Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect Energy Procedia 104 (2016) 526 – 531
CUE2016-Applied Energy Symposium and Forum 2016: Low carbon cities & urban energy systems
EMC in Rail Transportation
Luan Xiaotiana, Zhu Haijingb, Qiu Bob,*, Han Bochongb a
Civil Aviation Management Institute of China, Beijing 100102, China b He Bei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
Abstract Rail transportation engineering is a field involving complex electromagnetic environments. Therefore electromagnetic compatibility design is an important part in the construction of track mass transportation engineering. In this paper, based on the study of related papers published in recent years, we give a review of the current techniques of EMC design in the rail transportation field, and summarize the achievements and drawbacks in it. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Selection under and/orresponsibility peer-reviewofunder responsibility ofofCUE Peer-review the scientific committee the Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, CUE2016: Low carbon cities and urban energy systems. Keywords: rail transportation, EMC, design and test
1. Introduction In recent years, rail transport such as urban subway, light rail, electrical multiple unit has been developing rapidly, among which the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design is particularly important. Based on the study of published references in recent years, this paper made a review and summary of EMC of rail transport. The first part of the paper will introduce the development of EMC design combined with current international standards; the second part will introduce the design and test methods referred in the reference; the third part will introduce some specific application of EMC design and the fourth part will be the conclusion. 2. The Current EMC Standard Analysis and Development Situation
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +8622-60438244; fax: +8622-60435718. E-mail address: [email protected]
This work is supported by the fund of Hebei Scientific Supporting Plan 15212105D
1876-6102 © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, CUE2016: Low carbon cities and urban energy systems. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2016.12.089
Luan Xiaotian et al. / Energy Procedia 104 (2016) 526 – 531
There are similarities but also differences of the EMC test and design standards of railway vehicle industry at home and abroad, so this part will first introduce and analyze various EMC test standards involved in the railway vehicle industry, based on the content of reference , for a better understanding and application of current standards in different regions of the world. In , Xu first outlined the standards associated with EMC test of rail vehicle, namely the European standard EN 50121, the international standard IEC 62236, the international standard IEC 60571, Japanese standard JIS E5006 as well as the national standard GB/T 24338, and introduced usage of these standards in the domestic railway projects. In , the author focused on the analysis of the European standard EN 50121-1: 2006. In  it emphasized the features of EMC standards of the European rail transit, analyzed the differences between the series of these standards and related CISPR and IEC basic standards as well as the causes of these differences, and summarized the deficiencies of the series of standards. In  it pointed out the international railway EMC standard mainly follow IEC62236-1 ~ 5, and outlined focus of each concrete standard in the aspects of radiation emission limits and immunity requirements. In  it placed emphasis on EMC test and analysis based on the general requirements of metro trains. In  it introduced the latest progress and developing trend of typical EMC. The research work of EMC on the rail transit in China started late, but has been developing rapidly. The strengthening of study of relevant laws and regulations and the analysis and understanding of standards will promote the research in this aspect of manufacturers and domestic colleges and universities, so as to form a virtuous cycle of production, promote each other. 3. EMC Design and Testing 3.1. EMI and Protection Rail transport is in the electromagnetic disturbance source environment; meanwhile, the train itself is electromagnetism sensitive equipment and system, so it is an important work of rail transport to prevent the electromagnetic interference. Pantograph-catenary system, as a special equipment to provide electrical energy to trains, is one of the interference sources that cannot be ignored. In , electromagnetic interference on the pantograph-catenary system are measured and analyzed, and the test methods defined in GB/T 24338. 2 are optimized and improved. In , the reasons, features and harms of pantographcatenary disconnection were analyzed in detail. Pantograph-catenary disconnection model was established by use of AC electromagnetic transient software, and features of electromagnetic disturbance on pantograph- catenary are analyzed and studied. In  it introduced anti-interference measures of computer monitoring system in substations of rail transport so as to suppress interference. Effective measures to prevent interference are put forward from the aspects of the design, manufacturing, assembly and installation site of equipment in substations. In recent years, a large number of new technology and new product have been appearing constantly, which made EMC of motorcycle environment more and more complicated and salient. Cable is the link of all kinds of electrical equipment. The improper selection and connection will lead to the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment and the control device failure, which will also cause electromagnetic interference. In , different kinds of cables and different kinds of connection methods of earth wire in shield layer were tested and analyzed respectively, so that anti-interference performance of various cables are concluded, which is helpful for reasonable selection of the locomotive cables. In addition, the shielding and grounding measures can isolate or reduce electromagnetic field produced by the interference sources so that of the effect of sensitive equipment from interference sources can be reduced. In , to solve the problem of electromagnetic shielding for urban rail vehicles, different
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interference factors, transmission of interference sources, and their corresponding shielding and grounding were briefly discussed. In 䭉 䭉䈟!ᵚ ᵚࡠᕅ⭘ⓀǄ, it also studied electro- magnetic interference with different objects, and provided many beneficial points. 3.2. The EMC Design Rail transport system is in a complex electromagnetic environment, to guarantee the normal and safe work, EMC shall be taken into full consideration, and necessary measures shall be taken. Therefore, the EMC design of rail transport is a very important work. It runs through the whole process of rail transport including its design, construction, installation, operation and maintenance. It is system engineering. In , the basic concept of EMC and EMC test projects were systematically elaborated, the current status of EMC in vehicle electronic control devices in rail transport is introduced and the importance of EMC is emphasized. Reference  also introduced the particularity and content of EMC design in urban rail system in theoretical level, including the EMC management, the EMC prediction analysis, the EMC design, and the EMC test, etc. The three basic elements for electromagnetic interference production are interference sources, distribution channel and interference objects. In  through the analysis of the three elements and the basic principle of electromagnetic interference inhibition, it studied and introduced the commonly used EMC design techniques and measures to improve the performance of railway vehicles, involving the equipment's reasonable layout, cable type selection and installation standard, filtering technology, and application of grounding and shielding technology, which is the beneficial reference for EMC of railway vehicles.  mainly described the EMC design of train traction system and signal system, discusses the design of reducing harmonics generated by interference sources, track return line, current sharing and L-C filter parameters, and puts forward the method for EMC design of train and signal system: Dual-track current returning and sharing design is adopted to reduce the interference of returning current harmonics on track signals, and L-C filter parameters are reasonably designed to reduce harmonic current within track circuit frequency range of track returning current, and isolating, shielding, grounding and other measures are comprehensively combined to reduce the harmonics in track returning current, so as to ensure the EMC of train and signal system. Based on the detailed analysis of EMC current status and basic principle, the work from  concluded the EMC basic design principle and methods from the perspective of design, and put forward a new design method and idea on the basis of measures such as inhibiting interference source, cutting off transmission route of electromagnetic interference and improving the anti-interference ability of devices and systems. These references provided the EMC design proposal for the next step of specific system design. In addition, in , it proposed EMC design ideas and steps on different levels. With the continuous development of electronic technology, and the interference of electromagnetic environment in various industries, EMC design principles will also need to be perfected gradually in the process of design and application. 3.3. Analysis and test In the design of EMC, field measurement and tests should be carried out under normal working conditions, including the minimum distance between strong and weak current equipment, reasonable layout of each equipment room for saving floor area and other aspects. Software and hardware tools can be used to establish simulation analysis models, which can provide necessary theoretical references for
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EMC test. In  and , simulation models were established to provide basis for the layout and EMC of rail transit rooms.  selected the high-speed EMU (Electric Multiple Unit) as the research object and conducts a thoroughly theoretical analysis and research on EMC by means of theoretical analysis and modelling simulation;  used Simulink to establish the simulation models, providing theoretical basis for the EMC design of electric railway.  and other papers adopted CST software to establish mathematic simulation models for each strong current equipment in rail transit system, so as to simulate and calculate the electromagnetic radiation layout conditions, and the calculated values are compared with the measured values, which has certain guiding significance for the equipment layout of rail transit construction.  described the common testing items, principles and methods of railway communication and signal products in EMC tests, and it puts forward some applicable improvement schemes which can provide reference for product research and test personnel. While  started with the EMC tests of 6 kinds of common trains and describes relevant tests corresponding to the general requirements of EMC, then it puts forwards the testing methods and results for interference test and anti-interference test of metro vehicle's EMC, respectively. In , the author analysed the impact of equipment layout and cable laying on signal cable by means of EMC test and analysis, and then verifies the optimal measures for the EMC design of railway vehicles by means of tests. 䭉䈟!ᵚ ᵚࡠᕅ⭘ⓀǄ and other papers also described some researches on EMC tests; especially,  introduced and analyzes the key problems for EMC tests of signal electronic products. Modeling simulation and EMC test provide more reliable basis for rail transit construction. 4. Applications of EMC in Rail Transit Based on the analysis of interference mechanism and basic theory, the EMC design can be applied to detailed rail transit construction, which is the ultimate purpose and significance of this study. In , the author put forward corresponding EMC solutions for the design of Dalian Jinzhou Transit vehicles according to the design principle and relevant standards of EMC; Reference  put forward solutions for EMC problems of permanent magnet DC motor which is used to drive the automatic door;  analyzed the electromagnetic environment of metro vehicles in details according to the structure and working principle of Vehicle On-Board Diagnostics System, which makes all EMC testing items of the Vehicle On-Board Diagnostics System meet the requirements of Industry Standards issued by Ministry of Railways;  put forward detailed control schemes and improvement measures for the EMC of metro vehicles with linear motors according to the EMC requirements and testing results of linear motor vehicles of Guangzhou Metro Line 4 Project, so that the EMC requirements are reached and operation status is well;  solved the EMC problems between AC-50Hz 25kV vehicles and sensitive medical equipment by means of tests and rectification and improvement. 5. Conclusion With the development of domestic rail transport, EMC problems attract more and more attention. However, the existing EMC theories and methods have many defects in the study and analysis of rail transport problems. In addition, the domestic research in this field concentrated on some colleges and universities related to traffic and research institutes such as Academy of Railway Science, which limit the development of EMC study. This paper analyzed current status of EMC study in rail transportation, concluded the recent achievements, and reviewed the related work in recent 10 years.
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