Ethics and nursing research I; development, theories and principles Ethics and nursing research 2; Examination of the research proces

Ethics and nursing research I; development, theories and principles Ethics and nursing research 2; Examination of the research proces

Literature Reviews The article opens with a valuable table summarising the Sillence type classification of OI with the clinical features and inherita...

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Literature Reviews

The article opens with a valuable table summarising the Sillence type classification of OI with the clinical features and inheritance implications for the four main types. The article will be of particular interest to paediatric orthopaedic nurses who are involved in the care of these children and their families.

Current Orthopaedics 1999; 13:218-222

Ethics and nursing research I; development, theories and principles Ethics and nursing research 2; Examination of the research process Noble-Adams R These two articles by the same author compliment each other and offer a clear insight into the ethical implications related to nursing research. In the first part the development of ethical frameworks is explained. This is related to the main historical points given in a potted but appropriate version; the Nazi experiments, the Tuskegee syphilis study, the Willbrook study, the Jewish Chronic Disease hospital study, development of the Nuremberg code and the Declaration of Helsinki. The essential aspects of the Nuremberg code are given in a table, as are the main points of the Declaration of Helsinki. The ethical principles of utilitarianism and deontology are explained prior to discussion of the aspects related to human rights. Here there is a separate discussion of the principles of; beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human dignity, justice, informed consent and the rights of the vulnerable. The development of ethical principles is very well, though briefly, explained, in a readable and easily followed article. The second part puts these theories and principles into the context of the research process and nursing research. The article follows the stages of the research process and addresses ethical implications that are relevant at each stage. The stages included are: the problem selection; data collection; sampling, the role of the ethics committee; obtaining informed consent; data analysis; and the research presentation. This demonstrates that ethical principals are not one stage of the process but affect all the stages from start to fmish. As a result both these papers are a 'must read', for all those involved in studying the ethics related to research, those carrying out or planning a

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research project and those involved in teaching the research process.

British Journal of Nursing 8(13): 888--892 British Journal of Nursing 8(14): 956-960

Is post-rehabilitation discharge of older people successful? Tripp I and Caan W This article discusses the findings from a retrospective audit of the outcomes for clients discharged home from a rehabilitation ward for older people. The audit reviewed the social circumstances, the ward discharge summaries, the medical diagnosis and 2 Barthel scores. An example of a patient Barthel score is included to show what it evaluates, these scores were carried out on admission to the ward and at discharge. Of the 96 patients who were reviewed, 21 were patients with lower limb fractures. All the patients had been discharged from the ward in the previous 5 months. The process of the audit is explained clearly and problems encountered are reported. This included GPs who had not returned their questionnaires about their patients, the patients whom GPs had lost touch with in the time since discharge and the implication of the number of patients who had died. The main implications of the findings are: 1. That patients with a Barthel score of less than 7 on admission, appeared to do poorly after rehabilitation aimed at their discharge home, this could indicate that screening of patients for rehabilitation may need to be reconsidered, 2. The success of discharge from in patient rehabilitation remains variable, 3. The role of the occupational therapist should be extended to allow them to do a home visit to the elderly rehabilitation patients within a week of their discharge. Although this was work based on a care of the elderly rehabilitation trait, it has direct implications on the preparation of discharge of elderly orthopaedic clients and the role of the occupational therapist in the care of these clients.

British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 1999; 6(10): 500-504 Summariescompiledby Julia Kneale, Editorial Committe, Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing