development efforts in storage systems should be carried on. The technological advances in batteries and the help of smart grids in decreasing tariffs for specific periods will open new perspectives for a wide deployment of Electrical Vehicle.

Fig. 9. Efficient recharge during off-peak hours for Spain. Source: REE.

grid can achieve a flattened load curve; off-peak periods can be filled with distributed energy resources or vehicle-to-grid technology [96,97]. In Spain one of the main demonstration project has been Málaga SmartCity project in collaboration with Endesa. Smart meters were prepared for 6 period tariffs, and they developed the project with two possibilities for control the energy consume in the customers:

• •

offering signal prices to the customers from the retailer. demanding decreasing energy consume directly from the Operation center.

The Málaga SmartCity project demonstrates that the installed renewable energy generation can cover 60% of local consumption demand, exceeding the 20% of European criteria, in both summer and winter. It must reveal that the big difference between peak and valley intensities happens especially in winter. As part of smart charging, there are situations where charging plugin electric vehicles during peak periods would generate a lower efficiency in the electrical system due to overloading the infrastructures for very short periods of time; see Fig. 8. This situation will require oversizing the generation and transportation infrastructures, and CO2 emissions will increase due to requiring a greater contribution from thermal power stations. Furthermore, the manageable charging of vehicles during off-peak hours is an opportunity to reduce the cost of mobility and to increase the efficiency of the system and the integration of renewable energies because renewable energy is sometimes not produced in the evening hours because of the drop in demand. Fig. 9 shows the period of higher efficiency. Due to the growing feed-in of electricity based on renewables, electricity storage systems will be essential in the future energy sector. According to the targets defined by some countries government, more than 60% of electricity generation in 2040 is to be based on renewables [98]. Moreover, one of the most effective ways to reduce CO2 emissions consists in the deployment of renewable energies, with the advantage of securing and expanding the energy supplies of a given country. The main problem that arises is due to the intermittent temporary character of any renewable resources like solar and wind. For this reason, it has been recently concluded that in case of high integration of renewables into the distribution grid (more than about 30% of the electricity mix), the implementation of energy storage systems together with smart

Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Government of Andalusia through the Project of Excellence “Analysis of electric power quality using smart meters. Optimisation and savings in the production and residential sector in Andalusia (P10-RNM-6349)”, and the Project for Applied Knowledge “Analysis and monitoring of electrical power quality using low cost smart meters to save energy (P145096)” References [1] Chan C. The rise & fall of electric vehicles in 1828–1930: lessons learned. Proc IEEE 2013;101(1):206–12. [2] Chan C. The state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. Proc IEEE 2007;95(4):704–18. [3] Mom G. The electric vehicle: technology and expectations in the automobile age. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press; 2004. [4] Geels FW. The dynamics of transitions in socio-technical systems: a multi-level analysis of the transition pathway from horse-drawn carriages to automobiles


Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

84950278208 & partnerID=40 & md5=e47cf22a664367a406216bd7cc5af363〉]. [33] Hussein A. Capacity fade estimation in electric vehicle Li-ion batteries using artificial neural networks. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2015;51(3):2321–30. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2014.2365152, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/ record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84930225803 & partnerID=40 & md5=d824586e64bc98f8d592f72b176d26d7〉]. [34] Richardson P, Flynn D, Keane A. Optimal charging of electric vehicles in lowvoltage distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 2012;27(1):268–79. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2011.2158247, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/ inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84856258754 & partnerID=40 & md5=bfc10ada83336783f66b490634718147〉]. [35] Turker H, Bacha S, Hably A. Rule-based charging of plug-in electric vehicles (pevs): impacts on the aging rate of low-voltage transformers. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 2014;29(3):1012–9. [36] Luo X, Chan K. Real-time scheduling of electric vehicles charging in low-voltage residential distribution systems to minimise power losses and improve voltage profile. IET Gener Transm Distrib 2014;8(3):516–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ iet-gtd.2013.0256, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.084896836928 & partnerID=40 & md5=aaf968d1ecdabb0e32faa9e4424d9f28〉]. [37] Lopes JAP, Soares FJ, Almeida PMR. Integration of electric vehicles in the electric power system. Proc IEEE 2011;99(1):168–83. [38] Carter R, Cruden A, Roscoe A, Densley D, Nicklin T. Impacts of harmonic distortion from charging electric vehicles on low voltage networks. in: Electric Vehicle Symposium 26, May 2012, 2012. [39] Yilmaz M, Krein PT. Review of battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2013;28(5):2151–69. [40] Antao R, Gonçalves T, Martins RE. Modular design of dc-dc converters for ev battery fast-charging. In: International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 13) Bilbao (Spain), 20th to 22th March 2013. [41] Kempton W, Tomić J. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: from stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy. J Power Sources 2005;144(1):280–94. [42] Meissner E, Richter G. Battery monitoring and electrical energy management: precondition for future vehicle electric power systems. J Power Sources 2003;116(1):79–98. [43] Paschero M, Anniballi L, Del Vescovo G, Fabbri G, Mascioli FMF. Design and implementation of a fast recharge station for electric vehicles. In: Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, 2013, p. 1–6. [44] I. T. C. 69, Iec 61851-1 electric vehicle conductive charging system - part 1: General requirements. Tech. rep.; 2010. [45] I. E. Commission, Iec 62196-1 plugs, socket-outlets. vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - conductive charging of electric vehicles - part 1: General requirements; 2014. [46] I. E. Commission, Iec 62196-2 plugs, socket-outlets. vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - conductive charging of electric vehicles - part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories; 2011. [47] E. y. T. Ministerio de Industria, Itc bt 52. instalaciones con fines especiales. infraestructura para la recarga de vehículos eléctricos. reglamento electrotécnico de baja tensión; 2014. [48] Reiner U, Elsinger C, Leibfried T. Distributed self organising electric vehicle charge controller system: Peak power demand and grid load reduction with adaptive ev charging stations. In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), IEEE; 2012, p. 1–6. [49] Lund H, Andersen AN, Ã̃ stergaard PA, Mathiesen BV, Connolly D. From electricity smart grids to smart energy systems- A market operation based approach and understanding. Energy 42 (1) (2012) 96 – 102, In: Proceedings of the 8th World Energy System Conference, {WESC} 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy. 2012.04.003. URL 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0360544212002836〉 [50] I. para la Diversificación y Ahorro Energético (IDAE), Análisis e identificación de la información a registrar en el sistema de recarga para el vehículo eléctrico y de los procesos tic asociados. Tech. rep., Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio; 2011. [51] Clement-Nyns K, Haesen E, Driesen J. The impact of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid. IEEE Trans Power Syst 2010;25(1):371–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2036481, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-76649130926 & partnerID=40 & md5=7efef97fc6a7f39eb38bc21ac1d28007〉]. [52] Andersson D, Carlsson D. Measurement of abb' s prototype fast charging station for electric vehicles. [53] Liu L, Kong F, Liu X, Peng Y, Wang Q. A review on electric vehicles interacting with renewable energy in smart grid. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015;51:648–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.036, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/ inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84937141610 & partnerID=40 & md5=42814e08fd9b0a8dbd08610cb5b56a72〉]. [54] Figuerola F-C, Graell L, Enciso J. Type an ip based, highly reliable telecommunications framework for advanced smart grid applications; 2012. URL 〈http://www. scopus.com/inward/record.url?Eid=2-s2.0-84872104469 & partnerID=40 & md5=25684ba933a1f807974c7e53b25a1025〉 [55] SmartGrids E. Vision and strategy for Europe’s electricity networks of the future. European Commission. [56] Clastres C. Smart grids: another step towards competition, energy security and climate change objectives. Energy Policy 2011;39(9):5399–408. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.05.024, [URL 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/

(1860–1930). Technol Anal Strateg Manag 2005;17(4):445–76. [5] Dowsing H. Improvements in apparatus for the application of electricity to vehicles driven by mechanical means. Patent 1896. [6] Chau K, Wong Y. Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles. Energy Convers Manag 2002;43(15):1953–68. [7] Høyer KG. The history of alternative fuels in transportation: the case of electric and hybrid cars. Uti Policy 2008;16(2):63–71. [8] Westbrook MH. The electric car: development and future of battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars. IET 2001(38). [9] Cowan R, Hulten S. Escaping lock-in: the case of the electric vehicle. Technol Forecast Soc Change 1996;53(1):61–79. [10] Anderson CD, Anderson J. Electric and hybrid cars: a history, 2 edition. London: McFarland & Company, Inc.; 2010. [11] Alizon F, Shooter SB, Simpson TW. Henry ford and the model t: lessons for product platforming and mass customization. Des Stud 2009;30(5):588–605. [12] Kley F, Lerch C, Dallinger D. New business models for electric cars-a holistic approach. Energy Policy 2011;39(6):3392–403. [13] Chan H. A new battery model for use with battery energy storage systems and electric vehicles power systems. In: Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000. IEEE, Vol. 1, IEEE, 2000, p. 470–5. [14] Heffner RR, Kurani KS, Turrentine TS. Symbolism in California's early market for hybrid electric vehicles. Transp Res Part D: Transp Environ 2007;12(6):396–413. [15] Chan C. The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles. Proc IEEE 2002;90(2):247–75. [16] Banister D. The sustainable mobility paradigm. Transp Policy 2008;15(2):73–80. [17] Eberle U, von Helmolt R. Sustainable transportation based on electric vehicle concepts: a brief overview. Energy Environ Sci 2010;3(6):689–99. [18] Van Vliet O, Brouwer A, Kuramochi T, Van Den Broek M, Faaij A. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars. J Power Sources 2011;196(4):2298–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.09.119, [URL 〈http://www.scopus. com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-78649507082 & partnerID=40 & md5=092a620bc85f4f4bc2e9adb8a3781552〉]. [19] Amjad S, Neelakrishnan S, Rudramoorthy R. Review of design considerations and technological challenges for successful development and deployment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2010;14(3):1104–10. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.11.001, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/ record.url?eid=2-s2.0-74449091581 & partnerID=40 & md5=f3b0a430f7cfb6cd9537fd16b6183a67〉]. [20] Rahman A, Afroz R, Alam Z. Development of electric vehicle: public perception and attitude, the Malaysian approach. World Rev Intermodal Transp Res 2014;5(2):149–67. [21] Maniatopoulos P, Andrews J, Shabani B. Towards a sustainable strategy for road transportation in Australia: the potential contribution of hydrogen. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015;52:24–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.088, [URL 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115007352〉]. [22] Baran R, Legey L. The introduction of electric vehicles in Brazil: impacts on oil and electricity consumption. Technol Forecast Soc Change 2013;80(5):907–17. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2012.10.024, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/ inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84877130843 & partnerID=40 & md5=422a77f2a3beef1b94ea866bddb0b198〉]. [23] Pasaoglu G, Fiorello D, Martino A, Scarcella G, Alemanno A, Zubaryeva C, Thiel C. Driving and parking patterns of european car drivers: a mobility survey. Publ Off 2012. [24] Chiba A, Kiyota K. Review of research and development of switched reluctance motor for hybrid electrical vehicle, 2015, p. 127–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ WEMDCD.2015.7194520. URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url? Eid=2-s2.0-84954488282 & partnerID=40 & md5=320968cfdaa97220025f05219a35a1bb〉 [25] Fuengwarodsakul NH. Battery management system with active inrush current control for Li-ion battery in light electric vehicles. Electr Eng 2015:1–11. [26] Cheng KWE, Divakar B, Wu H, Ding K, Ho HF. Battery-management system (bms) and SOC development for electrical vehicles. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 2011;60(1):76–88. [27] Muti Lin J, Wu C-Y, Dai Y-L. Development of a battery management system for electric scooters. J Technol 2015;30(2):83–91, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/ inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84949883100 & partnerID=40 & md5=8629c48db0eb0f388208439703c8ae06〉]. [28] Lim D-J, Ahn J-H, Kim D-H, Lee BK. A mixed soc estimation algorithm with high accuracy in various driving patterns of EVS. J Power Electron 2016;16(1):27–37. [29] Tong S, Klein M, Park J. On-line optimization of battery open circuit voltage for improved state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation. J Power Sources 2015;293:416–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.157, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84930216235 & partnerID=40 & md5=835680a6e7801ebdce165025e306e6a0〉]. [30] Dai H, Guo P, Wei X, Sun Z, Wang J. Anfis (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) based online soc (state of charge) correction considering cell divergence for the ev (electric vehicle) traction batteries. Energy 2015;80:350–60. [31] Liu G, Ouyang M, Lu L, Li J, Han X. Online estimation of lithium-ion battery remaining discharge capacity through differential voltage analysis. J Power Sources 2015;274:971–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.132, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84910027704 & partnerID=40 & md5=a8020db176e57196ad8929ab34f8b3c9〉]. [32] Tagade P, Hariharan K, Gambhire P, Kolake S, Song T, Oh D, Yeo T, Doo S. Recursive bayesian filtering framework for lithium-ion cell state estimation. J Power Sources 2016;306:274–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.012, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-


Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

J. Martínez-Lao et al.

[78] Sandy Thomas C. Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Int J Hydrog Energy 2009;34(23):9279–96. [79] Hawkins TR, Singh B, Majeau-Bettez G, Strømman AH. Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of conventional and electric vehicles. J Ind Ecol 2013;17(1):53–64. [80] Faria R, Moura P, Delgado J, de Almeida AT. A sustainability assessment of electric vehicles as a personal mobility system. Energy Convers Manag 2012;61:19–30. [81] Black WR. Sustainable transportation: a us perspective. J Transp Geogr 1996;4(3):151–9. [82] Dai J, Chen B, Sciubba E. Extended exergy based ecological accounting for the transportation sector in china. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2014;32:229–37. [83] Peterson SB, Whitacre J, Apt J. The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage. J Power Sources 2010;195(8):2377–84. [84] Ekman CK. On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration-an analysis of the Danish case. Renew Energy 2011;36(2):546–53. [85] Schill W-P. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: the case of Germany. Energy Policy 2011;39(10):6178–89. [86] Yilmaz M, Krein PT. Review of the impact of vehicle-to-grid technologies on distribution systems and utility interfaces. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2013;28(12):5673–89. [87] Sánchez P, Montoya FG, Manzano-Agugliaro F, Gil C. Genetic algorithm for stransform optimisation in the analysis and classification of electrical signal perturbations. Expert Syst Appl 2013;40(17):6766–77. [88] Montoya FG, García-Cruz A, Montoya MG, Manzano-Agugliaro F. Power quality techniques research worldwide: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016;54:846–56. [89] Gil Montoya F, Manzano-Agugliaro F, Gomez Lopez J, Sanchez Alguacil P. Power quality research techniques: advantages and disadvantages. DYNA 2012;79(173):66–74. [90] Yilmaz M, Krein PT. Review of battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2013;28(5):2151–69. [91] Bolívar Jaramillo L, Weidlich A. Optimal microgrid scheduling with peak load reduction involving an electrolyzer and flexible loads. Appl Energy 2016;169:857–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.096, [cited By 0, URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84959369445 & partnerID=40 & md5=e7434bb319e77424428bdacf258a0306〉]. [92] Kutt L, Saarijarvi E, Lehtonen M, Molder H, Niitsoo J. A review of the harmonic and unbalance effects in electrical distribution networks due to ev charging. In: 2013 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), IEEE, 2013, p. 556–61. [93] Chan MS, Chau K, Chan C. Modeling of electric vehicle chargers. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 1998. IECON'98. Vol. 1, IEEE, 1998, p. 433–8. [94] Sadek N. Urban electric vehicles: a contemporary business case. Eur Transp Res Rev 2012;4(1):27–37. [95] Chau K, Chan M, Chan C. Current demand minimization by centralized charging coordination. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, 2000. [96] Shao S, Pipattanasomporn M, Rahman S. Grid integration of electric vehicles and demand response with customer choice. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 2012;3(1):543–50. [97] Lund H, Kempton W. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through v2g. Energy Policy 2008;36(9):3578–87. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.06.007, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/ record.url?eid=2-s2.0-48949093540 & partnerID=40 & md5=3ce744745672f51747d0a20350b68d24〉]. [98] Babrowski S, Jochem P, Fichtner W. Electricity storage systems in the future German energy sector: an optimization of the german electricity generation system until 2040 considering grid restrictions. Comput Oper Res 2016;66:228–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2015.01.014, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/ inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84948584227 & partnerID=40 & md5=5d7ee7d619abec126441e074da60e742〉]. [99] Martinez-Duart J, Hernandez-Moro J, Serrano-Calle S, Gomez-Calvet R, CasanovaMolina M. New frontiers in sustainable energy production and storage. Vacuum 2015;122:369–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2015.05.027, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84945444697 & partnerID=40 & md5=15d967bb7721a3767fa6ea7581d5122c〉]. [100] Díaz A, Ramos-Real F, Marrero G, Perez Y. Impact of electric vehicles as distributed energy storage in isolated systems: the case of tenerife. Sustainability 2015;7(11):15152–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su71115152, [URL 〈http:// www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84949491962 & partnerID=40 & md5=02b259e5b826a34dacde0de12475553c〉].

article/pii/S030142151100396X〉]. [57] Zio E, Aven T. Uncertainties in smart grids behavior and modeling: what are the risks and vulnerabilities? how to analyze them?. Energy Policy 2011;39(10):6308–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.030, [sustainability of biofuels, URL 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0301421511005544〉]. [58] Deilami S, Masoum A, Moses P, Masoum M. Real-time coordination of plug-in electric vehicle charging in smart grids to minimize power losses and improve voltage profile. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 2011;2(3):456–67. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1109/TSG.2011.2159816. [59] PARLIAMENT TE, COUNCIL OT, Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency, amending directives 2009/125/ec and 2010/30/eu and repealing directives 2004/ 8/ec and 2006/32/ec (oct 2012). URL 〈http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ TXT/PDF/?Uri=CELEX:32012L0027 & from=EN〉 [60] Clement-Nyns K, Haesen E, Driesen J. The impact of vehicle-to-grid on the distribution grid. Electr Power Syst Res 2011;81(1):185–92. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.epsr.2010.08.007, [URL 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0378779610002063〉]. [61] Zheng G, Lee SW, Liang Z, Lee H-W, Yan K, Yao H, Wang H, Li W, Chu S, Cui Y. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes. Nat Nanotechnol 2014;9(8):618–23. [62] Van Noorden R. The rechargeable revolution: a better battery. Nature 2014;507(7490):26–8. [63] Takada K. Progress and prospective of solid-state lithium batteries. Acta Mater 2013;61(3):759–70. [64] Jayaprakash N, Das SK, Archer LA. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery. Chem Commun 2011;47(47):12610–2. [65] Manthiram A, Fu Y, Su Y-S. Challenges and prospects of lithium-sulfur batteries. Acc Chem Res 2013;46(5):1125–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar300179v, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84874118004 & partnerID=40 & md5=4aa453446051c05f03c4b7a856f7544b〉]. [66] Cao R, Lee J-S, Liu M, Cho J. Recent progress in non-precious catalysts for metalair batteries. Adv Energy Mater 2012;2(7):816–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ aenm.201200013, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.084867317743 & partnerID=40 & md5=55fbb5e9e64e9eb55fb7a73886a53b43〉]. [67] Akhtar F, Rehmani MH. Energy replenishment using renewable and traditional energy resources for sustainable wireless sensor networks: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015;45:769–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.021, [URL 〈http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115001094〉]. [68] Wang C-S, Stielau OH, Covic GA. Design considerations for a contactless electric vehicle battery charger. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2005;52(5):1308–14. [69] Madawala U, Thrimawithana D. A bidirectional inductive power interface for electric vehicles in v2g systems. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2011;58(10):4789–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2011.2114312. [70] Musavi F, Edington M, Eberle W. Wireless power transfer: A survey of ev battery charging technologies. In: Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2012 IEEE, 2012, p. 1804–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2012.6342593. [71] Jiang W, Xu S, Li N. Contactless power charger for light electric vehicles featuring active load matching. J Power Electron 2016;16(1):102–10. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.6113/JPE.2016.16.1.102, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url? eid=2-s2.0-84955449927 & partnerID=40 & md5=a0200fdb8aed73ec18542f767a2ce580〉]. [72] Birrell S, Wilson D, Yang C, Dhadyalla G, Jennings P. How driver behaviour and parking alignment affects inductive charging systems for electric vehicles. Transp Res Part C: Emerg Technol 2015;58(PD):721–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.trc.2015.04.011, [URL 〈http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.084940462984 & partnerID=40 & md5=dacefe6e183b24e068db02d0354d82f5〉]. [73] Carillo-Aparicio S, Heredia-Larrubia J, Perez-Hidalgo F. Smartcity málaga, a realliving lab and its adaptation to electric vehicles in cities. Energy Policy 2013;62:774–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.125, [URL 〈http:// www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84884981441 & partnerID=40 & md5=d695a9c44282454442828342c1ee7c4f〉]. [74] Manzano-Agugliaro F, Alcayde-García A., Gil-Montoya F, Montero-Rodríguez MA. On Line temperature measurement system in the laying of high-voltage power-line conductors by topographic surveying. Dyna (Spain) 86 (1), 2011, 89–94. [75] Sierzchula W, Bakker S, Maat K, van Wee B. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption. Energy Policy 2014;68:183–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.043, [URL 〈http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421514000822〉]. [76] Brandstatt C, Friedrichsen N. Price incentives for smart electric vehicle operationstatus quo and perspectives. In: 2012 Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), IEEE, 2012, p. 1–6. [77] Aasness MA, Odeck J. The increase of electric vehicle usage in Norway-incentives and adverse effects. Eur Transp Res Rev 2015;7(4):1–8.