Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Author’s Accepted Manuscript Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro, Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieski, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins www.elsevier.com/locate/jep

PII: DOI: Reference:

S0378-8741(16)32197-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.04.023 JEP10833

To appear in: Journal of Ethnopharmacology Received date: 1 December 2016 Revised date: 19 April 2017 Accepted date: 19 April 2017 Cite this article as: Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro, Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieski, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun and Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins, Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.04.023 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiroa,b, Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieskia,c, Sikiru Olaitan Baloguna,c, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martinsa a

Department of Basic Sciences in Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), 78.060-900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. b

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), Advanced Campus of Lucas do Rio Verde, 78.455-000, Mato Grosso, Brazil. C

Curso de Farmácia, Faculdade do Noroeste de Mato Grosso - AJES, 78.320000, Juína, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

ABSTRACT Ethnopharmacological importance Currently, in many traditional communities, such as the riverine community in the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso, Brazil), plant knowledge and use represent the main, if not the only, therapeutic resource for the maintenance of health and/or treatment of diseases. This study aimed to identify and document species of medicinal plants used by local experts from riverine communities in the North Araguaia microregion in Mato Grosso State, and to further chemical and pharmacological studies on species selected based on searches in the relevant literature. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional ethnobotanical study, with non-probabilistic sampling (n = 60), that applied the snowball method to select local riverine experts who understand medicinal plant use. Socio-demographic, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological data (vernacular name, uses, geographical origin, habit, method of preparation and part used) on medicinal plants were collected during semi-structured interviews. The results were analyzed by descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (UR) were used to select plant species with therapeutic potential. Results In total, 309 plant species belonging to 86 botanical families were cited; 73% were native to Brazil, and Fabaceae was the most representative family (11.3%). Arboreal was the predominant life form (37.2%). The leaf was the most used part (28.9%). Infusion was the most commonly reported method of preparation (31.3%). The plants reported in the survey were indicated for 18 of the 22 ICD-10 disease categories. The disease categories most commonly 1

cited were the infectious and parasitic diseases (IPD, 718 UR), digestive system diseases (DSD, 565 UR) and respiratory system diseases (RSD, 504 UR), representing 16.6%, 13.1% and 11.7%, respectively of the total UR. Dysphania ambrosioides L. was the most sighted in the IPD category 50 UR. Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (133), Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (131), and Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (126) were the species with the highest UR. Bidens pilosa L., Vernonia ferruginea Less, and L. pacari, respectively, were the most cited native plants used to treat such diseases. Of the 8 investigated native plants, C. langsdorffii, and Brosimum gaudichaudii are the most prominent: in addition to having been widely studied, in terms of phytochemical and pharmacological, these species have been marketed as pharmaceutical products, with associated patent deposits. Conclusion Local riverine experts from the North Araguaia microregion use a wide variety of medicinal plants in self-care health, especially those species used to treat IPD. The therapeutic potential of some of these plants has been scientifically validated; however, there are other species whose pharmacological effects and safety remain to be properly investigated. Thus, the present study, aside from being a basis for future chemical, pharmacological and agronomic bioprospecting studies, may contribute to the development of the management, conservation and sustainable use of medicinal flora in the microregion studied. Keywords: Ethnobotany, Snowball-sampling, Riverine Population, Medicinal Plants, North Araguaia microregion.

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Introduction The North Araguaia microregion of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil is outstanding for its rich ethnocultural diversity and exchange of knowledge, which has been occurring for decades among indigenous, riverine dwellers and descendants of people from the southern, northern, and northeastern parts of Brazil. Besides, the region also boast of high diversity of medicinal plants found in the Amazon and Cerrado biome, which occupy 64% and 36% of the region, respectively (IBGE, 2012; ISA, 2014). There are quite differences in the types of vegetations specific to each of these two biomes, Table 1 shows the comparison between these two Brazilian biomes. As in many part of Brazil, the North Araguaia microregion is occupied by a diversity of ethnic groups and traditional populations, historically constituted, from the various processes of colonization and miscegenation in the regions. It can be said that traditional Brazilian is a result of historical exchanges between different peoples and ethnic groups, arising from the miscegenation of the Amerindians, the descendants of African slaves and European colonists (Lira and Chaves, 2016). The state of Mato Grosso is home to the second largest number of indigenous peoples in the country with 42 ethnic groups and 79 indigenous lands, second only to the state of Amazonia that is home to 63 ethnic groups. Situated in the North Araguaia microregion, the Xingu Indigenous Park, considered the largest and one of the most famous Indian Reserves in the world, occupying an area of about 30,000 km2. Its territory shelters more than a dozen ethnic groups. In addition to this indigenous reserve, other important reserves are present, such as Tapirapé and Karajá, located near the Araguaia River, Urubu Branco, 30 km from Confresa and Marãiwatsédé (ISA, 2014).

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Among the dwellers, the presence of the Ribeirinhos (riverine settlers) in the communities of this region is significant, because, they were the first population that occupied the banks of Araguaia, Xingu, Tapirapé, Das Mortes, Comandante Fontoura and Mureré rivers, among others, after the occupation by the Tapirapé, Xavante, Karajá, and Kayapó indigenous tribes (Casaldáglia, 1971). Currently, these native communities are found in all the fourteen municipalities of the microregion.. The traditional communities, such as the Ribeirinhos are characterized particularly by their means of subsistence, their dependence on natural resources, as well as their aquatic or terrestrial forest extractive effects, in addition to living mostly by river sides, lakes and floodplains (Diegues, 2001). The various interrelationship with nature avail the Ribeirinhos the acquisition of important knowledge on aspects of wildlife, the forest flora, use of medicinal plants, rhythm, and water courses, sounds of the forest, and earthly periods. In these populations, it is common to observe transmission of knowledge across generations, including ethnomedicinal knowledge (Costa and Marinho, 2016; Diegues et al., 1999). Basically, the day-to-day activities of the Ribeirinhos of the North Araguaia microregion are regulated by the cycles of the rains. The rain cycles, normally occur between the months of November to April, result in the flooding of the main rivers and streams, forming an immense "varjões" (type of plant physiognomy of Cerrado characterized by the presence of medium height trees), which may occupy up to 2,000,000 hectares, in all the Araguaia microregion, with small and large lakes occuring, which according to Martini (2010) is the largest continuous pantanal area in Brazil. Thus, the period of floods obliges the Ribeirinhos to make important changes in their routines, such as cattle management to higher regions, impossibility of commercialization of fishing, and other local products such as cattle, milk, seeds, fruits, crafts. Moreover, they are hindered from accessing the location of one of their main sources of protein, the tracajá (Podocnemis unifilis), the yellow-spotted Amazon river turtle, that is commonly found in the AraguaiaTocantins and Amazon basins. 4

One of the major difficulties encountered by the riverside dwellers of North Araguaia microregion is access to health services, as the territory of lower Araguaia do not have a regional hospital that handles cases of medium and high complexity. Thus, in many riverside communities there is no regular health service, which leads many people to seek out local specialists in the use of medicinal plants and they thus frequently use these natural resources as a form of primary health care. However, studies aimed at documenting and investigating the medicinal use of plant resources by riverine people, who inhabit the North Araguaia microregion for decades, are lacking until now. In the light of this, the realization of studies towards understanding the potential of medicinal plants used by these communities is essential. Many plants of these biomes have been investigated previously, especially those that have long been used by traditional populations such as the indigenous, “quilombolas”, “babaçueiras” groups of people that harvest the “babaçu” (Orbignya phalerata Mart.) fruit, “seringueiros” (rubber tappers), “castanheiros” (Brazilian-nut collectors), and “Ribeirinhos” (riverine people). Ethnobotany has proven to be a powerful tool to document, value, and understand how different traditional people relate to natural resources, especially plants of medical and pharmaceutical interest (Albuquerque and Hanazaki, 2009). In fact, local and traditional knowledge has been employed as the starting point for many successful drug development projects over the last decades (Heinrich and Bremner, 2006). Thus, this present study was aimed at identifying and documenting species of medicinal plants used by local experts from the Ribeirinhos’ communities in the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso State, Brazil), and to explore literature findings of the chemical and pharmacological properties of important selected plant species.

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Table 1. Comparison between Cerrado and Amazonian Biomes in the Brazilian territory. Biome

Cerrado

Amazon

Area (km )

2.036.448

Territory

Parts of territories of Mato Grosso, Goiás, Tocantins, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Maranhão, Piauí, Rondônia, Paraná, São Paulo and Federal District.

4,196,943 Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Roraima and parts of territories of Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Tocantis

2

2nd major biome in Brazil, with 1.5% of all species of the world's plant Yes

1st major biome in Brazil and in the Earth, with 10% of all plant species in the world. No

35 about 50

80 About 20

about 25.5

about 23.5

About 44,118 (about 26 ethnic groups)

About 220 (more than 83 ethnic groups)

Quilombolas, raizeiros, ribeirinhos and the babaçueiras Agricultural production and agribusiness

Seringueiros, castanheiros, ribeirinhos and babaçueiras

Angiosperm Flora number of cataloged species Angiosperm Flora – number of endemic species Angiosperm Flora – number of medicinal species (units) Most diverse families of Angiosperms Predominant phytophysiognomy Predominant soil

12,070

About 30,000

> 5,115

≥ 12,300

> 220

Wr

Fabaceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae herbaceous-subshrub layer (cerrado sensu lato) Sandy, poor in nutrients, with low natural fertility

Predominant relief

Pantanal and Chapadões

Water

Springs of the Tocantins, São Francisco and Prata Rivers Basins Tropical Season 21 - 27

Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Orchidaceae Tree stratum (dense ombrophylous forest) Sandy, thin layer of nutrients resulting from vegetal and animal decomposition, but with high natural fertility Plains, Depressions, and Wastelands Amazon Basin (the most extensive in the world, with about 20% of the Earth's fresh water) Humid equatorial 22 - 28

750 – 2,000

1,400 – 3,500

Position World biodiversity Hotspot Legal Reserve (%) Loss of initial vegetal cover (%) Human population (millions) Indigenous population (thousands) a

Traditional populations Prevailing economy

Climate Average temperature (º C) Rainfall (mm/year) a

Plant and mineral extraction, industry and fisheries

b

In Brazil, native Indians do not fall into the category of traditional populations because their territorial rights are not qualified in terms of conservation; Source: MMA/SBF, 6

2002; IBGE, 2010; Profile of the Cerrado Biodiversity Hotspot Ecosystem, 2016. bWr Without registration, but it is admitted that there are more than 5000 plants of economic utility, including the medicinal ones.

2. Methods 2.1 Description of the study area The North Araguaia microregion is in the Northeast Mesoregion of Mato Grosso State (Figure 1), located in the Midwest region of Brazil. It is composed of fourteen municipalities (Alto Boa Vista, Bom Jesus do Araguaia, Cana Brava do Norte, Confresa, Luciara, Novo Santo Antônio, Porto Alegre do Norte, Ribeirão Cascalheira, Santa Cruz do Xingu, Santa Terezinha, São Félix do Araguaia, São José do Xingu, Serra Nova Dourada, and Vila Rica). The Region has a river basin with perennial rivers, with the main rivers being: Araguaia, Xingu and Das Mortes, among others. These rivers together form the Araguaia-Tocantins and Amazon basins. The microregion is between the geographical coordinates: 9°50' latitude South, 13°30' longitude South, 53°20' longitude West and 53°30' latitude West, at altitude ranging from 0 to 200 meters. It is bordered by the Araguaia and das Mortes Rivers to the east, the state of Pará to the north, municipalities of Querência, Canarana and Cocalinho to the south, and Xingu River to the West (Gawenda and Neto, 2011; IBGE, 2016). Due to its rich river basin, several groups of population settled down in this region, living on the river banks because of its enormous biological diversity, formed by the transition between Cerrado and Amazon forest, which is in the Araguaia plain (Gawenda and Neto, 2011). This region has an area of 71,190 km2, equivalent to 7.88% of the territory of Mato Grosso, a population of 121,056 inhabitants which represent 3.75% of the state population, with a high percentage of migrants mainly from the Midwest and North regions of Brazil (IBGE, 2016). According to the Koppen classification, 7

the study area has a rainy tropical climate, characterized as hot and humid, with two well-defined seasons: winter (rainy months) and summer (dry months), when temperatures may exceed 40°C. The microregion is composed of oxisols, with texture class from sandy to very clayey, very favorable for intensive agriculture and animal husbandry (Vieira, 1988).

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Figure 1. Geographical location of the North Araguaia microregion in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A: Political map of Brazil; B: Biomes of the state of Mato Grosso; C: Biomes and municipalities of the north Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

The unit of analysis was composed of riverine inhabitants from the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso, Brazil) who are recognized by the community as local experts in the use of medicinal plants. In terms of religion, the population in these study areas are predominantly Christians, with majority being Catholics followed by the protestants. However, there are few traditional religion practitioners. There are churches in these areas as well. In many of these areas, there are few government Health Centers. In many of these localities, there is no organized sewage or refuse collection, as most residents disposed off their refuse dumps by open burning on their private properties (http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br/tabdata/cadernos/mt.htm, 2017). This research consisted of a cross-sectional ethnobotanical study, using nonprobabilistic sampling (n = 60), by applying the snowball method to select the local riverine experts in medicinal plants (Bernard, 2006; Furtado et al., 2015).The survey sample size consisted of 60 informants. 2.2 Ethnobotanical data collection This study was conducted in riverine communities located in the fourteen municipalities of the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso, Brazil), using a semi-structured interview method to obtain sociodemographical, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological data according to Bieski et al. (2015, 2012). The semi-structured form was pre-tested through a pilot study, for which the researcher had previous training. The interviews with the previously identified Ribeirinhos were performed after the pilot study. To identify the informants, we contacted the oldest residents in the community (leaders, community agents, and representatives of rural associations), who identified the main informant recognized by the community as experts in in the use of medicinal plants, with the criteria that he/she be ≥ 18 years old and must have been living in the area for at least five years. Then, the identified 9

informants are then asked to indicate any other experts with similar competence. The process was repeated until the names already indicated were repeated, according to the snowball method. Besides writing down the interviews in a semi-structured form, we also documented them by image (photograph and film) and audiotaped. However, the interviews only took place between the period of July and November 2013. A free list technique was used, which consisted of asking the informants to list the medicinal plants they knew and/or had used. The informants were also asked to describe the method of preparation, the part used, therapeutic indications, dosage, duration of application, including descriptions of side effects or measures or steps applied to avoid toxic effects. Most plant species were collected between July 2013 and November 2015, along with the informants in the place or region where they lived. The therapeutic indications of the plants were grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases and Problems Related to Health (ICD-10), an official publication of the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), as shown in Table 1. Table 2. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Chapter

Abbreviation

Title

I

IPD

Infectious and parasitic diseases

II

NEO

Neoplasms (tumores).

III

BHD

Blood and hematopoietic organ diseases and some immune disorders

IV

ENM

Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases

V

MBD

Mental and behavioral disorders

VI

CNS

Nervous system diseases

VII

EAD

Eye and eye attachment diseases

VIII

EMD

Ear and mastoid apophysis diseases

IX

CSD

Circulatory system diseases

X

RSD

Respiratory system diseases

XI

DSD

Digestive system diseases

10

XII

SSD

Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases

XIII

MCD

Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases

XIV

GSD

Genitourinary system diseases

XV

PBP

Pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum

XI

APP

Some conditions originating in the perinatal period

XII

MCC

Congenital malformations, deformities and chromosomal abnormalities

XVIII

SSA

Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not classified in other part

XIX

IPC

Injury, poisoning and some other consequences of external causes

XX

ECM

External causes of morbidity and mortality

XXI

FIS

Factors that influence health status and contact with health services

XXII

CPE

Codes for special purposes

Source: WHO (2011).

The interviews and survey data documentation were conducted in the local language (Brazilian Portuguese) in the field, in addition to voice recording for later verification (Bieski et al., 2015).

2.3 Collection and preparation of plant material During field research, 452 specimens of vascular plants collected during the study period were herborized, mounted as herbarium voucher specimens (3 – 5 per each specimen), and deposited for taxonomic identification, ratification, and inclusion in the Herbarium of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá Campus (trusted depository of CGEN). The plant species were classified according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (Bremer, et al., 2009) by Professor Dr. Germano Guarim Neto, curator at this Herbarium. The species scientific names and their classification were confirmed with the Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT) databases (http://www.tropicos.org), 11

whereas the geographical origin was confirmed with the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden databases, according to the list of Brazilian flora species (http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/) as reported by Bieski et al. (2015). All the plant accepted binomials were checked with the plantlist.org. Vouchers collected at flowering stage and/or with fruits were identified by comparison with the specimens registered in the UFMT Herbarium. 2.4 Ethnobotanical data analysis The ethnobotanical data were evaluated by quantifying the use-reports (URs) as described by Trotter and Logan (1986). Furthermore, the most important medicinal plants for the riverine people in the study region were evaluated using published literature on phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these species, as described in studies carried out by Bieski et al. (2015) and Leonti et al. (2001). 2.4.1 Relative frequency of citation (Rf). The Rf of the species cited in each municipality by local Ribeirinhos’ specialists was calculated by the relation between the number of plant species reported in each municipality by the absolute number of all species cited in the research (309 spp.).

2.4.2 Literature review Data survey was conducted using the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciFinder, Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, Web of Science, Science Direct, SciELO, the collection of libraries of the Osvaldo Cruz Foundation and Botanical Garden (Rio de Janeiro), as well as books on botany and pharmacology. Searches were performed using the keywords: the plant names, either scientific or vernacular, and the family names. The scientific names and author abbreviations of taxa are in accordance with the List of Brazilian Flora, International Plant Names Index (IPNI) and 12

TROPICOS database. All scientific names of the plants were checked in theplantlist.org for verification of accepted binomials. The botanical terms were used according to Judd et al. (2008) and Pereira and Agarez (1977). For further discussion on the phytochemical and pharmacological studies found in the literature, we selected the native or naturalized plant species in Brazil with the highest UR within the body systems that had at least 300 URs.

2.4.3 Ethical aspects The project was approved by the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings in August 2012, under protocol No. CAAE 02977912.8.0000.5541 CEPHUJM/2012. In February 2013, the study leaders received authorization to access associated traditional knowledge for scientific research purposes from CGEN/MMA,

in

the form of provisional measure No. 2.186-16/2001

(CGEN/MMA nº 135/2013). Field activities was conducted only after the informants have signed the Informed Consent Form and authorization to access traditional knowledge associated with Genetic Heritage issued by the Conselho de Gestão do Patrimônio Genético do Ministério do Meio Ambiente (Council for the Genetic Heritage Management, Ministry of the Environment, CGEN/MMA). 3. Results and discussion 3.1 Demographic characteristics of the informants Of the 60 local experts who answered the form, men represented the highest number (55%), especially those who were 57–67 years old (53%). There was a higher number of informants from the Midwest region of Brazil (46.5%), especially those who were born in the state of Goiás, representing 33.3%, followed by the informants from the states of Tocantins (20%) and Mato Grosso (13.3%). Although only 11.6% of the respondents were born in the North Araguaia microregion, 75.5% of those who migrated from other regions have 13

already lived there for at least ten years. 50% of the informants had 1–9 years of schooling, 58.3% have a family income between 1–3 minimum wages (US $296 and US $888), 51.7% are retired people, 70% are married, and 58.3% have between 1–5 children and 61.6% claimed to be catholic. Concerning how knowledge on the use of medicinal plants were acquired, 75% of the informants acquired the knowledge from their relatives (parents, grandparents, and other relatives), 8% through mass communication, while other means accounted for 17%. As observed in this study, Brasileiro et al. (2008), Bieski et al. (2015) and Oliveira and Menini Neto (2012) reported that most of the information on the use and knowledge of medicinal plants comes from family tradition. However, it is important to note that culture and biological processes are complementary and provide a solid basis for the inclusion of medicinal plants as a transversal theme of daily life. Although, majority of the respondents reported that they acquired information on medicinal plants through family tradition, the influence of other sources seems to be also very important, as can be seen in the use of exotic plants and vernacular nomenclature of the medicinal plants involving the use of names derived from the indigenous people (Pariri, Bacuri, Babaçu), as well as European names (Angelica, Jasmim da mata, Artemisia) and lastly chemical names (terramicina, ampicilina). No wonder Leonti and Casu (2013) pointed out that the present globalization is aiding in the acceleration of intercultural interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias through international business interests, the print media, television, the World Wide Web, and in return generates a feedback loop.

3.2 Medicinal plants and associated knowledge The efforts to document traditional medicinal knowledge, and make database to conserve Traditional Medicine, so that future research to validate traditional use can be facilitated, is an ongoing effort. Despite these efforts, 14

there is no widely accepted template in data file format that is specific for traditional medicinal knowledge (Kim et al., 2016). There are different classification systems in existence, such as International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) and International classification of primary care (ICPC) (Kim et al., 2016; Staub et al., 2015). In this scenario, there has not been a standardized classification of ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical knowledge. In many cases, researchers in the fields of ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology have been adapting the ICD by WHO, the emic classifications based on the culture under study and recently the CPC. Based on these fact, Staub et al. (2015), extensively reviewed these issues and according to these authors, the use of CPC was suggested to be a better option, regarding ethnopharmacological studies focused on bioprospecting. The WHO, however, have deem it fit and is working to incorporate "traditional medicine" into the next revision of its International Classification of Diseases-Version 11 (ICD-11), which is expected to be due by 2018. However, we opted for ICD classification system, in place of emic classification or ICPC after considering the followings: ICD classification is widely accepted and often used in reporting ethnomedicinal knowledge, even though there are some limitations; the coexistence of western oriented medicine (hospitals and clinics) and the use of medicinal plants, in many cases as parallels or concomitantly. For example, some of the informants mentioned in some cases treatments for hospital and viral infections.in addition, a prior visit to the studied areas was made by interacting with the potential informants to get familiarized with their form of classification of body diseases, to be able to classify the body diseases/ailments in accordance with the ICD-10 classification. The Ribeirinhos do patronize health centers and hospitals nearest to their dwellings, although, they may have to go a long distance in many cases. In the case of neoplasm, what happen in the real sense is that, they treat these ailments based on the diagnosis received after visiting the government hospital or by a medical doctor. To buttress this point, the informants even differentiate between types of cancer during the interview, by using the following terms: 15

‘câncer’, câncer ferida brava (literally a ferocious wound), ‘câncer de pele (skin cancer), ‘cancer de intestino’ (intestine cancer), ‘cancer de prostata’ (prostate cancer) and leukemia (leukemia). This shows that there seems to be a sort of hybrid of system of care; of medicinal plants and western orthodox medicine, particularly for ailments, that they (the informants) cannot diagnose, but, have come to incorporate them in to diseases that can be treated or managed with medicinal plants. The riverine respondents from the North Araguaia microregion reported the use of 309 plant species for medicinal purposes, among them, 73% were native species (Table 3). Among the species listed in the survey, 221 were identified by the botanist of the UFMT herbarium, and the other 67 species by the first author using books (Corrêa, 1984; Guarim Neto, 1996; Lorenzi and Matos, 2008). All the 60 local experts interviewed in the studied riverine communities said they believe in the efficacy and use of medicinal plants to treat diseases. We recorded a minimum of 13 and a maximum of 317 URs from females, while 13 and 151 URs, were the minimum and maximum numbers, respectively, recorded from the males, with a total of 4,315 URs associated with 309 different species of plants, belonging to 85 botanical families. Fabaceae (11.3%), Lamiaceae (6.8%), Asteraceae (5.8%) and Euphorbiaceae (5.2%) were the most representative botanical families cited. These families include many cosmopolitan medicinal plant species, represented by both native tropical climate and temperate climate species, basically from the medicinal species introduced to the area. Several species belonging to the families of Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, and Asteraceae, are easily found in the region’s ecosystems (Cerrado and Amazon) and backyards of the interviewed Ribeirinhos’ experts, such that 25% (species) of all plants species cited by them belongs to one of these three families. The number of URs for the plant species mentioned (4,315) in this study was higher than any other ethnobotanical survey performed in riverine communities, found in the national literature. Therefore, the present study is very relevant, 16

reinforcing once again the extensive knowledge and use of the large plant diversity for medicinal purposes by the Ribeirinhos local experts in the North Araguaia microregion of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Although the number of male respondents was higher than the female respondents, women reported a relatively higher number of medicinal plant species compared to men. These results have been corroborated by Kainer and Duryea (1992) who carried out study on the indigenous and riverine traditional communities and also observed that women often have more knowledge of medicinal plants than men. Women and men generally possess different skills and knowledge regarding the use of natural vegetation, often resulting from differences in responsibilities within the family, an observation previously noted in studies performed by Amorozo (1996), Borba and Macedo (2006) who reported that, in comparison to men, women are more knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for specific female and/or childhood related diseases. Moreover, they are also more conversant of plant resources relevant to domestic problems, particularly regarding plants located around their houses.

17

82

6

Carirú, bredo-deporco

Beterraba

Erva-de-santamaria, mastruz

Perpeta,

Amaranthus viridis L.

Beta vulgaris L.

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Gomphrena globosa L.

1

2

6

Ampicilina

Alternanthera ramosissima (Mart.) Chodat & Hassl.

7

104

53

53

16

16

UR

Terramicina

Chapéu-decouro

Sabugueiro

Vernacular name

Alternanthera brasivine (L.) Kuntze

AMARANTHACEAE

Echinodorus scaber Rataj

ALISMATACEAE

Sambucus nigra L.

ADOXACEAE

FAMILY/Scientific name

E

N

HB

E

N

N

N

N

E

HB

HB

HB

HB

HB

HB

SH

Form of preparation

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh, cataplasm, juice (from peel)

Aerial parts(54), whole plant(26), roots(2)

Flowers(3), leaves Decoction,

Juice

Decoction

Decoction, infusion, maceration Decoction, infusion, juice (from peel)

Roots(1)

Roots(2)

Leaves (6)

Leaves (5), roots(2)

Leaves (42), Decoction, stem(5), shoots of infusion, leaves(4), roots(4) maceration, fresh

Flowers(8), leaves Decoction, (4), bark(4) infusion, syrup

Hab. Or. Part used(UR)

42,652

ILR

ILR

ILR

42,677

41,242

41,265

VN

18

IX: heartache(1), heart infarct(1); X: respiratory insufficiency(1); XIV:

I: general infection(16), cold(1), worms(33); III: depurative(1); V: tranquilizer(1); VI: insomnia(1); X: flu (1), sinusitis(1): XI: stomachache(2), gastritis(2); XIII: arm pain(1), inflammation(2); XIX: wound healing(4), bone fracture(9), sprain(1), injury(3), injury with blood clot (bleeding)(1); XVIII: pains(2)

III: anemia(1)

XIV: bladder(1), kidneys(1)

I: female infection (1), general infection(2); XI: gastritis(1); XIV: kidneys(1); XIX: wound healing(1)

I: general infection(2); X: flu (1), pneumonia(1); XIII(1), bladder inflammation(1); XIX: wound healing(1), XVIII: throat inflammation(1)

I: infections(5), venereal disease(2), female infection (with discharge)(2), cold(1); III: depurative (6), IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(2); IX: high blood pressure(1), heart tonic(1); XI: liver(1), gastritis(1), ulcer(1); XIII: osteoarthritis (1), inflammations(12), uterine inflammation(1), rheumatism(4); XIV: diuresis (1), bladder infection(1), kidney infection(5); XIX: bone fracture(1), XVIII: body pain(1), throat inflammation(2)

I: chickenpox(1), mycosis(2), measles(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia (1); XIII: rheumatism(2); XVIII: headache(2), fever (3), cough(1)

ICD-10: ethnomedicinal use

Table 3. List of the plant species cited in the study, family name, scientific name, popular name, use-reports (UR), part used, mode of preparation, treated body systems, and popular indications for medicinal plants used by riverine experts from the North Araguaia microregion of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

Cajuzinho-docerrado

Caju

Aroeirinha

Manga-comum

Aroeira

Aroeira-rosa

Cajazinho

Anacardium humile A. St.-Hil.

Anacardium occidentale L.

Astronium fraxinifolium Schott

Mangifera indica L.

Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão

Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi

Spondias mombin L.

Bruto-dacoresma, frutoda-quaresma

Graviola-do-

Annona coriacea Mart.

Annona muricata L.

ANNONACEAE

3

Cajuí

2

1

36

1

2

37

5

1

15

33

97

3

Anacardium giganteum W. Hancoock ex Engl.

Alho

Allium sativum L.

7

10

ANACARDIACEAE

Cebola-branca

Allium cepa L.

AMARYLLIDACEAE

perpétua

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

SH

AR

SH

AR

HB

HB

E

N

N

N

N

E

N

N

N

N

E

E

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Bark(2), fruits(4), leaves (5), roots(22)

Infusion

Fruits(3), roots(3), leaves (6), bark(25), resin(3) Stem (heartwood) (2)

Leaves (1),

Bark(1)

Maceration,

Maceration

Juice

42,672

Decoction, infusion, cataplasm, syrup maceration

Bark(1), leaves (3), fruits(1)

Fruits(1)

42,583

Decoction, infusion, maceration

42,633

42,880

ILR

ILR

Maceration

40,752

42,297

42,289

ILR

ILR

42,708

Roots(1)

Bark(10), fruits(3), Decoction, leaves (1), infusion, roots(1) maceration

Maceration, infusion, juice

Maceration, infusion Cataplasm, decoction

infusion, maceration

Bark(2), fruits(1)

Bulb (roots)(3)

Bulb (roots)(7)

(3)

II: cancer(2)

IX: thrombosis(1);

XIV: diuretic(1)

I: furuncle(2)

19

I: diarrhea(1), female infection(with discharge)(2), general infection(2); III: depurative(3); VI: inflamed sciatic nerve(2); X: allergy(2), bronchitis(1); XI: gastritis(1), ulcer(3), XII: skin inflammation(1), XIII: back pain(2), inflammations(2), intestinal inflammation(2), rheumatism(4); XIV: vaginal discharge(2), uterine infection(1); XIX: wound healing(3); bone fracture(2); XVIII: cramp(1)

I: diarrhea(3) IX: hemorrhoids(1); XI: indigestion(1)

I: AIDS(1)

I: diarrhea(6), ““impingem” (superficial skin mycoses)m” (superficial skin mycoses)(1), general infection(3); III: depurative(1); IV: diabetes(1), XI: gastritis(5), stone in the gallbladder(3), ulcer(4); XIV: diuretic(1); XIX: wound healing(6); XVIII: throat infection(2) I: diarrhea(6), tooth infection(1), general infection(1); IX: hemorrhage(1); X: pneumonia(1); XIV: uterine infection(1); XIX: wound healing(4)

IV: high cholesterol (1); X: pneumonia (1); XIV: vaginal infection (1)

IX: high blood pressure(2); XIX: injury(1)

IV: diabetes (1); X: asthma (1), bronchitis (1), expectorant (1), flu (1); XVIII: cough (1), cough with catarrh (1)

arrhythmia (“batedeira”/accelerated heartbeat)(3)

Guatambu

Atraca

Mangava-mansa

Angélica

Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A.DC.

Bonafousia sp.

Hancornia speciosa Gomes

Himatanthus obovatus (Müll.Arg.) Woodson

Mandevilla velame (A.St.-Hil.) Pichon

Velame-branco

Tiborna, pau-deHimatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex leite, jasmim-daMüll.Arg.) Woodson mata Himatanthus lancifolius Agoniada (Müll.Arg.) Woodson

Quina-da-mata, canela-de-ema, canela-de-velho

Pimenta-demacaco

Pariri, sofre-dorim-quem-quer

68

1

6

4

37

2

25

9

152

1

30

N

SH

SSH N

N

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

E

AR

HB

AR

SH

AR

AR

AR

SH

SH

decoction

Leaves (2), whole plant(8), roots(58)

Bark(1)

Bark(3), latex (3)

Decoction, infusion, maceration, toasted

Maceration

Decoction, fresh

Maceration

ILR

ILR

42,481

ILR

20

I: venereal disease(6), furuncle(1), female infection (with discharge)(3), general infection(1), cold(1), syphilis(5); III: depurative(13); IV: diabetes(1): IX: stroke(1); X: flu (7), sinusitis(3); XI: intestinal constipation(2), indigestion(1); XII: erysipelas(1); XIII: inflammation(4), rheumatism(6), XIV(6), vaginal discharge(2), sexual impotence(1), uterine infection(1), uterine inflammation(1), inflamed

XIV:sterility(1)

I: “stomach edema” (2), worms(2); XIX: wound healing(2)

I: general infection(1); X: sinusitis(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIX: wound healing(1);

Bark(13), leaves (8), fruits(5), latex(11)

Leaves (4)

I: infections(2), diarrhea(3), diarrhea with blood(1), furuncle(1); IV: diabetes(3); IX: high blood pressure(2); VI: labyrinthitis(4); VII: eye irritation(1); XI: gastritis(3), indigestion(1), ulcer(1); XIII: back pains(4); XIV: anomaly of the female reproductive system(1), menopause(1), menopause disorders(5); XIX: wound healing(2); XVIII: icterus (ancylostomiasis)(1); XX: rehydration(1)

Decoction, maceration, infusion, fresh , cataplasm

I: diarrhea(1), yellow fever(1), hepatitis(1), intestinal infection(1), malaria(1); XI: indigestion(1), liver infection(1); XIV: colicprevention(1); XVIII: fever (1) I: malaria(1), II: cancer(2), III depurative(2), IV: high cholesterol(5), diabetes(9), obesity(2); IX: high blood pressure(1); XI: stomachache(1), indigestion(1)

XIV: diuretic(1)

XIII: joint pain(1)

42,483

42,713

ILR

42,288

I: female infection (with discharge)(1), general infection(4); II: cancer(1); III: anemia(1); IX: high blood pressure(1), XIV(), diuretic(), kidney infection(17), XIX: bone fracture(1)

VI: labyrinthitis(1); XIX: snake bites(1)

Fresh

pill, decoction, infusion, maceration

Maceration

Infusion

42,691

42,616

ILR

Latex (2)

Bark(25)

Bark(9)

Fruits(1)

Infusion, decoction Decoction, infusion, Roots(27), aerial parts(2), leaves(1) maceration, syrup

Leaves (1), bark(1)

2

Ata, pinhamansa

Aspidosperma spruceanum Benth. ex Müll.Arg.

APOCYNACEAE

Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart.

Duguetia furfuracea (A.St.-Hil.) Saff.

Annona squamosa L.

fruits(1)

mato

1 2

Coco-da-bahia

Buriti

Buritiana

Bacuri

Cocos nucifera L.

Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

Mauritiella armata (Mart.) Burret

Syagrus comosa (Mart.) Mart.

PA

33

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

AR

HB

AR

2

4

Babaçu

Attalea vitrivir Zona

29

Piaçaba, piaçava

8

85

6

6

Allagoptera campestris (Mart.) Kuntze.

Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Macaúba ex Mart.

ARECACEAE

Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin

Mandioquinhado-campo, cincodedos

Taioba

Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

ARALIACEAE

37

Folha-de-carne, folha-da-fonte

Philodendron imbe Schott ex Kunth

2

39

ARACEAE

N

N

N

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

Fruits(2)

Fresh

Maceration

ILR

ILR

42,631

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh, syrup

Fruits(28), roots(3), seed(2) Stem (1)

ILR

Decoction, maceration

Fruits(1), bark of fruits(1)

42,721

42,695

ILR

42,601

ILR

40,866

Decoction

Cataplasm, fresh , infusion, maceration, juice (from peel)

Maceration, infusion

Maceration

Infusion, decoction

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Fruits(4)

Stem(20), leaves (3), stalk(6)

Roots(3), leaves (5)

Roots(6)

Leaves (2)

Leaves (30), roots(7)

XIII:

VII: eyedrops (1), conjunctivitis(1)

XIV: kidney infection(1)

21

IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(1); IX: heartache(2), high blood pressure(2), clogged veins(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(1), pneumonia(1); XI: indigestion(1), stomachache(1); XIII: inflammation(1), rheumatism(2); XIV: diuretic(2), kidney problems(1); XIX: wound healing(1), snake bites(13); XVIII: heart murmur(1)

III: anemia (1); XI: hepatic inflammation (1)

I: infections(5); IX: swelling(1); VII: eyesight(1); VIII: ear infection(1); XI: appetite stimulant (1), liver(1), gastritis(2), ulcer(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), uterus and ovary infection(1), kidney infection(3), urinary infection(1); XIX: wound healing(3), pain of injury(1), stop bleeding(2), bone fracture(1), snake bites(1); XX: rehydration(1) IV: high cholesterol(1), obesity(1); X: pneumonia(1); XIX: snake bites(1)

IX: high blood pressure(7), V: anxiety(1)

I: infections(1); IX: hemorrhage(1), post infarct(1); inflammation(1), rheumatism(1); XVIII: body pain(1)

X: bronchitis(1), pneumonia(1)

I: diarrhea(1), hepatitis(1), general infection(1); III: anemia(3); X: pneumonia(1); XI: stomachache(5), liver(3), swollen liver(2), gastritis(2), indigestion(3), ulcer(1); XIII: arthritis(1), inflammation(2); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), bladder infection(3), kidney infection(5); XIX: wound(1); XVIII: vomit(1)

ovary(1); XVIII: headache(2), fever (3), throat infection(1)

14

11

Mentrasto

Bardana, pegamassa

Losna

Artemísia

Carqueja

Carrapicho-de-

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.

Arctium lappa L.

Artemisia absinthium L.

Artemisia vulgaris L.

Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC.

Bidens pilosa L. 74

6

4

3

25

Vareda, vereda

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

8

Carrapicho-deovelha

306

11

11

9

44

53

6

Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

ASTERACEAE

Agave americana L.

Pita

Aristolochia sp.

ASPARAGACEAE

Xixazinho, contra-erva

Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze.

Gueroba, gafiroba, guariroba

Cipó-milhomens, milombo, milome, papode-peru

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE

Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc.

E

N

E

N

N

N

E

N

N

N

HB

N

SSH N

HB

HB

HB

HB

SH

HB

SH

CP

CP

PA

Decoction, maceration, infusion Decoction, infusion

Maceration, infusion

Decoction, maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration, syrup

Fresh , maceration

Decoction,

Decoction, infusion

Leaves (2), aerial parts(4) Leaves (20),

Infusion

Maceration, infusion Decoction, infusion

Leaves (4)

Leaves (6), aerial parts(2), roots(3) Leaves (2), aerial parts (1)

Decoction, Roots(1), leaves infusion, juice (8), whole plant(5) (from peel), syrup

Leaves (25)

Seed(4), whole plant(4)

Roots(5), leaves (6)

Roots(9)

Vine (8), leaves (2), roots (34)

Stem(6)

41,632

42,686

42,571

40,875-

42,643

41,638

41,633

ILR

ILR

42,624

ILR

I:

dengue(4),

hemorrhagic

dengue

(4),

22

hepatitis(26),

general

I: diarrhea (1), worms(1); XI: stomachache(1); XIV: menstrual cramps(1), III: depurative(1); IV: diabetes(2); XI: indigestion(1); XIII: rheumatism(1); XIX: wound(1)

IV: diabetes(1); XI: liver(2)

I: malaria(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(1), flu (9), sinusitis(2); XI: liver(1), indigestion(1), intestine(1); XVIII headache(3), fever (5) I: diarrhea with colic(1), general infection(1), cold(1); IX: post-partum recovery (1), X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia(1); XI: stomachache(2), XIII: inflammation(1), injury inflammation(1); XIV: menstrual cramps(1), XVIII: cough with catarrh(1), IV: diabetes(2); IX: hemorrhoids(1); XI: heartburn(2), liver(1), gastritis(2); XIII: arthritis(1), rheumatism(1); XIX: wound(1)

X: bronchitis(4), flu (2); XIV diuretic(2)

I: mange(1), seborrhea(2); III: anemia(4), depurative(2); XIV: uterus Strengthening(2),

I: diarrhea(1), general infection(2), malaria(5), tetanus(1); II: cancer(1); X: expectorant(1), flu (2); XI: stomachache(2), liver(2), gastritis(4), indigestion(2), bad breath(1); XIII: general inflammation(1), rheumatism(4); XIV: cystitis(1), vaginal hemorrhage(1), regulates menstrual cycle(1); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: headache(1), body pain(2), appetite stimulant(1), fever (5), throat infection(1) IX: hemorrhoids(1); V: tranquilizer(2); XI: liver(2), ulcer(2); XVIII: headache(2)

I: diarrhea(2); XI: appetite stimulant(2), indigestion(2)

Casadinha

Alcachofra

Girassol

Alface

Guaco

Arnica-damontanha, arnica-da-serra

Boldo

Assa-peixe

Chromolaena squalida (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Cynara scolymus L.

Helianthus annuus L.

Lactuca sativa L.

Mikania glomerata Spreng.

Solidago chilensis Meyen

Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass.

Vernonanthura ferruginea (Less.) H.Rob.

Handroanthus impetiginosus

Crescentia cujete L.

Ipê-roxo

Coité

Catuaba

Arnica-docampo, desinhadeira

Chromolaena maximilianii (Schrad. ex DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

BIGNONIACEAE Anemopaegma arvense (Vell.) Stellfeld ex De Souza

Calêndula

Calendula officinalis L.

agulha, picão, picão-preto

46

2

6

148

68

27

6

6

1

4

7

2

37

3

N

N

E

E

E

N

N

E

AR

AR

SH

SH

N

E

N

N

SSH E

HB

CP

HB

HB

HB

SH

HB

HB

Infusion

infusion, maceration

42,724

Bark(42), stem(3), Decoction, roots(1) maceration,

42,873 42,717

Maceration

42,292

42,627

42,602

ILR

42,872

42,575

ILR

41,642

40,755

ILR

Maceration

Fruits(1), roots(1)

Bark(1), roots(5)

Leaves (27)

Infusion, maceration, juice (from peel) Decoction, Roots(5), fruits(2), maceration, leaves (60), syrup, juice (from flowers(1) peel), infusion

Maceration, infusion

Decoction, maceration

Whole plant(3), leaves (3) Leaves (1), whole plant(4), roots(1)

Decoction

Syrup

Infusion, maceration Maceration, infusion

Roots(1)

Seed(4)

Leaves (6), seed(1)

Leaves (2)

Decoction, infusion, Roots(3), stem(1), maceration, leaves (33) syrup, cataplasm, juice (from peel)

Flowers(3)

whole plant(46), roots(7), seed(1)

23

I: Chagas disease(1), leprosy(2), female infection (with discharge)(2), general infection(2); II: cancer(4), III: depurative(8); IV: obesity(1); IX: heartache(1); X: bronchitis(1), flu (1); XI: stomachache(1), liver(1),

II: prostate cancer(1); XIV: kidney stones(1)

III: depurative(2); V: tranquilizer(1); XIV: sexual impotence(3);

I: venereal disease(1), general infection(1); IX: hemorrhoids (2); X: asthma(6), bronchitis(6), expectorant(1), flu (14), pneumonia(22); XI: gastritis(1), ulcer(1); XVIII: throat inflammation(1), cough(3), cough with catarrh(9)

XI: stomachache(5), inflamed liver(6), swollen liver(1), indigestion(10); XIV: cramp(1), XIX: hangover(2); XVIII: headache(2)

XIII: inflammation (1), muscle relaxant(1); XIX: wound healing(1), edema (1), blood clotting(1), XVIII: analgesic(1)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(1), flu (1); XIII: rheumatism(1); XIX: injury with bleeding (1); XVIII: cough(1)

V: tranquilizer(1)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia(1)

IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(1), obesity(1); IX: heart tonic(1); X: asthmatic bronchitis(1); XIII: general inflammation (1); XIV: diuretic(1)

I: infections(2)

infection(2), malaria(4); III: anemia(4), depurative(3); IV: diabetes(1); X: flu (1); XI: liver(5); XIII: prickly heat(1); XIV: kidneys(1); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: fever (2), icterus(15), throat infection(2) V: tranquilizer(1); X: allergy(1); XIV: strengthening of the uterus to become pregnant(1) I: female infection (with discharge)(1), general infection(2); IV: diabetes(1); IX: edema (swelling)(1); X: sinusitis(2): XII: baldness(1); XIII:, inflammation(4), rheumatism(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), uterine infection(1), kidney stones(1), menopause disorders (1); XIX: muscle pain caused by knock(2), wounds (14); XVIII: pain after tooth extraction(1), leg pains (1), throat infection(1)

Cipó-de-sãojoão, unha-delagartixa

Caraíba, paratudo

Cipó-cravo

Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers

Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook.f. ex S.Moore

Tynanthus elegans Miers

Algodãozinhodo-campo

Algodão-bravo

Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg.

Cochlospermum orinocense (Kunth) Steud.

BORAGINACEAE

Urucum

Bixa orellana L.

BIXACEAE

Leaves (3), roots(3)

Salsa-caroba

Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart.

12

3

46

35

84

7

39

3

6

36

SH

SH

SH

CP

AR

CP

SH

AR

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Roots(3)

Leaves (2), roots(43), sap(1)

Seed(23), leaves (9), fruits(3)

Maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh, tosted

Decoction, Bark(31), stem(6), maceration, flowers(2) cataplasma, juice (from peel), syrup Whole plant(3), Decoction, vine(4) maceration

Leaves (1), rhizome(2) Maceration

Decoction, maceration

Bark(7), leaves (21), roots(8)

Carobinha-docampo

Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don.

42,594

42,632

40,759

ILR

42,676

42,617

40,876

42,576

Decoction, maceration, infusion

Bark(1), stem(2)

42,693

N

Maceration

AR

Ipê-amarelo

Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos 3

syrup

(Mart. ex DC.) Mattos

24

III: depurative(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1); uterine infection(1)

IV: high cholesterol(5), diabetes(3); IX: stroke(1), blood circulation(1), “unclog” the heart veins(2), heartache(3), high blood pressure(5), heart tonic(4); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(3), pneumonia(2); XIV: arrhythmia (“batedeira”/accelerated heartbeat)(1), prostate(2), kidneys(2) I: venereal disease(1), furuncle(1), general infection(5); II: cancer(1); III: depurative(7); X: flu (2); XI: stomach pain(1), toothache(1), gastritis(1), ulcer(2); XIII: inflammation(4); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), uterine infection(2), urinary infection(4), vaginal infection with discharge(2), uterine inflammation(1), prostate(2); XIX: wound healing(2); XVIII: throat infection(5), throat inflammation(1)

I: diarrhea(2), infections(2), cold(1), worms(2); III(2), depurative(2); V; weakness(1), X: asthma(2), bronchitis(4), flu (11), sinusitis(1); XI; indigestion(1); XIII: spur(1); XIV: uterine hemorrhage (1); XVIII: throat infection(2), cough(4), cough with catarrh(2) III: depurative(1); V: nerves(1); XIII: rheumatism(1); XIV: sexual impotence(1); XIX: wound healing(1), bone fracture(1)

XI: gastritis(1); XII: vitiligo(1); XIV: kidneys(1)

I: venereal disease(2), general infection(2); III: depurative(2)

I: acne(1), infections(3), venereal disease(4), leprosy(1), vaginal infection(1), syphilis(1), worms(2); II: cancer(1); III: depurative(8); X: allergy(2); XI: ulcer(2); XII: itching(2), skin infection(2); XIII: osteoporosis(1), rheumatism(1); XIV: diuretic(2); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: throat infection(1)

III: depurative(1); X: allergy(2)

gastritis(3), ulcer(3); XIII: arthrosis(1), back pain(2), gout(1), inflammation(2), rheumatism(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), sexual impotence(1), urinary infection(1), vaginal infection with discharge(1); XIX: wound healing(2); XVIII: heart murmur(1)

Caryocar brasiliense A.St.-Hil.

CARYOCARACEAE

Carica papaya L.

Pequi

Mamão

32

33

14

14

6

Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.

CARICACEAE

6

CALOPHYLLACEAE

Landi, guanandi

Mandacarú, palma

Opuntia cochenillifera (L.) Mill

7

3

Cabeça-de-frade

Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelb.

AR

HB

AR

SH

HB

AR

19

10

AR

HB

HB

SH

HE

1

20

CACTACEAE

Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart.) Amburana, J.B. Gillent emburana Amescla, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) amescla-deMarchand cheiro, amesclabranca

BURSERACEAE

2

Ananas comosus (L.) Merril

Abacaxi

2

BROMELIACEAE

1

Bolsa-de-pastor

1

8

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Confrei

Symphytum officinale L.

4

BRASSICACEAE

Carrapicho-decarneiro

Heliotropium indicum L.

N

E

N

E

N

N

N

N

N

E

N

Fresh , maceration

Cataplasm, maceration

Flowers(2), bark(6), stem,(1) leaves (15),

Decoction, infusion, maceration,

Decoction, Flowers(3), leaves infusion, (4), fruits(2), maceration, fresh seed(5) , tosted

Fruits(3), latex (3)

Bark(2), roots(3), leaves (2)

Maceration

Decoction, maceration, tosted, syrup

Leaves (1), fruits(1), bark(1), resin(16)

Fruits(3)

Infusion

Juice, syrup

Leaves (1)

Fruits(2)

Infusion

Decoction, infusion

Leaves (4), roots(4)

Leaves (1)

Syrup

Whole plant(4)

42,284

42,670

41,260

40,884

ILR

42,287

42,488

42,669

ILR

42,865

42,599 XIII:

inflammation(2);

XIV:

aphrodisiac(2);

XIX:

25

I: general infection(5); VIII: ear pains(1); X: asthma(2), bronchitis(4), expectorant(1), flu (3), pneumonia(2); XI: stomach pain(2); XII: foot and hand fissures(1); XIII: back pains(1); XIV: kidney pains(1), kidney

I: worms(7); IX: high blood pressure(1); XI: inflamed liver(1), indigestion(5)

I: general infection(2); XI: indigestion(2); XIV: menopause disorders(2)

IX: edema (swelling)(2); XIII: back pain(1); XIV: kidney cramps(1), diuretic(1); XIX: injury (1), inflamed injury(1)

XIV: prostate(3)

I: Chagas disease(1); IX: hemorrhage(2); V: anxiety(2); X: bronquite(92), sinusitis(4); XI: indigestion(2); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: headache(5)

XVIII: cough with catarrh

III: anemia(1); X: flu (1)

XIV: uterine inflammation(1)

II: cancer(2); wounds(2)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia(1)

Câncerino, cancerosa

Maytenus sp.

Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw.

COSTACEAE

Cana-demacaco, caninha-demacaco, cana-

Batata-de-pulga

Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don) D.F. Austin & Staples

16

16

78

4

Batata-doce

15

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

Terminalia argentea Mart.

82

Capitão-docampo

24

CONVOLVULACEAE

Mirindiba

Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler.

39

2

Couepia sp.

COMBRETACEAE

2

CHRYSOBALANACEAE

Oiti

5

Espinheira-santa 4

9

1

Maytenus ilicifolia Mart.ex Reissek.

Pequi-pepino

CELASTRACEAE

Caryocar sp.

HB

CP

HB

AR

AR

AR

SH

HB

AR

N

N

E

N

N

N

E

N

N

Decoction, infusion, maceration, syrup, fresh

Decoction, maceration, infusion, sprinkle, tablet

Leaves (6), rhizome (roots)(72)

Whole plant(4), stem(9), leaves (1), fruits(1), roots(1)

Decoction, maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Leaves (3), bark(9), flowers(1), roots(2) Leaves (3), tuber (1)

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh, juice

Infusion

Fresh

Infusion, tablet

Infusion

syrup

Bark(19), flowers(1), fruits(4)

Leaves (2)

Latex (4)

Leaves (5)

Leaves (1)

fruits(7), roots(1)

41,258

41,256

ILR

40,753

41,266

ILR

ILR

ILR

42,586

26

I: diarrhea(1), diarrhea in children (1), general infection(1); IV: diabetes(1); IX: hemorrhage(1); XI: stomach pain(1), ulcer(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: “stuck urine”(1), vaginal infection(1), kidney infection(3); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: throat infection(1), throat

I: diarrhea(1), terrible diarrhea and dehydration(1), venereal disease(1), furuncle(1), worms; III: anemia(1), depurative(18), depurative(1); IX: “tunes” the blood(1), hemorrhoids (2); X: allergy(1), bronchitis(1), expectorant(1), flu (5), pneumonia(2); XI: congestion(1), stomach pain (intestinal cramp)(1), intestine(1), laxative(5); XII: itching(1), curuba (wound resulting from itching)(2), skin cleansing(1); XIII: inflammation(2), rheumatism(1); XIV: uterus and ovary infection(1), menopause disorders(1); XVIII: fever (2)

I: tooth infection(1), pityriasis versicolor (2); XIX: wound healing(1)

I: diarrhea(1); II: cancer(1); IX: hemorrhage(1); V: tranquilizer(2); X: bronchitis(1), flu with fever(1); XI: ulcer(1); XIII: inflammation(2), rheumatism(1); XIV: diuretic(1); XIX: wound(1); XVIII: cramp(1), body pain(1)

IV: high cholesterol(2); diabetes(11), obesity(8); IX: high blood pressure(2); X: pneumonia(1)

IV: diabetes(2)

I: general infection(1), worms(1); II: cancer(1); XIV: ovarian cyst(1)

XI: gastritis(1); XIII: inflammation(2), rheumatism(1); XVIII(1), pains(1)

I: general infection(1)

infection(5), burn(2); XVIII: cough(2)

Buchinha, cabacinha

Melão-de-sãocaetano

Luffa operculata (L.) Cogn.

Momordica charantia L.

Sambaiba, lixeira

Lixinha

Curatella americana L.

Davilla elliptica A. St-Hil

DILLENIACEAE

Scleria gaertneri Raddi

Cyperus compressus L.

Capim-baba-debode Capim-navalha, navalha-demacaco

22

Abóbora

Cucurbita pepo L.

CYPERACEAE

5

Maxixe

Cucumis anguria L.

1

29

32

6

1

7

65

6

3

Melância

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

12

Cipó-santo

113

Apodanthera smilacifolia Cogn.

CUCURBITACEAE

do-brejo

AR

AR

HB

HB

CP

CP

HB

CP

CP

CP

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

E

E

N

Maceration, juice, juice (from peel)

Tostada

Maceration, decoction, fresh

Decoction, maceration

Roots(4), whole plant(2)

Bark(1)

Maceration

Bark(16), stem(3), Decoction, flowers(3), leaves infusion, (1), roots(4), water maceration, fresh from roots(2)

Infusion

Decoction, infusion, juice (from peel), maceration

Whole plant(1)

Fruits(4), roots(1), leaves (31), branch(29)

Decoction, juice Flowers(1), leaves (from peel), (1), seed(3) tosted Decoction, Leaves (5), infusion, fruits(15), seed(2) maceration, fresh , tosted

Fruits(6)

Seed(3)

Bark(3), sap(9)

42,606

42,863

41,259

ILR

42,296

ILR

42,671

42,591

42,864

ILR

sinusitis(13);

XI:

III: depurative(1)

27

I: diarrhea(3), female infection (with discharge)(1), general infection(1); III: anemia(3), depurative(1); V: weakness(1); X: bronchitis(1); XI: indigestion(2), XIII: inflammations(4), liver inflammation (3); XIV: cramp(1), intestinal cramp(1), regulates menstrual cycle(1), kidneys(4), XX: rehydration(2)

I: infections(1); XIV: urinary infection(1); XVIII: throat infection(2), throat inflammation(2)

XIV: diuretic(1)

I: dengue(1), venereal disease(1), yellow fever(1), hepatitis(2), general infection(1), malaria(7), louse(4), worms(3); II: cancer(3); III: depurative(1); IV: diabetes(1); IX: heartache(1); X: flu (6); XI: cirrhosis(1), stomachache(2), liver(11), laxative(3); XIX: wound healing(1), intoxication(1); XVIII: body pain(3), fever (9), flu fever(1), icterus(1)

I: louse(1), mange(1); V: weakness(1) X: indigestion(1), purgative(2); XVIII: headache(3)

I: worms(3); VIII: earache(1), XIII: rheumatism(1)

IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(2); IX: high blood pressure(1); VII: eyedrops(1), conjunctivitis(1)

V: weakness(1); X: pneumonia(1); XIV: aphrodisiac(1)

I: general infection(1), mycosis(1); III: anemia(1), depurative(2); XI: gastritis(3); XIV: vaginal discharge(2), regulates menstrual cycle(1); XIX: wound healing(1)

inflammation(1)

4 3

Velame-roxo

Sangra-d'agua

Pé-de-perdiz

Graveto, alveloz, pau-pelado

Croton grandivelum Baill.

Croton urucurana Baill.

Croton sp.

Euphorbia tirucalli L.

N

E

N

N

E

N

SH

HB

AR

91

E

N

N

SSH N

SSH N

SH

HB

AR

CP

CP

HB

10

2

Carijó

Croton antisyphiliticus Mart.

24

233

6

6

4

4

Cansação

Cavalinha

Olho-de-boi, coronha

12

12

1

1

Cnidoscolus urens (L.) Arthur

EUPHORBIACEAE

Equisetum hyemale L.

EQUISETACEAE

Diospyros hispida A.DC.

EBENACEAE

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Jarrinha, cipójarrinha

Cipó-d´agua

Doliocarpus dentatus (Aubl.) Standl.

DIOSCOREACEAE

Cipó-caboco

Davilla rugosa Poir.

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh

Decoction, maceration

Latex(70), bark(19), leaves (2)

Whole plant(1), roots(3)

Fresh

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Roots(8), leaves (2)

Latex (3)

Maceration

Decoction, maceration

Decoction, infusion

Decoction, infusion

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Fresh

Decoction

Roots(2)

Roots(24)

Whole plant(6)

Bark(3), seed(1)

rhizome (12)

Sap(1)

Leaves (1)

40,885

ILR

42,590

42,487

ILR

41,263

42,862

41,246

42,719

ILR

ILR

I: general infection(2); II: cancer(1)

28

I: general infection(1), III: depurative(2); XIII: inflammation(3), rheumatism(1); XIV: uterine inflammation(2); XVIII: throat inflammation(1) I: female infection (with discharge)(7), general infection(4), syphilis(2); II: cancer(4), III: anemia(1), depurative(3); IX: heartache(2), hemorrhoids (2); XI: appetite stimulant(1), heartburn(1), stomachache(1), gastritis(6), indigestion(1), ulcer(11), XII: skin cleansing(1), XIII: inflammation(10), rheumatism(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(4), ovarian infection(2), uterine infection(2), vaginal infection with discharge(5), uterine inflammation(2), prostate(3); XIX: wound healing(11), wounds(2); XVIII: throat inflammation(2) XIV: vaginal discharge(1), sexual impotence(1), uterine infection(1), uterine inflammation(1)

XI(1), stomachache(1), indigestion(1)

I: furuncle(1), “impingem” (superficial skin mycoses)(1), III: blood depurative (15); XI: stomachache(1); XII: itching(1), skin infection(1); XIV: uterine infection(2); XIX: skin wounds(1), injury (1)

IV: obesity(1); IX: blood circulation(1); high blood pressure(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: diuretic(1), prostate(1)

IX: stroke prevention(1), stroke recuperation(1); V: tranquilizer(1), VI: epilepsy(1)

X: flu (2); XI; liver(1), gastritis(3), indigestion(1), ulcer(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XVIII: headache(1), fever (2)

XIV: diuretic(1)

IX: high blood pressure(1)

Bálsamo

Mandioca-brava, mandioca-decaboclo

Mandioca-mansa

Mamona

Jatropha sp.

Manihot anomala Pohl

Manihot esculenta Crantz

Ricinus communis L.

Burra-leiteira

Sapium sp.

22

7

Angico

Angelimamargoso

Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg.

Andira cujabensis Benth.

6

Acácia, coronha

741

1

2

1

22

5

3

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.

FABACEAE

Sarã-do-campo

Sapium obovatum Klotzsch ex Müll.Arg.

Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong Leiteiro

54

Batata-de-tiú, rabo-de-tatu

Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Oken

3

4

Pinhão-branco

Jatropha curcas L.

4

Dotorzinho

Euphorbia sp.

N

E

N

N

AR

AR

AR

HB

SH

AR

AR

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SSH N

HB

HB

SH

SH

SSH E

ILR

Infusion, maceration

42,688

42,650

42,690

42,491

ILR

42,653

42,651

Maceration

Maceration

Maceration, infusion Decoction, Bark(15), roots(1), infusion, resin(6) maceration, syrup, cataplasm Stem(2), leaves Maceration, (3), bark(2) infusion

Flowers(3), roots(3)

Leaves (1)

Bark(2)

Bark(1)

Leaves (3)

Decoction, fresh , infusion Decoction, Seed(21), roots(1) maceration, syrup

Leaves (3)

42,293

42,722

Infusion, juice (from peel) Infusion

42,647

Decoction, maceration, cataplasm, flour, sprinkle

Leaves (5), rhizome (roots)(49)

Leaves (3)

42,689

Fresh , infusion

Leaves (1), latex (3)

42,629

Fresh

Latex (3)

29

III: anemia(1); IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(1); IX: chest pain(1); XIV: premature ejaculation(2), III: depurative(1); VI: Parkinson’s disease(1); X: bronchitis(5), expectorant(1), flu (4); XI: ulcer(1); XIV: vaginal infection(1), vaginal infection with discharge(2); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: throat infection(1), throat inflammation(1), cough(2), cough with catarrh(2) I: general infection(1); IX: abscess(1); hemorrhoids (1); XI: indigestion(1); purgative(1); ulcer(1); XVIII: fever(1)

IX: hemorrhoids(1)

XI: stomach pain(1); XVIII: headache(1)

I: leprosy(1)

III: depurative(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(3), flu (1), pneumonia(1); XI: purgative(5), ulcer(1); XII: opaque and weak hair(1), baldness(2), hair tonic (1), skin infection(1); XIV: diuretic(1); XIX: wound healing(3)

III: anemia(1); XI: gastritis(1), ulcer(1); XIII: tonic(1); XVIII: fever (1)

II: cancer(1); XI: gastritis(1), ulcer(1)

I: tetanus(1); XIX: healing(2)

I: general infection(1); III: depurative(1); XIII: rheumatism(1); XIV: kidney infection(1) I: infections(3), diarrhea(1), cold(1), worms(1); III: depurative(4); IV: high cholesterol(1); IX: hemorrhage(1); X: flu (2); XI: liver(1), indigestion(1); XIII: back pains(1), inflammation(2); XIV: vaginal discharge(3), menstrual hemorrhage(1), vaginal infection(1), prolonged menstruation(3), prostate(3), kidney infections(2); XIX: wound healing(4), “stanches blood”(2), wound(2), snake bites(9); XV: postpartum period 4; XVIII: vomit(1)

I: nail fungus(4)

Vergateza

Copaíba, paud’óleo, podoi

Clitoria guianensis (Aubl.) Benth.

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

Crotalaria maypurensis Kunth.

Copaíba-mirim, óleo-mirim, podoinho Erva-de-lagarto, poaia-do-brejo

Angiquinho

Calliandra parviflora Benth.

Copaifera malmei Harms

9

Andu, feijãoandu

Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

2

8

133

17

6

26

Jucá, pau-ferro

Caesalpinia ferrea C.Mart.

6

Sucupira-preta

20

10

Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth.

Bauhinia ungulata L.

Bauhinia angulosa Vogel

Cipó-de-escadade-macaco, cipótripa-de-galinha Miroró, pata-de vaca, pata-deboi

HB

AR

AR

HB

SH

HB

AR

AR

AR

CP

N

N

N

N

N

E

N

N

N

N

Bark(10), oleoresin(118), seed(5)

Leaves (2)

Leaves (7), seed(1)

Infusion

Infusion, maceration, syrup

Decoction, maceration, fresh , syrup

Whole plant(3), roots(1), resin(1), leaves (1) Leaves (5), roots(12)

Infusion, maceration Decoction, infusion, maceration, juice (from peel) Decoction, maceration

41,635

Decoction, Bark(11), fruits(8), infusion, seed(7) maceration, syrup Leaves (1)

42,637

Maceration

Seed (fava bean) (6)

41,634

40,754

41,251

42,493

42,650

42,620

42,612

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Leaves (3), flowers(17)

ILR

Decoction, maceration

Stem(2), vine(8)

XVIII: fever(2)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), inflammation(1)

pneumonia(1);

XI:

30

ulcer(3);

XIII:

I: infections(13), venereal disease(2), erysipelas (zipele)(1), intestinal infection(1), pulmonary infection(1), tetanus prevention (1), tetanus(1); II: cancer(5), cancer of intestine(1); III: depurative(3); IV: diabetes(1), IX: hemorrhoids(2); X: asthma(4), bronchitis(2), flu (7), pneumonia(2); XI: stomachache(2), gastritis(6), indigestion(1), purgative(2), ulcer(4); XIII: inflammations(4), prostate inflammation(1), intestinal inflammation(1), XIV: diuretic(7), uterus and ovary infection(2), urinary infection(2), kidney stones(1), prostate(4), kidney infection(3); XIX: wound healing(29), healing of skin wounds(1), healing of stomach wound (1), snake bites(1), burn(1); XVIII: headache(1), throat infection(2), throat inflammation(7); XX: repellent(1)

V: nerve(1); XIII: back pain(1); XIV: diuretic(2), sexual impotence(13)

I: infections(1); X: asthma(1); XIV: diuretic(1); XIX: bone fracture(1), terrible injury (1), “trodden blood”(1)

I: syphilis(1); II: cancer(1); III: depurative(1); IV: diabetes(3); X: asthma(2), bronchitis(2), sinusitis(2), XI: stomachache(1), gastritis(1); XIII: rheumatism(2); XIV: sexual impotence(2); XIX: wound healing(3), bone fracture(1); XVIII: headache(1), fever (1), throat infection(1), throat inflammation(1) IX: thermal shock(1); X: flu (2), pneumonia(2), sinusitis(1); XI: intestinal constipation(1); XIII; rheumatism(1); XVIII: body pain(1)

I: infections(2); XI: indigestion(2); XVIII: throat infection(2)

I: diarrhea(4); II: cancer; IV: high cholesterol(4), diabetes(7), obesity(1); XI: intestinal constipation(3)

I: diarrhea(5); XI: liver(1); XIII: back pains(2); XIX: wounds(1); XVIII: body pain(1)

Sarajá

Jatobá-do-mato

Jatobá-docerrado

Bingueiro, cachibeiro, jequitibá

Galactia glaucescens Kunth.

Hymenaea courbaril L.

Hymenaea stigonocarpa Hayne.

Machaerium stipitatum (DC.) Vogel

Candeia, vinhático

Falso-pau-brasil,

Plathymenia reticulata Benth.

Poincianella pluviosa (DC.)

Jatobá-roxo

Mugulum, mulungu

84

Mulungu

Erythrina mulungu Benth.

Ormosia coarctata Jacks. Peltogyne confertiflora (Hayne) Benth.

3

Nego-duro

Eriosema sp.

7

7

4

2

12

3

12

3

79

Baru

Dipteryx alata Vogel

1

Faveiro-de-anta

Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

N N

AR

N

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

AR

AR

HB

AR

AR

AR

SH

AR

SH

AR

AR

Infusion

Maceration

Maceration

Sap(6), bark(1)

Bark(7)

Bark(4)

Fruits(2)

Bark(12)

Maceration, fresh

Decoction, maceration

Maceration

Infusion, maceration

Decoction, maceration

Decoction, Bark(41), bark do maceration, fruits(4), fruits(5), infusion, roots(6), resin(25), cataplasm, juice, sap(3) syrup

Bark(1), resin(2)

Infusion, Bark(6), leaves (6) maceration Cataplasm, juice Leaves (3) (from peel)

Roots(3)

Decoction, Bark(49), stem(4), infusion, leaves (7), maceration, fresh fruits(17), seed(2) , cataplasm

Leaves (1)

42,694

42,280

42,579

42,723

40,758

42,477

ILR

40,869

ILR

41,644

40,760

42,604

31

II: cancer(1); III: depurative(1); VI: labyrinthitis(1); XI: stomachache(1);

IX: hemorrhage(2), swelling of injury(1); XI: liver(1); XIV: kidneys(1); XIX: wound healing(1), wounds(1)

XI: liver(2); XIV: diuretic(2)

IX: hemorrhage(2)

I: diarrhea(2), general infection(6); II: prostate cancer(1); III: anemia(9), depurative(5), leukemia(1); V: anxiety (tranquilizer)(1), weakness(1); VII: cataract(2), eye irritation(1); X: asthma(3), bronchitis(6), expectorant(2), lung strengthening(1), flu (3), pneumonia(3); XI: gastritis(1), indigestion(1), ulcer(8), XIII: tonic(1), inflammation(3), rheumatism(1); XIV; uterus and ovary infection(1), female intimate cleaning(1), prostate(5), kidneys(1); XIX: wound healing(4), bone fracture(3); XVIII: body pain(1), throat infection(1), throat inflammation(1), cough with catarrh(2), vomit(2) II: cancer(1); IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(1); IX: hemorrhoids(1), swelling(1): XI: stomachache(1); XIII: weakness(1), inflammation(2); XIV: intestinal cramp(1), vaginal infection with discharge(1); XVIII: body pain(1).

XVIII: inflammation(1); XIV: prostate(1); XIX: wound healing(1)

XIX: wound healing(3)

V: tranquilizer(2), crisis of nerves(2), depression(2), stress(2); VI: insomnia(2); XIV: kidney infections(2)

XIV: sexual impotence(3)

I: infections(5), III: depurative(3), IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(1); IX: hemorrhage(1), thrombosis(2); X: sinusitis(1); XI: gastritis(2), intestine infection(2), gallstones(1), ulcer(5); XIII; back pain(1), muscle pain(1), back pains(7), osteoporosis(8), rheumatism(8); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), diuretic(2), kidney pains(2), sexual impotence(2), uterus and ovary infection(1), vaginal infection(1), uterine inflammation(1), prolonged menstruation(2), prostate(1), menstrual regulation(1), kidneys(4); XIX: wound healing(4), bone healing (2), snake bites(4), XVIII: body pain(1), memory(1)

XIII: inflammation (swelling/blow pain)(1)

Fedegoso

Mata-pasto

Barbatimão, pacari-do-campo

Barbatimãobranco

Tatarema

Carvoeiro, cachamorra

Tamarindo

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

Senna velutina (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville

Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth.

Sclerolobium aureum (Tul.) Baill.

Tachigali rubiginosa (Mart. ex Tul.) Oliveira-Filho.

Tamarindus indica L.

Vigna peduncularis (Kunth.)

Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke

Crista-de-galo

Trevo, Trevobranco Amargoso, angelim, pauamargoso

Sucupira-branca, sucupira amarela

Pterodon emarginatus Vogel.

Trifolium sp.

sibipiruna

L.P.Queiroz

1

8

4

3

5

18

4

89

2

36

82

HB

AR

HB

AR

AR

AR

SH

SH

SH

SH

AR

N

N

E

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

Whole plant(1)

Maceration

Maceration

Stem (heartwood)(5), bark(3)

Leaves (4)

Leaves (1), fruits(1), seed(1)

42,488

Maceration, decoction

40,756

42,697

ILR

42,569

42,630

ILR

Maceration, decoction Decoction, infusion Decoction, infusion

Bark(5)

Bark(18)

Bark(3), leaves (1)

ILR

41,637

42,605

42,636

Decoction, maceration

Decoction, maceration, infusion

Bark(74), leaves (12), sap(1), seed(2)

Leaves (2)

Decoction, maceration, fresh , infusion Infusion, Decoction

Decoction, infusion, maceration, cataplasm

Leaves (7), aerial parts(2), roots(24), seed(3)

Bark(17), leaves (1), stem(2), seed(62)

I: female infection (1)

I: malaria(2); III: depurative(2); IV: diabetes(1); XI: liver(3)

IX: heartache(1); XIV: arrhythmia(1)

X: pneumonia(1); XIV: kidneys(2)

32

I: mycosis(1); II: cancer(1); III: anemia(1); XIX: wound healing(2)

I: diarrhea(7); IV: obesity(2); IX: “tunes” the blood (depurative)(1), stroke(1); XI: stomachache: stomachache(1), indigestion(3); XVIII: leg pains(1)

XI: ulcer(1); XIV: uterus infection(1),vaginal inflammation(2)

I: thrush(1), infections(8), venereal disease(1), erysipelas (1), female infection (with discharge)(9), nail mycosis(1), seborrhea(1); III: depurative(2); IX: hemorrhage(1), hemorrhoids(3); XI: stomachache(2), stomachache(1), gastritis(4), ulcer(7); XII: baldness(1); XIII: inflammation(12), rheumatism(1); XIV; vaginal discharge(2), uterine infection(6), urinary infection(1), vaginal infection with discharge(3), uterine and ovarian inflammation(1),vaginal inflammation(3), kidney stones(1), prostate(1); XIX: wound healing(8), infected wound(2), ; XVIII: throat infection(1), throat inflammation(4)

I: worms(1); IX: hemorrhoids (1)

I: dengue(1), malaria(2); III: depurative(2); X: allergy(1), flu (17); XI: stomachache(1), liver(3), indigestion(1); XVIII: fever (8)

I: infections(7), gonorrhea(1), leprosy(1), malaria(2), syphilis(1), II(1), cancer(1), III(8), depurative(8); IV: diabetes(4); IX: hemorrhoids(1); X: flu (3), pneumonia(2); XI: stomachache(2), liver(1), gastritis(1), ulcer(1); XII: skin cleansing(1), leprosy blotches(1); XIII: arthritis(1), inflammations(5), skin cleansing(1), rheumatism(1); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: headache(2), body pain(2), fever (5), throat infection(20), throat inflammation(6)

XIII: back pain(1), inflammation(1), rheumatism(1)

Hortelãzinho-docampo

Tapera-velha

Vereda-do-brejo, marmela

Cordão-de-frade, cordão-de-sãofranscisco

Macaé, santofilho

Mulatinha

Vick

Poejo

Hortelã

Manjericão

Alfavaca

Hyptis cana Pohl ex Benth.

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.

Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth.

Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.

Leonurus sibiricus L.

Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl) Kuntze

Mentha arvensis L.

Mentha pulegium L.

Mentha spicata L.

Ocimum basilicum L.

Ocimum gratissimum L.

LAMIACEAE

Emmotum nitens (Benth.) Miers

Unha-d´anta, unha-de-anta

25

9

9

8

1

7

3

16

2

6

10

139

1

1

4

ICACINACEAE

4

Vismia japurensis Rchb.f.

Lacre

HYPERICACEAE

Fawc & Rendle

HB

HB

HB

HB

HB

HB

HB

SH

HB

SH

HB

AR

HB

E

E

E

N

E

E

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

Leaves (20), whole plant(5)

Leaves (9)

Leaves (9)

Leaves (8)

Leaves (1)

Leaves (7)

Decoction, maceration,

ILR

Infusion, decoction, syrup Decoction, infusion, syrup Decoction, maceration, syrup

41,250

40,864

ILR

ILR

ILR

ILR

40,865

42,613

42,485

41,245

42,475

41,268

Syrup

Decoction, infusion

Infusion

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Flowers bud(2), leaves (7), aerial parts(3), whole plant(4) Leaves (3)

Infusion

Infusion, maceration, syrup Decoction, maceration, infusion

Maceration

Fresh

Leaves (2)

Leaves (3), aerial parts(1), whole plant(1), roots(1)

Leaves (9), whole plant(1)

Roots(1)

Latex (4)

33

I: thrush (1), worms(1); IX: swelling (edema)(1), V(1), anxiety (tranquilizer)(1); VI: labyrinthitis(1); X: expectorant(1), flu (8),

I: general infection(1); VI: labyrinthitis (1); X: flu (3), sinusitis(2); XVIII: headache(1), cough(1)

I: viral infection(1), worms(1); IX: high blood pressure(1); X: flu (1), lung cleaning(1), pneumonia(2); XI: ulcer(1); XVIII: cough(1)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(1), flu (1), pneumonia(1); XIV: cramp(1)

X: flu (1)

X: asthma(1); XI: stomachache (1), gastritis(1), ulcer(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), uterine and ovarian inflammation (1); XIX: wound healing(1)

IX: stroke prevention (1); XI: indigestion (1); XVIII: headache (1)

I: malaria fever (1); V: nerve (2); X: bronchitis (2), flu (2); XI: indigestion (1), ulcer (4); XIII: joint pain (1), inflammation (1); XIV: cramp (1); XVIII: body pain (1)

X: sinusitis(1); XVIII: fever (1)

I: worms(1); IX: hemorrhoids(2); X: expectorant(1); XI: intestine(1), ulcer(1)

I: diarrhea(1), general infection(1), worms(2); VI: insomnia(1), X(1), flu(1); XIII: rheumatism(1); XVIII: pains(2), fever (1)

IX: hemorrhoids (1)

I: general infection (2); XIX: wound healing (2)

3

Sálvia

Tarumã, mamacachorra

Salvia officinalis L.

Vitex sp.

Jequitibávermelho

Sapucaia

Cariniana sp.

Lecythis pisonis Cambess. 54 54

LOGANIACEAE

Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. Quina

2

3

1

Jequitibá-branco

Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi) Kuntze

5 6

Abacate

Persea americana Mill.

6

11

3

LECYTHIDACEAE

Canela-sasafraz

Ocotea odorifera (Vell.) Rohwer

LAURACEAE

1

Alecrim

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

5

Sete-dor

Plectranthus sp.

9

15

6

Boldinho, boldochinês

Hortelã-docampo

Hortelã-grande

1

Plectranthus barbatus Andrews.

Peltodon tomentosus Pohl.

Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

Ocimum carnosum (Spreng.) Link Mangerona & Otto ex Benth.

N

E

N

E

E

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

N

N

N

N

E

N

N

SSH E

HB

HB

SSH E

HB

HB

HE

Bark(54)

Bark(2)

Bark(3)

Bark(1)

Leaves (3), seed(2)

Bark(6)

Leaves (3)

Leaves (1)

Leaves (1), aerial parts(2)

Leaves (5)

Leaves (9)

Leaves (14), branch(1)

Whole plant(3), leaves (3)

Leaves (1)

Decoction,

Decoction

Maceration

Decoction

Decoction, maceration Decoction, infusion, maceration

Infusion

Infusion

Infusion

Decoction, infusion, maceration Decoction, maceration, infusion, syrup Infusion, maceration Decoction, infusion, juice (from peel)

Infusion

infusion, syrup, juice (from peel)

42,866

ILR

ILR

42,641

ILR

34

I: infections (1), diarrhea (1), malaria (1), worms (2); III: anemia (10),

I: venereal disease(1); XII: itching(1)

III: depurative(1); XI: ulcer(1); XVIII: throat inflammation(1)

I: general infection(1)

XI: ulcer(1); XIV: diuretic(1), kidney pains (1), kidneys(1); XIX: injurys(1)

III: depurative(1); IX: hemorrhage(1); XI: stomachache(1); XIII: rheumatism(1); XIV: sexual impotence; XVIII: pains(1)

XII: vitiligo (2)

IV: diabetes(1)

ILR 42,640

IV: cleaning the heart veins(1); IX: heartache (1); V: anxiety (1)

X: bronchitis(1), flu (1); XI: indigestion(3)

I: malaria(1); XI: liver (2), stomachache (1), indigestion (5)

III: depurative(1); V: tranquilizer(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(3); XI: intestinal cramp(2), stomachache(1), gases(3); XIV: cramp(3)

III: anemia (1); X: flu(3), sinusitis(1); XVIII: cough(1)

X: flu (1)

ILR

ILR

42,626

ILR

ILR

40,864

sinusitis(2); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: uterine inflammation(1); XVIII: headache(3), fever (1), throat infection(1), cough(2)

Mangabeira, mangava-brava, pacari, didal

Cega-machado

Romã

Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil.

Physocalymma scaberrimum Pohl

Punica granatum L.

Murici

Nó-de-cachorro

Acerola

Byrsonima cydoniifolia A.Juss.

Heteropterys tomentosa A.Juss.

Malpighia glabra L.

MALPIGHIACEAE

Sete-sangrias

Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F.Macbr.

1

8

6

15

49

2

131

6

188

5

LYTHRACEAE

5

Struthanthus marginatus (Desr.) G.Don

Erva-depassarinho

LORANTHACEAE

SH

SH

AR

SH

AR

AR

HB

EP

E

N

N

E

N

N

N

N

Leaves (1)

Roots(8)

Syrup

Infusion, maceration

Decoction, maceration

42,711

42,573

41,254

42,638

Decoction, maceration, syrup

Fruits(42), fruit peel (6), seed(1)

Bark(4), stem (1), fruits(1)

46,678

40,873

ILR

ILR

Cataplasm, juice (from peel)

Decoction, maceration, cataplasm, fresh, infusion, juice (from peel)

Maceration, infusion

Infusion

41,643

Leaves (2)

Bark(82), leaves (29), sap(5), roots(15)

Whole plant(3), roots(1), leaves (2)

Leaves (5)

maceration, infusion, fresh , syrup

X: flu (1)

35

I: diarrhea(1); III: depurative(1); V: weakness(1); XIII: back pains(1); XIV: sexual impotence(2), higher concentration of sperm(1); XVIII: memory(1)

I: diarrhea(1); IV: malnutrition(1); V: weakness(1); XI: indigestion(1); XII: hair tonic(1), XIX: snake bites(1)

I: diarrhea(1), female infection (1), general infection(1), worms(2); II: cancer(1), myoma (1); III: depurative(1); IV: diabetes(1); X: flu (1); XI: stomach pain(1), gastritis(4), indigestion(1), ulcer(2); XIII: rheumatism(3); XIV: ovarian cyst(2), vaginal discharge(1), uterine infection(1), vaginal infection(1), uterine inflammation(1); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: throat infection(16), throat inflammation(5)

IX: hemorrhage(1); X: pneumonia(1)

I: infections(5), diarrhea with blood(1), venereal disease(1), chilblain(1), furuncle(1), female infection (with discharge)(4), syphilis(1), worms(1), II(1), cancer(1); III: depurative(7); IV: diabetes(3), obesity(2); IX: abscess(2), hemorrhoids(1), swelling(2); VI: labyrinthitis(3); X: pneumonia(3), tuberculosis (1); XI: heartburn(2), liver(3), gastritis(12), indigestion(2), gallstones(2), ulcer(20); XIII: back pain(1), back pains(5), inflammation(7), uterine inflammation(1); XIV: diuretic(2), uterus and ovary infection(2), kidney infections(4), menopause disorders(7); XIX: wound healing(18), burn(2); XVIII: headache(1)

I: diarrhea(1); III: depurative(1); IX: blood circulation(1), hemorrhage(1), high blood pressure(1); XIV: vaginal infection(1)

X: flu (1), pneumonia (1); XIV: strengthens the uterus (1); XVIII: body pain(1), fever(1)

depurative (5); IV: high cholesterol (1), diabetes (4); X: flu (3); XI: cirrhosis (1), stomachache (3), liver (3), indigestion (5); XIII: inflammations (1), rheumatism (1); XIV: cramp (1), sexual impotence (1), regulates menstrual cycle; XVIII: headache (1), fever (7)

6

Barriguda

Algodão

Algodão-fino

Chico-magro, mutamba

Vinagreira

Açoita-cavalo

Malva-do-reino

Mirra

Embiruçu, Emburussá

Xichá

Ceiba sp.

Gossypium barbadense L.

Gossypium sp.

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

Hibiscus bifurcatus Cav.

Luehea divaricata Mart.

Malva parviflora L.

Malva sp.

Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A.Robyns

Sterculia striata A. St.-Hil. & Naudin

MELIACEAE

Miconia albicans (Sw.) Steud.

Canela-de-veio

6

Pacová

Byttneria pescapriifolia Britton

MELASTOMATACEAE

5

Quiabo

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

16

3

3

4

1

3

9

4

2

42

3

4

89

MALVACEAE

N

N

N

N

E

E

N

N

E

SH

AR

AR

N

N

N

SSH N

HB

AR

SH

AR

SH

SH

AR

HB

HB

Leaves (3)

Bark(2), fruits(1), roots(1)

Bark(1)

Leaves (3)

Leaves (9)

Bark(2), stem(2)

Fruits(2)

Bark(6)

42,278

41,631

Cataplasm, decoction, maceration Infusion, decoction, maceration

42,673

ILR

ILR

42,581

40,871

42,572

Decoction

Juice (from peel)

Decoction, maceration Decoction, infusion, maceration, juice (from peel)

Maceration

Decoction, maceration

ILR

Bark(3), leaves (23), fruits(9), roots(5), seed(2) Maceration

42,615

Decoction, infusion, juice (from peel) maceration, fresh

Roots(6)

42,589

42,645

Maceration

Maceration

Decoction, maceration

Bark(3)

Seed(4)

Fruits(2), seed(3)

XIII: arthritis(2), back pain(1)

XIX: snake bites(4)

XIX: wound healing(1)

IX: heart tonic(1); V: tranquilizer(2)

36

I: general infection(1), female infection (1); VI: labyrinthitis (1); X: bronchitis (1), expectorant(1), flu (1), pneumonia (1); XVIII: throat infection (1), cough (1)

I: diarrhea(1); X: bronchitis(1); XI: stomach pain(1), ulcer(1)

IV: obesity(2)

IV: diabetes(1); XI: gastritis(1); XII: hair tonic(3); XIX: wounds(1)

III: depurative(2); XIII: rheumatism; XVIII: throat infection(1)

I: infections(6), female infection (with discharge)(9); III: depurative(1); IV: milk production stimulant(1); IX: chest pains(1); X: bronchitis(3), flu (3); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: ovarian infection(2), uterine infection(1), vaginal infection with discharge(1), uterine inflammation(2), uterine and ovarian inflammation(3), regulates menstrual cycle(3); XIX: wound healing(2), injury(1); XV: postpartum recovery (2)

I: leprosy(1); II: cancer(1); IX 1: hemorrhoids(1)

XIII: bursitis(1), inflammation(1); XIV: vaginal infection(1); XVIII: headache(1)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia(2)

Moreira

Amora

Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

Morus nigra L.

8

Musa sp.

Banana-brava

8

3

3

19

26

MUSACEAE

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Muringa

Gamaleirabranca

Ficus paraensis (Miq.) Miq.

MORINGACEAE

12

Gameleira-roxa, gameleira

Ficus guianensis Desv. ex Ham.

3

1

Carapiá

Dorstenia sp.

80

Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul

141

Inharé, mamacachorro, mamacadela

MORACEAE

Boldo-do-chile

Peumus boldus Molina

8

1

Capixim

Mollinedia sp.

16 9

Andiroba

MONIMIACEAE

Carapa guianensis Aubl.

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

SH

SH

HB

AR

AR

N

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

E

N

N

Stem(2), fruits(1), sap(5)

Leaves (1), seed(2)

Fruits(1), roots(1), leaves (12), bark(4), latex (1)

Bark(7), latex (19)

Bark(1), latex (2)

Bark(4), leaves (1), sap(7)

Roots(1)

Roots(29), bark(50), latex (1)

Leaves (8)

Bark(1)

Seed(16)

Maceration, infusion, fresh

Maceration

Maceration, infusion, juice, fresh , decoction

Decoction, maceration, fresh

Decoction, fresh

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh

Decoction

ILR

42,618

42,596

42,875

ILR

42,595

ILR

42,619

42,700

Infusion, maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh

ILR

Maceration

Decoction

ILR

round

worms)(1), worms(10);

37

I: general infection(1) XI: gastritis(1), indigestion(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), uterus wound (1); XIX:

I: worms(1); XX; repellent(1), repellent (dengue mosquito)(1)

I: venereal disease(1), worms(1); III: depurative(6); IX: hemorrhoids(2); X: flu (1); XI: toothache(3); XII: itching(2); XIII: back pains(3), rheumatism(1); XIX: wound healing(1), wound(4); XVIII: pains(1) I: infections(2), worms(2); III: depurative(1); IV: obesity(2), hormonal regulation(5); IX: edema (swelling)(1), heart tonic(1); XI: improves intestine(1); XIV: kidney infections(1); XVIII: throat infection(2), throat inflammation(1)

V: weakness(2); XIV: vaginal inflammation(1)

I: “lombrigueiro” (agent against XIV:vaginal inflammation(1)

X: flu (1)

I: infections(7), venereal disease(2), furuncle(3), “impingem” (superficial skin mycoses)(5); II: cancer(2), III: anemia(5), depurative(34), IX: heart tonic(5); X: pneumonia(1); XII: prickly heat(2), vitiligo(2); XIII: joint pain(1), tonic(1), inflammation(2), rheumatism(4); XIV: kidneys(1); XIX: wound healing(1), wound(2)

XI: stomachache(1), liver(2), indigestion(2), gallstones(1); XIV: menstrual cramp(1); XVIII: headache(1)

XIV: strengthener uterus(1)

I: infections (2); IX: edema(1); VIII: earache(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia(2); XI: indigestion(1), ulcer(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: diuretic(1); XIX: wound healing(2); XVIII: headache(1)

Cagaita

Pitanga

Eugenia dysenterica DC.

Eugenia pitanga (O.Berg) Nied.

4

1

PASSIFLORACEAE

1

Averrhoa carambola L.

Carambola

OXALIDACEAE

7

Pega-pinto

Boerhavia diffusa L.

12 7

Goiabeira

4

2

3

NYCTAGINACEAE

Psidium guajava L.

Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC.

Sangue-de-tatu, cumatí Jabuticaba, Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh jabuticabeirapreta

6

Eucalipto 7

34

AR

HB

AR

AR

AR

SH

AR

AR

55

Mucuíba, bicuíba

Virola elongata (Benth.) Warb.

Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson

AR

3

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

MYRTACEAE

AR

58

Noz-moscada

MYRISTICACEAE

E

N

N

N

N

E

N

E

E

E

Fruits(1)

Aerial parts(1), whole plant(1), roots(5)

Maceration

Maceration

Infusion, decoction, flour Decoction, Bark(3), leaves (4) infusion, maceration Decoction, Leaves (3) infusion fresh , Bark(1), sap(1) maceration Maceration, Leaves (3), bark infusion, da fruta(1) decoction Bark(2), leaves Decoction, (8), shoots of infusion leave(2)

Fresh , infusion, maceration

Resin (35), stem(2), bark(18)

Leaves (6)

Decoction

Fruits(3)

42,639

42,707

42,869

42,709

42,298

40,751

42,291

42,858

42,580

ILR

( with

discharge)(1),

general

XIX: snake bites(1)

38

I: female infection with discharge(1), syphilis(1); III: depurative(2); XI: cleaning of intestine (1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: kidneys(1)

I: diarrhea(9); XI: stomach pain(1); XIV: cramp(1); XIX: wound healing(1)

I: diarrhea(1), female infection infection(1); VI: labyrinthitis(1)

II: cancer(2)

I: diarrhea(1), leg infection (1); XIX: wound healing(1)

X: asthma(1), bronchitis(1), allergic rhinitis(1), sinusitis(2); XVIII: fever (1) I: diarrhea(1); III: ancylostomiasis (anemia)(1), depurative(1); IX: high blood pressure(1); XIII: inflammation (1), XIV: vaginal discharge(1); XVIII: icterus(1)

I: venereal disease(1), female infection (with discharge)(2), general infection(1), mycosis(1); II(3), cancer(3), III(3), depurative(3), IV(1), high cholesterol(1); IX: heartache(2), hemorrhoids: XI(22): stomachache(1), gastritis(8), indigestion(1), ulcer(12); XIII: back pain(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(4), sexual impotence(1), ovarian infection(1), uterine infection(1), urinary infection(1), uterine inflammation(2), prostate(3), kidney infection(2); XIX: wound (healing)(1), snake bites(1)

XI: gases(2); XIV: cramp(1)

snake bites(1), burn(1)

Jaborandi

Capeba

Piper cuyabanum C. DC.

Pothomorphe umbellata L.

6

Capim-cidreira

70

11

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc

Vassourinha

Scoparia dulcis L.

23

HB

HB

HB

SH

9 34

AR

SH

AR

SH

HB

CP

CP

2

4

POACEAE

Tanchagem

Plantago sparsiflora Michx.

PLANTAGINACEAE

Jaborandipequeno, jaborandianestésico

Piper amalago L.

15

1

PIPERACEAE

1

Petiveria alliacea L.

Guiné ou Tipê

PHYTOLACCACEAE

17

Phyllanthus niruri L.

Quebra-pedra

17

6

6

2

2

PHYLLANTHACEAE

Sesamum indicum L.

Gergelim

Maracujácumprido

Passiflora sp.

PEDALIACEAE

Maracujá

Passiflora quadrangularis L.

E

N

E

E

N

N

N

N

E

N

N

Decoction, infusion

Maceration, juice, juice (from peel)

Roots(4), whole plant(4), leaves (3) Whole plant(2), leaves (4)

Decoction, infusion, maceration, juice (from peel), fresh , tablet

ILR

42,285

40,872

42,600

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Leaves (4), roots(5)

Leaves (17), seed(1), sap(1), whole plant(4)

42,588

41,639

42,644

42,568

41,255

ILR

40,874

Infusion

Fresh

Decoction

Decoction, infusion

Maceration, syrup

Infusion

Infusion, maceration

Leaves (2)

Whole plant(2), roots(2)

Roots(1)

Leaves (9), aerial parts(7), whole plant(1)

Seed(6)

Leaves (2)

Leaves (1), fruits(1)

39

I: malaria(1); IX: high blood pressure(1); V: anxiety (tranquilizer for headache)(1), stress(1); XVIII: fever (1), vomit(1)

I: infections(4), female infection (with discharge)(2), tooth infection(1), worms(1); III: depurative(1); IX: hemorrhoids(1); X: flu (1); XI: gastritis(2), indigestion(1); XIII: inflammations(3); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), bladder infection(1), ovarian infection(1), uterus and ovary infection(1); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: throat infection(1) I: general infection(1); III: depurative(1); IX: heart tonic(1); VII: conjunctivitis(2); X: pneumonia(2); XI: gastritis(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: cramp(1), vaginal discharge(1)

III: depurative(1); X: flu (1); XI: liver(1), ulcer(2); XIII: rheumatism(1); XIV: cramp(1), kidneys(1); XVIII: headache(1)

I: malaria(1); XI: liver(1)

XI: toothache(4)

XIII: back pain(1)

I: general infection(4); IV: diabetes(2); XIV: kidney stone(1), kidney cramp(1), kidney pains(1), kidney infection(7), kidney stones(1)

IX: stroke(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), flu (1), pneumonia(1)

IX: high blood pressure(1); X: bronchitis(1)

IV: high cholesterol(1); IX: high blood pressure(1)

Capim-amargo

Capim-margoso

Taboca, taquara

Sapé

Capim-meloso, capimcatingueiro

Cana-de-açúcar

Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman

Elionurus sp.

Guadua paniculata Munro

Imperata brasiliensis Trin.

Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv.

Saccharum officinarum L.

Damasco

Rosa-branca

Prunus armeniaca L.

Rosa alba L.

RUBIACEAE

1

Malus sp.

109

1

2

4

Maçã

ROSACEAE

16

Persicaria punctata (Elliott) Small

Erva-de-bicho

16

13

13

2

2

8

7

2

4

35

4

POLYGONACEAE

Polygala sp.

Jalapinha-domato

Capim-pé-degalinha, curraleira

Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.

POLYGALACEAE

Capim-de-cheiro

Cymbopogon sp.

HB

AR

AR

HB

HB

HB

HB

HB

AR

HB

HB

HB

HB

E

E

E

E

N

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Flowers(1)

Resin(2)

Fruits(1)

Leaves (12), whole plant(3), branch(1)

rhizome (13)

Stem(1), “tassel”(1)

Whole plant(2)

Roots(8)

Stem(2), leaves (1), roots(4)

Leaves (2)

Maceration

Maceration, fresh

Juice

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Decoction, maceration

Infusion, juice

Decoction

Decoction, maceration Infusion, decoction Infusion, maceration, fresh Decoction, maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Leaves (9), fruits/seed(1), roots(18), whole plant(7) Aerial parts(3), roots(1)

Decoction, infusion

Whole plant(1), leaves (2), roots(1)

I: general infection(1)

XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: headache(1)

ILR 42,614

X: bronchitis(1)

40

III: depurative(1); IX: hemorrhoid(9), high blood pressure(1), heart tonic(1), clogged veins(1); XIII: inflammation(3)

I: worms(1); III: depurative(5); X: flu (1); XIV: regulates the menstrual cycle (3); XIX: wound healing(1), wounds(2)

I: dengue(1); IX: high blood pressure(1)

IX: stroke(2)

ILR

ILR

ILR

42,574

ILR

42,687

IV: obesity(3); IX: hemorrhoids(1), heart tonic(1); XIII: back pain(1); XIV: kidney tonic(1) I: diarrhea(2); V: tranquilizer(1); XI: toothache(1), in children to break the dentition place(1), tooth baby birth(3)

I: female infection (with discharge)(1); XIX: wound healing(1)

ILR 42,621

I: infections(1); XI: congestion(1), gastritis(1); XIX: wound healing(1)

I: infections(6), gonorrhea(2), female infection (with discharge)(3), worms(2); III: anemia(2), depurative(1); X: pneumonia(2); XIII: inflammation(2); XIV: vaginal discharge(3), diuretic(1), strengthening of the uterus to become pregnant(2), uterus and ovary infection(2), vaginal infection with discharge(1), uterine inflammation(1), regulates menstrual cycle(1), kidneys(1); XIX: bone fracture(2), snake bites(1)

IX: high blood pressure(2); V: anxiety (tranquilizer)(1); X: bronchitis with catarrh(1)

ILR

40,882

ILR

Guarantã

Arruda

Manacá

Ruta graveolens L.

Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.Hill. 41

2

3

20

Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl.

9

Laranja

Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) J.F. Gmel.

4

Citrus sp.

Unha-de-gato

Psychotria sp.

12

6

Poiaia

Palicourea crocea (Sw.) Schult.

35

Limão

Douradinha, douradão, douradão-docampo

Citrus aurantiaca Swingle

None

Morinda citrifolia L.

1

78

Jenipapo-bravo

Genipa sp.

2

RUTACEAE

Jenipapo-manso

4

2

Marmelinho

Quina-branca

40

Genipa americana L.

Cordiera sessilis (Vell.) Kuntze Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K.Schum.

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.

Caninana, cainca

N

N

N

SH

HB

AR

AR

AR

CP

HB

SH

SH

N

E

N

E

E

N

N

N

E

SSH N

AR

AR

AR

SSH N

Maceration, infusion

fresh , maceration

Stem(1), roots(40)

Maceration

Bark(1), aerial parts(1)

Decoction, infusion, maceration, juice, tosted

Fruits peel(2), leaves (8), fruits(5), seed(1), roots(4) Bark(3)

Decoction, syrup

Fruits(6)

Decoction, maceration, infusion

Decoction

Leaves (2), roots(2) Roots(5), vine(4)

Decoction, infusion

Maceration, infusion, juice

Leaves (5), fruits(30)

Leaves (9), roots(3)

Infusion

Fresh

Maceration

Maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Stem(1)

Fruits(2)

Bark(4)

Bark(1), roots(1)

Leaves (1), roots(39)

ILR

42,593

ILR

42878

42,642

42,598

ILR

41,247

41

I: malaria(1); IV: diabetes(4); XI: stomachache(3), liver(1), indigestion(1), rheumatism(1), ulcer(3); XIII: back pains(3), joint pain(1), inflammation(1), rheumatism(14); XIV: menopause disorders(1); XIX: snake bites(2); XVIII: body pain(1), pains(1), fever

VII: eye pain (1); XIV: vaginal infection(1)

IV: diabetes(1); XI: opens the apetite(1), liver(1)

I: hepatitis(3); IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(1); IX: heartache(1); V: tranquilizer(1), nerve(1); VI: meningitis (1); X: pneumonia(1), sinusitis(1); XI; toothache(1), stomachache(1); XIII: rheumatism(3); XVIII: headache(1), fever (2), cough(1)

X: expectorant(1); flu (1); XVIII: cough(1)

II: cancer(2); XIII: arthrosis(1), inflammation(1), rheumatism(1); XIV: kidney stones; XVIII: throat inflammation(3)

X: asthma(2), bronchitis(2)

I: general infection(1); IX: edema(1), improves circulation (1), high blood pressure(1); V: weakness(2); XII: itching(2); XIV: arrhythmia (“batedeira”/accelerated heartbeat)(2), diuretic(1), kidney infection(1)

I: general infection(9); II: cancer(8); IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(2), obesity(4); IX: hemorrhoids(3); XI: stomachache(1); XIII: bone pains(1), back pain(2), inflammation(1); XIV: prostate(1), kidney infection(1); XVIII: headache(1)

XIV: kidney infection(1)

42,725 40,878

IV: diabetes(1); XI: liver(1)

I: diarrhea(1), intestinal infection(1); XI: indigestion(1); XIV: cramp prevention(1)

I: diarrhea(2)

41,243

ILR

42,882

42,603

I: infections(2), leprosy (2), intestinal infection(1), syphilis(1); X: flu (2); XI: gastritis(1), constipation(1); XIII: back pains(2), inflammation(2), rheumatism(17); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), sexual impotence(2), prostate(1); XIX(), wound healing(1), XVIII: body pain(3), fever (1)

Pitomba

Sapindus saponaria L.

Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk.

Calunga

Mata-menino

Simaba ferruginea A. St.-Hil.

Simarouba versicolor A. St. Hil.

SIMAROUBACEAE

Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk.

Curriola, frutade-veado

Saboneteira

Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk.

SAPOTACEAE

4

Pau-magro, camboatá

5

39

44

2

2

1

1

1

Tingui

Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil.

2

Dilodendron bipinnatum Radlk.

9

Maria-pobre, mulher-pobre, mamoninha

SAPINDACEAE

2

Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek

Concorosa

2

SANTALACEAE

4

5

6

1

Pereirinha, cháde-frade

Chá-de-bugre

Mamica-deporca

Casearia sylvestris Sw.

Casearia sp.

SALICACEAE

Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

AR

SH

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

SH

AR

SH

AR

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Bark(1), leaves (4)

Xylopodium (roots)(39)

Bark(1), stem(1)

Fruits(1)

42,290

42,648

Decoction, maceration

42,279

42,716

Decoction, maceration

Infusion, maceration

Maceration

ILR

Leaves (1)

Infusion, maceration

42,675

42,881

ILR

42,704

42,482

40,867

ILR

Topic

Decoction

Maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration, syrup, fresh

Infusion

Decoction, maceration

Bark(2), leaves (2) Maceration

Bark(1)

Bark(2)

Roots(2)

Bark(1)

Leaves (4)

Bark(3), fruits(3)

XII: itching(1); XIX: wound healing(4)

42

I: malaria(1); IV: high cholesterol(1), diabetes(7); X: flu (4); XI: appetizer (1), stomachache(2), liver(4), gastritis(3), indigestion(2), ulcer(5); XIII: back pain(2), joint pain(1), rheumatism(2); XVIII: fever (3), cough(1)

I: diarrhea(1), acute infection(1)

XIV: kidney stones(1)

I: mange(1)

IV: obesity(2); IX: heart tonic(2)

XIX: horseshoe of “arraia”(1)

XI: indigestion(1); XIII: inflammation(1)

XI: liver(2)

IV: diabetes (1)

IX: blood circulation(1), high blood pressure(1); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV:diuretic(1)

III: depurative(1); XI: ulcer(2), gastritis(1); XIX: wound healing(1); XVIII: throat inflammation(1)

(1), throat inflammation(1); XX: malaise(1)

Fumo-bravo

Jurubeba-brava

Jiló

Lobeira

Beringela

Cipó-branco

Nicotiana tabacum L.

Solanum erianthum D. Don

Solanum aethiopicum L.

Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil.

Solanum melongena L.

Solanum sp.

Tropaeolum majus L.

Capuchinha, cauchinha

Dama-da-noite, cacto-de-florgrande

Cestrum nocturnum L.

TROPAEOLACEAE

Pimentamalagueta

Capsicum frutescens L.

Atropa belladonna L.

Beladona

Salsa-parilha

Smilax rufescens Griseb.

SOLANACEAE

Japecanga

Smilax irrorata Mart. ex Griseb.

SMILACACEAE

6

6

3

5

4

1

3

10

4

10

2

42

18

7

25

14

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Negramina

14

SIPARUNACEAE

N

N

N

HB

CP

HB

SH

HB

SH

SH

SH

SH

E

N

E

N

E

N

N

E

N

SSH E

CP

CP

SH

Maceration

Decoction, maceration, infusion Maceration, infusion

Maceration

Bark(1), leaves (5) Maceration

Vine(3)

Leaves (1), fruits(4)

Flowers(1), fruits(3)

Leaves (1)

Decoction, infusion, syrup

Seed(1), roots(3), leaves (6) Leaves (1), fruits(2) Flour, maceration

Decoction

I: venereal disease(1), gonorrhea(1), infections(2); III: depurative(2); XIII: inflammation(1) I: venereal disease(2), general infection(2); III: depurative(4); X: allergy(1); XIII: arthritis(2), arthrosis(1), muscle growth(1), osteoporosis(1), rheumatism(2); XIV: diuretic(2)

X: flu (2), sinusitis(2); XI(1), ulcer(1); XII: itching(1); XIII: arthritis(1), rheumatism(2); XVIII: body pain(2), fever (2); XX: repellent(1)

ILR

ILR

ILR

40,861

ILR

41,641

42,674

42,860

42,597

IX:

heartache(1);

XIII:

rheumatism(1);

XIV:

43

XIII: strengthener of bones (1), osteoporosis(1), inflammation(1); XIV: diuretic(1), kidney infection(1); XVIII: analgesic(1)

X: expectorant(1); XI: stomachache(1), gastritis(1)

IV: diabetes(1), high cholesterol(3); XIV: diuretic(1)

I: malaria(1); VI: epilepsy(1); XI: gastritis(1); XVIII: cough(1)

XIX: snake bites(1)

XI: liver(2), gastritis(1)

I: “seven-day disease” (tetanus infection in the umbilical region)(1); III: anemia(3); IX: swelling(2); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), pneumonia(1)

III: depurative(1); kidneys(1)

I: general infection(2), tetanus(2); II: cancer(1); XII: skin infection(1); XIII: inflammation(1), XIV: vaginal discharge(1); XIX: wound healing(1), injury with swelling(1)

42,712 XIII: rheumatism(1); XVIII: leg pains (1)

42,692

Decoction, maceration

Infusion, maceration Decoction, infusion, maceration, cataplasm

41,252

42,281

Infusion, maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration

Whole plant(4)

Leaves (2), fruits(8)

Leaves (1), flowers(1)

Flowers(3), roots(4) Leaves (8), rhizome (roots)(10)

Vine(2), leaves (12)

Gervão

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl

VOCHYSIACEAE 54

1

Insulina

1

1

Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C.E.Jarvis

Suma-roxa

Anchietea sp.

9

10

VITACEAE

Vine-suma

Anchietea pyrifolia (Mart.) G.Don

VIOLACEAE

6

Erva-cidreira

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br.ex Britton & P.Wilson

51

57

VERBENACEAE

1

Canela-de-ema

Vellozia sp.

126

1

Embaúba

126

VELLOZIACEAE

Cecropia pachystachya Trécul.

URTICACEAE

CP

HB

HB

SH

HB

SH

AR

E

N

N

N

N

N

N

Leaves (1)

Roots(1)

Infusion

Maceration

Maceration

ILR

ILR

ILR

40,862

Decoction, maceration, infusion, juice (from peel), syrup

Leaves (39), aerial parts (3), roots(9)

Vine (4), roots(5)

42,628

ILR

42,623

Infusion

Maceration

Decoction, infusion, maceration, fresh, syrup

Aerial parts(1)

Bark(1)

Bark (10), leaves (37), shoot(24), fruits (19), roots(10), liquid from the roots(26)

IV: diabetes(1)

III: depurative(1);

44

I: venereal disease(1); III: depurative(2); IV: obesity(1); XII: skin blotches(1); XIII: arthrosis(1), inflammation(1), rheumatism(1); XIV: uterine infection(1)

IX: high blood pressure(1); V: tranquilizer(2); VI: insomnia(1); XVIII: fever (2) I: infections(5), hepatitis(1), female infection (2), female infection (with discharge)(1); III: spleen(1), depurative(1), IV(1), high cholesterol(1); IX: heartache(2), swelling(3), water retention(1); X: asthma(1), bronchitis(2), flu (1), pneumonia(1); XI: stomachache(2), inflamed liver(2), liver (cirrhosis)(1), gastritis(3), indigestion(2), ulcer(1); XIII: inflammations(3), woman inflammation(1); XIV: vaginal discharge(1), uterine infection(2); XIX: wound healing(2), snake bites(1); XV: “resguardo” (postpartum period)(6); XVIII: pains(1)

XIV: bladder infection(1)

I: diarrhea(1), venereal disease(1), general infection(4); III: anemia(3), spleen(1), depurative(2); IV: malnutrition(1), diabetes(1), obesity(1); IX: heartache(5), chest pains(1), edema (swelling)(1), high blood pressure(18), heart tonic(3); V: weakness(), VI(2), mal of Parkinson(3); X: asthma(5), bronchitis(11), respiratory diseases (1), flu (11), pneumonia(3); XI: liver(1), gastritis(1), ulcer(1); XII: skin infection(1); XIII: inflammation(3); XIV: diuretic(3), kidney infection(12), kidney stones(1); XIX: wound healing(3); XVIII: throat infection(1), cough(1); XX: “arca caída” (pain in the sternum region/stickleback)(1)

18

3

47

Açafrão

Gengibre

Curcuma longa L.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe 18

65

ZINGIBERACEAE

99

Pau-doce

Vochysia rufa Mart.

Babosa

Escorregamacaco

Vochysia haenkeana Mart.

2

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

Capotão

Salvertia convallariodora A. St.Hil.

HB

HB

HB

AR

AR

SH

AR

14

99

Pau-terra

Qualea parviflora Mart.

AR

17

XANTHORRHOEACEAE

Pau-de-terra-dafolha-larga

Qualea multiflora Mart.

E

E

E

N

N

N

N

N

Rhizome (18)

Leaves (8), fruits (1), Rhizome (38)

Pill, decoction, infusion, maceration, syrup

Maceration, infusion, syrup

Cataplasm, fresh infusion, maceration, juice, tablet, syrup

42,476

ILR

ILR

41,253

Decoction, maceration, syrup

Bark (17), leaves (1)

Leaves (76), sap (23)

42,584

40,879

Maceration

Infusion

42,277

41,261

Bark(3)

Leaves (2)

Decoction, Bark(9), leaves (8) infusion, maceration Decoction, Bark(6), leaves(7), infusion, roots(1) maceration

45

I: furuncle (1), general infection (1), ingrown nail (1); X: asthma (1), bronchitis (2), flu (3), pneumonia (1), hoarseness(3); XVIII: shoulder pain (1), throat infection(2)

I: infections(1), chickenpox(2), leprosy prevention(1), measles(4); II: cancer(2), skin cancer(1); III: depurative(1); IV: high cholesterol(1), obesity(1); IX: blood circulation(2), heartache(1), thrombosis(2); X: asthma(2), bronchitis(3), flu (6), pneumonia(1); XIII: inflammations(1), XIV(1), prostate(1); XVIII: throat infection(4), throat inflammation(3), cough(5), cough with catarrh(2)

I: diarrhea(1), erysipelas (5), general infection(9), worms(1); II: cancer(7), leukemia(1); IV: high cholesterol(3); IX: hemorrhoids(15), high blood pressure(1); X: bronchitis(2), bronchitis with catarrh(1), flu (5); XI: stomachache(4), swollen liver(1), gastritis(1), indigestion(2), ulcer(5); XII: baldness(2), skin inflammation(1), skin cleansing(1); XIII: inflammation(4); XIV: ovarian infection(1), urinary infection(1), prostate(2); XIX: wound healing(14), snake bites(1), burn(2), hangover(1); XVIII: throat infection(3), throat inflammation(2)

I: diarrhea (2), intestinal infection (1); III: anemia (1); IV: high cholesterol (7), diabetes (1); X (3), flu (3); XI: liver (1), ulcer(1); XVIII: cough(1)

I: venereal disease(1), gonorrhea(1); II: cancer(1)

I: general infection(1); XIII: inflammations(1)

I: diarrhea(2); III(3), anemia(3); IV: diabetes(1); VII: conjunctivitis(1); XI: ulcer(2); XIII: inflammation(1); XIV: kidney infection(2); XIX: wound(1); XVIII: throat infection(1)

I: diarrhea(7); XI: stomachache(4), gastritis(1), indigestion(2), ulcer(1); XIV: regulates menstrual cycle(2)

46

N: Native; E: Exotic; AR: Arboreal; HB: Herbaceous; SH: Shrub; CP: Climbing plant; SSH: Subshrub; PA: Palm tree; HE: Herb; EP: Epiphyte; VN: voucher number; ILR: identification by literature review; th ICD -10: International Classification of Diseases, 10 ; I: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases; II: Neoplasms (tumors); III: Blood, blood-forming organs diseases and some immune disorders; IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases; V: Mental and behavioral disorders; IX: Circulatory system diseases; X: Respiratory system diseases; XI: Digestive system diseases; XII: Diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue; XIII: Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue; XIV: Genitourinary diseases.

Among the respondents, the local Ribeirinhos’ experts from the municipalities of Novo Santo Antônio, Santa Terezinha, São Félix do Araguaia, and Vila Rica reported the highest number of therapeutic indications and species of medicinal plants (Table 4). Table 4. Distribution and use-reports of plants indicated by the respondents per Municipality and population of the North Araguaia microregion of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. ID Municipality

No. of inhabitants*

Local experts (n)

No. of URs

Used species

Rf (%)

1

Alto Boa Vista

5,980

3

98

39

12.6

2

Bom Jesus do Araguaia

5,889

4

203

89

28.8

3

Cana Brava do Norte

4,703

4

200

82

26.5

4

Confresa

27,749

2

99

42

13.5

5

Luciara

2,121

3

731

57

18.4

6

Novo Santo Antônio

2,301

8

736

115

37.2

7

Porto Alegre

11,508

4

253

70

22.6

8

Ribeirão Cascalheira

9,440

9

438

87

28.1

9

Santa Cruz do Xingu

2,213

3

282

92

29.7

10

Santa Terezinha

7,798

6

502

113

36.5

11

São Félix do Araguaia

11,039

5

439

107

34.6

12

São Jose do Xingu

5,354

3

252

99

32.0

13

Serra Nova Dourada

1,492

3

151

64

20.7

14

Vila Rica

23,469

3

546

104

33.6

121,056

60

4,315

Total

ID: Municipality identification; n: Number of interviewed informants; URs: use-reports; Rf: Relative frequency. Source: IBGE (2012).

These findings may be explained by the presence of more experienced local experts in these communities. In Novo Santo Antônio, 85% of the local experts are women who have lived in the region for more than three decades and are between 66–82 years old. Besides they have a vast knowledge of the local flora, they also count on a high diversity of native plant species found in the Araguaia State Park (223,169.54 km2) where there are plants from Cerrado and Amazon biomes (SEMA, 2008). A similar result was obtained in Santa Terezinha, where local informants are also old, counting on a rich variety of 47

plants, in addition, they have direct contact with the indigenous people who live in nearby villages, such as Karajá, with whom they trade products from the extractives and exchange information on medicinal flora used by them. In São Félix do Araguaia and Vila Rica, the high number of cited plant species is related to the significant knowledge of some informants since in these two municipalities there are local experts selling various species of plants and prepared natural remedies. However, the Ribeirinhos’ local experts who live in the municipality of Alto Boa Vista reported a lower number of uses and plant species than those from the other municipalities. This result is possibly related to sample loss in Alto Boa Vista since 50% of the informants previously identified as local experts were dispossessed of their land; hence did not participate in the interviews. 3.3 Comparisons between the two biomes (Cerrado and Amazon) and ethnomedicinal knowledge To shed more light on the influence of the geographical location of the informants and ethnomedicinal knowledge, we explored information concerning the informants and the number of use reports. We separated the informants in to 2 categories: those that are found in the Cerrado biome and that of the Amazon. Twenty-eight (28) Ribeirinhos local experts accounted for 2759 UR, while 32 from the Amazon biome furnished 1556 UR. Although a slightly higher number of informants were obtained from the Amazon biome region compared to the Cerrado (28), the informants from the Cerrado region contributed 2759 UR, that account for 61.1% of the total UR. We may explain this discrepancy between the number of informants and the use reports by the Ribeirinhos plausibly based on the followings: Firstly, more than 50% of the respondents were born in regions of Brazil where the Cerrado Biome is predominant. Thus, the ethnomedicinal knowledge that these people have on native species of this ecosystem may have contributed to the higher UR (in the Cerrado biome), because, they learned from their parents; identification and preparation of the medicinal plants available in their area, and when they migrated to the study area, they encountered plants of the same 48

species

which

possibly facilitated

the maintenance of

ethnomedicinal

knowledge, as well as sharing of information of the same. Secondly, the establishment of settlements in the North Araguaia microregion is less than 50 years old. In fact, the Cerrado regions where the first part to be inhabited, and only thereafter was the Amazon region populated. It is natural therefore, that knowledge about the use of native plants is more advanced and widespread, particularly for species of the Cerrado biome, compared to that of the Amazon.

3.4 Relationship between Medicinal plants use reports and Hospital morbidities The plants reported in this survey were indicated to treat 18 of the 22 body systems of ICD-10, such as infectious and parasitic (IPD, 16.6% URs), digestive system (DSD, 13.1%), respiratory system (RSD, 11.7%), genitourinary system (11.2%) diseases, and other body systems (and less than 10.0%). These results are in accordance with the data published by the Information System on Basic Health Care (SIAB, 2012), as it demonstrates that the major causes of hospitalization of the inhabitants in this microregion are related to pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (22%), respiratory system diseases (17.7%), injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes (13.4%), infectious and parasitic diseases (10%), circulatory system diseases (8.4%), and digestive system diseases (6.3%). Thus, the ethnobotanical data indicate that the riverine local expert have much knowledge of medicinal plants used in the treatment of diseases that most affect their communities, and plants that are often indicated to treat simpler problems that form part of primary health care. This has also been observed by Pasa et al. (2005). Based on our observation during the study visits to the communities, we believe these diseases are often related to the conditions the people live in; as in most of the visited communities, basic public sewage disposal and safe drinkable water are lacking, hygiene is deficient and many 49

houses are made of wood or palm fronds. In addition, their sources of nutrition include hunting, fishing, livestock, and subsistence farming, usually carried out in the communities or nearby settlement, where in many cases pets that are important vectors of diseases, such as pigs, dogs and cats circulate freely. Thus, it is probable that inappropriate handling of such foods may also contribute to the high prevalence of the parasitic diseases The precarious health situation in this microregion is confirmed by the latest official data published by the National Survey of Basic Sanitation conducted by IBGE (2008), which showed that the availability of safe drinkable water supply and sewage treatment network to the populace of the North Araguaia microregion is the worst in comparison to other regions in the state of Mato Grosso, in particular and Brazil as a whole. This is because only 48% of the people who live in the 14 municipalities of the study area have access to the public water supply network, less than 5% have public sewage system, 45% do not have centralized garbage collection, with about 45% resulting to burning garbage in their backyards. It is however, intriguing to note that, despite the high hospital admissions due to pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum, the number of use reports was not expressive of this common health condition in these communities. The most common diseases in the region are the helminthic diseases, and to treat them, the Ribeirinhos traditional medicine experts preferably use Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants, given that this species had 33 URs for the treatment of worms. The use of D. ambrosioides as a deworming agent has also been reported in ethnobotanical studies performed by Barros et al. (2013), Bieski (2012, 2015), Pasa et al. (2005), Tôrres et al. (2005), and Silva et al. (2014). D. ambrosioides is a herb considered a cosmopolitan weed (Correa et al., 2004) and is one of the most widespread medicinal plants used in popular phytotherapies of the world. The popular use of D. ambrosioides against helminthic diseases and other infectious diseases has been supported by several pharmacological and biological assays, with significant anti-giardia 50

(Neiva et al., 2011, 2014) anthelmintic (MacDonald et al., 2004; Jabbar et al., 2007; Smillie and Pessoa, 1924; Vita et al., 2015) and antibacterial (Harraz et al., 2015) activities. Concerning the recorded species, 73% were native to the region. It is important to note that 19.1% (59) of the plants cited are exotic plants, reportedly used in other parts of the world for similar purposes. Another 15.9% (49) are natives to Brazil but also have similar use-reports from other countries. A similar result, on the proportion of exotic plants, was reported by Bieski et al. (2015). This phenomenon seems to indicate a sort of globalization of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological knowledge, as pointed out by Leonti and Casu (2013). The explanation proposed by these two authors may apply to some extent, as 8% of the respondents in this study reportedly acquired the ethnomedicinal use of plants through mass communication. As for the form of plants’ life, 38.8% were arboreal, 32.2% herbaceous, 20.1% shrubs, and 6.9% were climbing plants, whereas subshrub, palm trees, and epiphytic plants individually represents less than 5%. The leaves (28.9%), bark (20.5%), and roots (20.4%) were parts of the plant most employed by the respondents in the preparation of their medicines, but they also employ fruit, sap or latex, seed, whole plant, oleoresin, as well as other less representative parts. According to Albuquerque (Albuquerque, 2006), people tend to select resources that afford to them greater security, by preferring products that are present throughout the year. Although, we observed that these local experts used considerably higher number of the native plants found in the Cerrado and Amazon Forest, they also take advantage of well-known exotic plants like D. ambrosioides and Aloe vera, among others. This observation once again reinforces the hypothesis that there is indeed cross-cultural transfer and a sort of globalization of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacological knowledge (Leonti and Casu, 2013; Vandebroek and Balick, 2012), which were probably transmitted by oral means in this communities surveyed. In an attempt to justify the predominant usage of the leaves, Gonçalves and Martins (1998), mentioned 51

that the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites, are found in the leaves of most plant species, besides its being the easiest part to be collected, and that its collection causes less damage to the plants. Just as previously reported by Amorozo (2002), Pasa et al. (2005) and Pedrollo et al. (2016), a relatively high percentage (40.9%) of URs are related to the use of bark and root in the preparation of these home remedies. This preference has been explained by the availability of these parts throughout the year, and because of local beliefs of the Ribeirinhos in their being plants, such as the bark of Lafoensia pacari and Strychnos pseudoquina, and the root (xylopodium) of Simaba ferruginea and Mandevilla velame are more efficient in the treatment of diseases. This ethnoknowledge has been supported by studies carried out by Bonamin et al. (2011), Silva Junior et al. (2010), Noldin et al. (2005), Ribeiro et al. (2010), and Tamashiro Filho et al. (2012). In using the plants parts such as the leaves, inner bark, roots, fruit, oleoresin, and other parts, the Ribeirinhos’ expert from the North Araguaia microregion prepare their remedies according to intended use, part to be used, the plant characteristic, and type of disease to be treated. Thus, infusion (31.3%), maceration (30.1%), decoction (20.6%), and uses in the fresh form (9.4%) were the most common method of preparations, whereas other methods were reported at a frequency of 8.6%.

3.5 General analysis of the ethnobotanical data collected Medicinal species cited by local experts are used in the treatment of 281 diseases, signs, or symptoms, which were grouped into 18 categories of body systems, per ICD-10, as shown in Table 5. The highest UR was observed for the IPD body systems (UR = 718), for which 149 species were reported, followed by RSD (UR = 504) with 109 cited species, and DSD (UR = 565) with 127 species reported (Table 5).

52

However, Amorozo (1996) believes that the assiduity and consistency of use of a species for similar purposes is an evidence that the species has some active substance that justifies its use, and thus may serve as a clue to pharmacological and phytochemical explorations.

Table 5. Informant consensus factor and use reports for the 18 categories of medicinal use and the most reported medicinal plants used in the treatment of each category, as indicated by local Ribeirinhos’ experts in the North Araguaia microregion of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. ID

Abbreviation (ICD-10)

Nt

1

IPD

149

718

16.6

2

DSD

127

565

13.1

3

RSD

109

504

11.7

4

GSD

139

483

11.2

5

MCD

105

366

8.5

Vernonia ferruginea Less Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Benth. & Hook. f. Dipteryx alata Vogel

6

SSA

106

366

8.5

Pterodon emarginatus Vogel.

7

IPC

91

331

7.7

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

8

BHD

82

300

7.0

Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul.

9

CSD

92

233

5.4

Cecropia pachystachya Trécul.

10

ENM

64

207

4.8

Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler.

11

NEO

35

74

1.7

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

12

MBD

32

51

1.2

Erythrina mulungu

13

SSD

25

50

1.2

Ricinus communis L.

14

CNS

18

27

0.6

Hancornia speciosa Gomes

15

EAD

8

13

0.3

Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. Ex Hayne.

16

PBP

4

13

0.3

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl

17

ECM

8

10

0.2

Curatella americana L

18

EMD

4

4

0.1

Caryocar brasiliense

 ! (%) URtot Most cited plant in the category Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil.

ID: Identification order; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; IPD: infectious and parasitic diseases; RSD: Respiratory system diseases; DSD: Digestive system diseases; PBP: Pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum; BHD: Blood and hematopoietic organ diseases and some immune disorders; IPC: Injury, poisoning and some other consequences of external causes; MCD: Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases; GSD: Genitourinary system diseases; SSA: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not classified in other part; ENM: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases; CSD: Circulatory system diseases; NEO: Neoplasms; SSD: Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases; EAD: Eye and eye attachment diseases; EAD: Eye and eye attachment diseases; MBD: Mental and behavioral disorders; CNS: Nervous system diseases; ECM: External causes of morbidity and mortality; EMD: Ear and mastoid apophysis diseases. Nur = number of use 53

reports in each category; Nt = number of species used for a given category; % UR tot: percentage of total use-reports; ICF = informant consensus factor. Nur was used to order the list of the medicinal plants most cited in each category.

Among the 10 plants with the highest frequency of UR, only two are exotics. In addition, we also observed that C. langsdorffii and L. pacari are the plants with the highest UR. It is also important to note that C. langsdorffii is also the most versatile plant. According to some authors and even the Ribeirinhos’ experts, a plant is more important, the more versatile it is (that is the more indications the plant presents). Bennet and Prance (2000) and Albuquerque et al. (2002) assume that the most important plant in a community is the one that is most versatile, that is, the plant that is used to treat the greatest variety of diseases and is therefore considered a "miraculous or powerful remedy". We also noted that the sum of URs (Nur) and % UR, its corresponding relative frequency, as seen in Table 5, seem to correlate well with the diseases categories that afflict the communities. The disease categories: IPD, DSD, RSD, GSD, MCD, SSA, IPC and BHD represent 84.3% of all the citations. The high frequencies observed in the treatment of these conditions indicate high prevalence of these disease categories in the study area. We have earlier stated that these morbidities are the most prevalent in the area. The prevalence of these diseases is indeed high across the communities studied (SIAB, 2012). As noted earlier, the only exception is the pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (PBP) category, although, PBP accounts for as high as 22% cause of hospital admissions in some of these communities, yet only 4 species and 13 number of use reports were recorded. The explanation to this observation is that this might have to do with disuse, because of cultural adaptation, or due to the presence of more effective and safer manner of treating these health conditions (Heinrich et al., 2009), particularly in the hospital and health centers. However, this explanation need to be justified with a well-planned study, designed towards these ends.

54

3.6 Literature survey and discussions on selected species most cited in each use category 3.6.1 Infectious and parasitic diseases – IPD (Bidens pilosa L.) The IPD had 718 URs (16.6% of the total URs), including 149 species, among them, Bidens pilosa L was the most reported species for this system (5.2 %, 38 URs/718). Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant native to South America and is found in all biomes of Brazil (Lorenzi and Matos, 2008; Yang, 2014). This species, in the North Araguaia microregion, is known by the Ribeirinhos as picão or picão-preto. These dwellers use the whole plant in the adult stage, usually in the form of decoction and sometimes as an infusion, by administering it orally or in the form of bath. Its preparation is primarily indicated in the treatment of hepatitis, with 26 of the 64 URs, followed by malaria, dengue, and infections. Hepatitis had the highest consensus of use among the local experts, given that 31.6% of the respondents reported the use of this species for the same purpose. Other medicinal uses also attributed to B. pilosa, such as depurative, management of diabetes, flu, liver diseases, prickly heat, kidney infections, wound healing, fever, and throat infection. The medicinal uses of B. pilosa indicated here are in accordance with the report of Bieski et al. (2015).

3.6.1.1 Pharmacological properties Bidens pilosa is present in various pharmacopoeia of traditional communities and non-traditional communities in Brazil, and it is part of the National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to Brazilian Public Health System (BRASIL, 2009). It is listed in the RDC 10/2010 directive of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) regarding phytotherapies (BRASIL, 2010). Because of its significant importance in ethnomedicine and high therapeutic potential, this species has been the target of several pharmacological and phytochemical studies in many parts of the world, particularly in studies that evidenced its effectiveness in treating hepatitis and as an antimalarial, since these diseases represent its main medicinal indications. 55

Several in vitro and in vivo studies on aqueous, hydroethanolic extracts, and fractions from the aerial parts and roots of B. pilosa have demonstrated its potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect, confirming its traditional use in the treatment of hepatitis (Kviecinski et al., 2011; Suzigan et al., 2009; Yuan et al., 2008). Similarly, some studies have demonstrated, experimentally, the therapeutic potential of this plant against Plasmodium falciparum, using the hydroethanolic, ethanol, butanol, and chloroform extracts and flavonoidenriched fractions, in the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial assays (AndradeNeto et al., 2004; Brandãoa et al., 1997; Oliveira et al., 2004; Tobinaga et al., 2009). Other studies have provided evidences for the antibacterial (Ashafa and Afolayan, 2009; Deba et al., 2008; Tobinaga et. al., 2009), antifungal (Deba et al., 2008), antiviral (Nakama et al., 2012), wound healing (Hassan et al., 2011) activities of B. pilosa.

3.6.1.2 Phytochemical composition Several studies have reported a high number of secondary metabolites identified and isolated from B. pilosa (more than 200), especially polyacetylenes and flavonoids and several others (Alvarez et al., 1996; Bartolome et al., 2013; Brandao et al., 1998; Chang et al., 2004; Silva et al., 2011; Souza et al., 2013). Recent evidence suggests that the phytochemical complexity of B. pilosa may be responsible for its various biological effects (Yang, 2014).

3.6.2 Respiratory system diseases – RSD (Vernonia ferruginea Less) The RSD category had 504 URs (11.7%), with 109 species indicated in its treatment, especially Vernonia ferruginea Less, which was the most indicated plant for this body system (9.7%, 49 URs /504). Vernonia ferruginea belongs to the family Asteraceae, and it is a shrubby, erect plant (2–3.5 m), that is profusely branched. Because it is a weed, it is very common in pastures, and is found in all the phytogeographic domains of Brazil, except in the Southern region (Forzza et al. 2016; Lorenzi and Matos, 2008). 56

The Ribeirinhos, from the North Araguaia microregion refer to this species locally as assa-peixe or assa-peixe-branco. For the RSD category, it was reportedly used in the form of infusion, decoction or syrup made from leaves, roots, fruit, and flowers to treat pneumonia, flu, bronchitis, asthma, and as an expectorant. Similar uses have been reported in previous studies, such as in the treatment of skin diseases, muscle pain, and rheumatism. It also presents diuretic, balsamic, and antirheumatic effects (David and Pasa, 2015; Guarim Neto, 2006; Lorenzi and Matos, 2008).

3.6.2.1 Pharmacological properties Although it is a species widely used for medicinal purposes in Brazil, there are few studies aimed at investigating the pharmacological potential of V. ferruginea. Among these studies, we can highlight those carried out by Barbastefano (2007) and Marques et al. (2013). However, there is no available study in the literature published to date to support the popular indications to treat asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia, which are the most important uses of this species among the riverine people studied in this work. It will be of great scientific importance that future pharmacological research should be focussed on laboratory investigations to support the popular use of this medicinal plant.

3.6.2.2 Phytochemical composition There are few phytochemical studies on V. ferruginea, some of them evidenced the presence of principally the flavonoids, such as quercetin derivatives, and kaempferol derivatives (Barbastefano, 2007; Malafronte et al., 2009). In addition, there are reports of the terpenoids (Barbastefano, 2007), and other phenolic derivatives (Malafronte et al., 2009). However, there are many phytochemical studies on genus Vernonia, which identified a high chemical diversity of its metabolites, especially sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids, carotenoids, lignoids, alkaloids, and tannins (Toigo et al., 2004). Most of them are flavonoids, whose antioxidant activity has been 57

confirmed by Salawu et al. (2011), and sesquiterpene lactones, which are considered a chemotaxonomic marker of this genus (Albuquerque et al., 2007). Several sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from species belonging to this genus. The isolated compounds have shown various types of bioactivity, such as molluscide, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, and cytotoxic effects (Erasto et al., 2006; Freire et al., 1996; Klein et al., 2013).

3.6.3 Digestive system diseases – DSD (Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil) A total of 127 species and 565 URs were reported for DSD, with Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. being the most reported species in this body system (7.7%, 44 URs/565). It is popularly known in Brazil as pacari, dedaleira, didal, mangabeira or mangabeira-brava. Lafoensia pacari belongs to the family Lythraceae, it is an arboreal species widely used in ethnomedicine, particulally in the treatment of gastric ulcer, gastritis, wound healing, fever, uterine inflammation, gallbladder disorders, diarrhoea, and chancre (Guarim Neto and Morais, 2003; Pasa and Cabral, 2009; Sampaio et al., 2011; Solon et al., 2000). For the category DSD, the maceration of bark and roots in water or wine, as well as the decoction of the leaves of L. pacari were reported by the Ribeirinhos to treat ulcer, gastritis, heartburn, liver diseases, indigestion, and gallstones. These indications and method of preparations were also observed by Pasa and Cabral (2009) in an ethnobotanical study on L. pacari involving herbal doctors (healers) of Cuiabá (the Capital of Mato Grosso). These authors evidenced a high percentage of consensus among the informants concerning the indication of this plant in the treatment of gastritis and ulcers (80 and 100%, respectively).

3.6.3.1 Pharmacological properties Lafoensia pacari has been the target of many pharmacological studies, some of which have shown promising results, supporting its popular use. Its main medicinal use has been validated in preclinical and clinical studies, such as in a 58

study carried out by Tamashiro Filho et al. (2012) who found that the methanolic extract of the inner bark of L. pacari has antiulcerogenic activity in models of acute and chronic gastric ulcers in animals, and they suggested that ellagic acid, aside from being the major metabolite of the extract, may be responsible for the anti-ulcer effect. This affirmation was also reported by Chung (1998), Lima et al. (2006) and Murakami et al. (1991) who evidenced the gastric antisecretory action and anti-Helicobacter effect of this compound. A clinical study on the dry extract of L. pacari corroborates these results, demonstrating its positive effects on symptoms of gastric ulcers in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection (Mota Menezes et al., 2006).

3.6.3.2 Phytochemical composition Among the numerous secondary metabolites found in L. pacari (Solon et al., 2000) emphasis is given to the presence of ellagic acid as the major phenolic metabolite in this plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed evidence of saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, simple phenols, and fixed acids in the inner bark. The leaves contain steroids, triterpenoids, and tannins (Galdino et al., 2009, 2015; Sampaio et al., 2011; Solon, 2000; Violante et al., 2009).

3.6.4 Diseases of the blood and hematopoietic organs and certain immune disorders – BHD (Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul.) Three hundred BHD URs referring to 82 species, among which is Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. (13%, 39 URs/300), was the highest UR reported by the Ribeirinhos. This plant belongs to Moraceae family, and it is a shrubby plant, mainly found in the Cerrado, but it is also found in other phytogeographical domains of Brazil, such as Caatinga, Amazon Forest and Atlantic Forest (Palhares et al., 2006; Romaniuc, et al., 2016). The leaves, bark and roots of Brosimium gaudichaudii are used in popular phytotherapy to treat skin related ailments, such as sunburn, and vitiligo, as well as flu, bronchitis, and as blood 59

purifyer and improving blood circulation (Rodrigues and Carvalho, 2001; Amorozo, 2002). In the present study, several of these medicinal indications regarding B. gaudichaudii are also shared by the local riverine experts, who know this plant as iharé, mama-cadela or mama-cahorro. However, its use as depurative and in the treatment of anaemia were the main URs in this category. They do so by employing its bark and roots as macerate in wine or decoction in water. 3.6.4.1 Pharmacological properties To our knowledge, there is no single study that has been undertaken to support the popukar use of B. gaudichaudii in this category of BHD. 3.6.4.2 Phytochemical composition Preliminary studies showed that furanocoumarins psoralen and bergapten are the main chemical components of B. gaudichaudii (Caffieri et al., 1989; Martins, 2016; McKeon, 1981; Pathak et al., 1989; Pozeti, 2005), although other coumarins such as (+) 2'S, 3'R-3-hydroxymarmesin, xanthyletin, and luvangetin have been isolated as well (Vieira et al., 1999). The highest concentrations of furanocoumarins are in the cortex of the roots, whereas in the leaves there are flavonoids 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-C-glucopyranosylflavone (isoorientin) and 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylflavonol (Lourenço, 2001).

3.6.5 Injuries, poisoning and some other consequences of external causes – IPC (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.) A total of 331 uses were reported for the body system IPC, associated with 91 species, especially Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., presents 34 URs /331 in this category, besides being the plant with the highest therapeutic versatility. C. langsdorffii belongs to the family Fabaceae, and it is a tree native to the Amazon Forest, but can be found in other phytogeographic domains such as Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest. It is popularly known by the Ribeirinhos as copaíba, pau-d’óleo, and podoi. Its oleoresin is traditionally 60

used in the treatment of inflammatory ailments, urinary, lung, and throat diseases, as well as against gastric ulcers and wounds (Lorenzi and Matos, 2008; Pieri et al., 2009; Queiroz, Martins-da-silva and Costa, 2016). For the IPC category, the Ribeirinhos’ experts reported using the oleoresin of C. langsdorffii, fresh or diluted in water, in coffee, or honey to treat skin wound, stomach and intestinal wounds. The compound is also used to treat snake bites and burns. We would like to draw the attention of the readers to the fact that 34 out of its 133 URs is related to its use in wound healing, an indication that the informants recognized this plant as one of the most important therapeutic resources in treating wounds, in addition to the fact that it is easily available in the forests of the region.

3.6.5.1 Pharmacological properties The oleoresin of C. lagsdorfii has been the subject of several pharmacological studies and has demonstrated many biological effects, such as wound healing action reported by Paiva et al. (2002) and Estevão et al. (2009) who evidenced in in vivo studies that topical treatment with oleoresin at 4% promotes the acceleration of wound healing by stimulating an increase in tissue repair and by also preventing necrosis. Furthermore, its oleoresin was shown to acts on repairing tissues after pulpotomy in experimental animals (Lima et al., 2011). In another pre-clinical study, the oleoresin also demonstrated antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects in models of ischemia and necrosis reduction in skin flaps in rats (Estevão et al., 2013; Lima Silva et al., 2009), and in acute colitis (Paiva et al., 2004). With regard to the gastrointestinal tract, Lemos et al. (2015) and Paiva et al. (1998) evidenced that the oleoresin has gastroprotective and antiulcerogenic action

in

gastric ulcer models, besides reducing the

inflammatory and oedemigenic activity in acetic acid-induced colitis (Paiva et al., 2004). Finally, a clinical study demonstrated that the topical or oral administration of oleoresin in chronic psoriasis patients promoted positive effects on the disease symptoms (Gelmini et al., 2013). Thus, we may say that

61

the main popular uses of the oleoresin of C. langsdorffi have been confirmed by several pieces of evidence.

3.6.5.2 Phytochemical composition Sesquiterpenes were the most abundant secondary metabolites found in the oleoresin of bergamotene,

C. langsdorffi, especially β-caryophyllene, α-humulene,

α-bisabolene,

α-copaene, α-

caryophyllene

oxide,

bicyclogermacrene, germacrene, D, β-germacrene, γ-cadinene and α-cadinol (Gramosa et al., 2010; Lemos et al., 2015; Veiga Junior and Pinto, 2002). Several diterpenes were also identified, including hardwickiic acid, kolavenol (Maciel et al., 2002; Veiga Junior and Pinto, 2002), copaifera acid, copaiferolic acid, calavenic acid, patagonic acid, copalic acid (Veiga Junior and Pinto, 2002; Araújo Júnior et al., 2005), hydroxycopalic acid, agathic acid (Souza et al., 2011), and kaurenoic acid (Brancalion et al., 2012). Some flavonids such as quercitrin and afzelin were also evidenced (Lemos et al., 2015).

3.6.6 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue – MCD (Dipteryx alata Vogel) With regard to the MCD, the Ribeirinhos cited 366 URs for 105 species. Dipteryx alata Vogel was the most cited plant in this category (6,8%, 25 URs /366). It belongs to the Fabaceae family, classified as a leguminous plant, arboreal, native of Cerrado, but it is also found in other phytogeographical domains such as Amazon and Caatinga. Its almonds are very appreciated in the culinary of the Midwest region of Brazil, where it is also used for medicinal purposes. In particular, it is used in the treatment of rheumatism, snake bites and general body weakness (Canuto et al., 2015; Lima et al., 2014). In the present study, the informants popularly called D. alata as baru. For medicinal purposes, its bark in the form of aqueous macerate, leaves infusion,

62

including oil extracted from its seeds, are employed to treat various conditions related to MCD such as back pain, muscle pain, osteoporosis, and rheumatism.

3.6.6.1 Pharmacological properties To our knowledge, there are no studies that have ventured to evaluate experimentally the potential pharmacological effects of D. alata in support of this popular use.

3.6.6.2 Phytochemical composition Phytochemical studies on bark extracts of D. alata evidenced the presence of secondary metabolites such as lupane-type triterpenoids, and isoflavonoids (afrormosin,

8-methoxyretusin,

7-hydroxy-5,6,4'-trimethoxyisoflavone,

hydroxy-8,3',4'-trimethoxyisoflavone, odoratin,

7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-

7-

7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone,

methoxyisoflavone,

7,8,3'-trihydroxy-6,4'-

dimethoxyisoflavone, as well as a chalcone, an aurone, and phenolic compounds such as dipteryxine, isoliquiritigenin, and sulfuretin (Puebla et al., 2010). The presence of tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids (Ferraz et al., 2015; Ribeiro et al., 2014), coumarins, quinones, alkaloids, saponins (Ribeiro et al., 2014), lupeol and betulinic acid (Ferraz et al., 2015) have been reported from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of this medicinal plant.

3.6.7 Genitourinary system diseases – GSD (Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.Hil.) Saff.) The body system GSD had 483 URs with a repertoire of 139 species, of which Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Saff. was the most frequently cited by the local informants (4.5%, 22 URs/483). D. furfuracea is a shrub typical of Cerrado of central

Brazil,

although

it

also

be

found

less

frequently

in

other

phytogeographical domains such as Pantanal, Caatinga, Pampa, Amazon, and 63

Atlantic Forest. It is popularly known by the Ribeirinhos as sofre-do-rim-quemquer or araticum-seco and it is widely used in folk medicine. The infusion of small branches and leaves of this plant is particularlly indicated in the treatment of renal dysfunction and rheumatism (Lorenzi and Matos, 2008; Rodrigues and Carvalho, 2001; Silva et al., 2013). The Ribeirinhos from the North Araguaia microregion use the leaves of D. furfuracea in the forms of infusion and decoction in water. For the body system GSD, this species was reported in the treatment of kidney disease and as a diuretic agent.

3.6.7.1 Pharmacological properties There are few pharmacological studies on D. furfuracea; the methanolic extract and some fractions of this plant were shown to possess anti-inflammatory effect in an animal model (Souza, 2013). Although D. furfuracea is widely used in folk medicine by Brazilian people, its toxicity has been recently discussed since the aqueous extract of its leaves showed toxic effects in pregnant rats (Toledo et al., 2006), and studies performed by Coelho et al. (2011) and Silva et al. (2012) demonstrated cytotoxic effects of its leaves in animal models. However, there are no pharmacological assays to date, done to validate the main popular claim reported in this survey and therefore warrant future pharmacological research in this direction.

3.6.7.2 Phytochemical composition Santos and Salatino (2000) identified in leaves of D. furfuracea the flavonoids 3O-galactosyl-galactosyl-kaempferol,

3-O-galactosylisorhamnetin,

3-O-

galactosylramnosyl-isorhamnetin, and 3-O-ramnosylglucosyl-isorhamnetin, as well as bicyclogermacrene, germacrene, spathulenol, and monoterpenes. Essential oil obtained from the leaves of this plant contain sesquiterpenoids (Carollo et al., 2005), flavonoids and various alkaloids (Carollo et al., 2006). 64

Xanthones, chalcones, aurones, gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol have also been described in aerial parts of D. furfuracea, especially caffeic acid, rutin, quercitrin, and isoquercitrin, which were the most abundant metabolites (Pinho et al., 2014, 2016).

3.6.8 Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not classified in other part – SSA (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel.) For the category SSA, 366 were reported for 106 species, among them, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel. was the most cited native species for this system (10.6%, 39 URs/366). Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) is a tree popularly known as sucupira-branca, faveiro, fava-de-sucupira and sucupira-lisa. It is native to Cerrado, but this plant is also found in other Brazilian phytogeographic areas, such as the Amazon, Caatinga, Atlantic Forest, Pampa, and Pantanal (Lorenzi and Matos, 2008; Pinto Coelho et al., 2001). Pterodon emarginatus is widely incorporated into Brazilian popular medicine, and its fruit is macerated in hydroalcoholic solutions to treat laryngological diseases, for infant use, and in tonic compounds or appetite stimulants. Seed oil of this plant is used to treat sore throat, gynaecological infections, throat infections, back pain, respiratory disorders, and as depurative and tonic (Duarte et al., 1996; Mascaro et al., 2004; Moraes et al., 2012). For SSA, the Ribeirinhos specifically use the seeds of P. emarginatus as macerate in wine or water to treat headaches, body pain, fever, throat infection, and throat inflammation.

3.6.8.1 Pharmacological properties Several pharmacological tests have supprted the main popular indications of P. emarginatus, particularlly studies carried out by Carvalho et al. (1999) who showed that the hexane extract of its seeds inhibits the neutrophil migration in carrageenan-induced peritonitis, granuloma formation induced by cotton pellet, 65

and oedemas induced by carrageenan and nystatin, but it does not inhibit oedema induced by histamine and dextran, indicating a possible acute and topical anti-inflammatory effect, besides presenting a possible peripheral analgesic effect (Galceran et al., 2011). Other extracts, fractions, and essential oil have shown similar anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects (Coelho et al., 2005; Dutra et al., 2008; Moraes et al., 2012; Negri et al., 2014). Recently, Nucci-Martins et al. (2015) found the first evidence of the antinociceptive effect of this plant on neuropathic pain. Dutra et al. (2009) evidenced that essential oil and some fractions can accelerate wound healing, reducing the number of inflammatory cells, and increasing the number of fibroblasts and blood vessels. It presented no acute toxicity (Sabino et al., 1999), cytotoxic, genotoxic effects, or antigenotoxic effects (Assunção et al., 2015) in in vitro and in vivo models.

3.6.8.2 Phytochemical composition Phytochemical analyses of different parts of P. emarginatus have shown the presence of several secondary metabolites known for their pharmacological activity, including many of the following: sesquiterpenes; aromadendrene, αhumulene,

bergamoten,

α-copaene,

β-caryophyllene,

β-elemene,

bicyclogermacrene, bicycloelemene, germacrene and spathulenol in the essential oils from the seeds; furan-diterpene 6α-,7β-dihydroxyvouacapan-17 sodium oate from its fruit and in its seeds (diterpenes 6-α-acetylvouacapan, 6α,7β-dimethylvouacapan-17-ene, 6α-acetoxy-7β-hydroxyvouacapan, and 6α, vouacapan

7β-diacetyle),

E-caryophyllene,

and

γ-murolen,

and

bicyclogermacrene were identified (Santos et al., 2010; Fascio et al., 1976; Texeira,

2003).

In

addition,

flavonoids,

leucoanthocyanidins,

tannins,

cardiotonic heterosides, coumarins, and saponins were also detected (Santos et al., 2010; Texeira, 2003). Gallic acid, flavonoids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and chlorogenic acid were found in a lower proportion in its fruit (Arriaga et al., 2000; Nucci-Martins et al., 2015; Santos et al., 2010; Spindola et al., 2011).

66

4. Conclusions Although there is a lack of studies with an ethnobotanical approach in this area until now, many plant species used by the riverine people in this region have shown promising pharmacological results, and may provide important bioactive molecules for the development of new drugs. Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba),

Stryphnodendron

adstringens

(barbatimão)

Cariniana

rubra

(jequitibá-vermelho), Echinodorus scaber Rataj (chapéu-de-couro), and Copaifera malmei (copaíba-mirim), among others, are some of these medicinal plants. This study showed that the local Ribeirinhos’ experts from the North Araguaia microregion employ in their medicinal practices a wide repertoire of medicinal plants, with preference given to the native plants from Brazil, in many cases, which are often used to treat the most prevalent health problems in these communities, as part of primary health care. Infectious and parasitic diseases, digestive system disease and respiratory system disease were the most representative body systems regarding URs and ICF. Bidens pilosa, Vernonia ferruginea, and Lafoensia pacari had the highest number of URs for these body systems, respectively. Of the eight plants, investigated according to literature findings, Bidens pilosa, Copaifera langsdorffii and Brosimum gaudichaudii are the most prominent, because apart from having been widely studied, phytochemical and pharmacological studies support their traditional use. In fact, they are being marketed as pharmaceutical products. For some of these plants, such as L. pacari, B. gaudichaudii, and C. langsdorffii there are reports of patent deposits for the development of pharmaceutical products. Vernonia ferruginea, Dipteryx alata, and Duguetia furfuracea still need further studies to support their claimed pharmacological effects, and to identify their active metabolites. This study represents an important step in the documentation and preservation of Ribeirinhos’ traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants, facilitating 67

identification of various species of native medicinal plants and their ethnomedical uses in the region. The present work represents an important step for the documentation and preservation of riverines’ traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants, making possible the identification of various species of native medicinal plants and predominance of their uses in the region. It is hoped that the results generated here will serve as a fundamental source of information for chemical, pharmacological and agronomic bioprospecting studies, aimed at sustainable use of medicinal forest resources in this microregion. There is need for major efforts to create public awareness towards creating measures to conserve medicinal plants in their natural ecosystems, given the cultural, environmental and economic importance, besides recognizing and appreciating the inestimable value of Ribeirinhos’ traditional knowledge on the medicinal flora of the microregion.

Acknowledgments The authors want to thank all the local Ribeirinhos’ experts, who voluntarily agreed to participate in this study, sharing their rich knowledge on medicinal plants, and contributing in every way to the elaboration and implementation of this present study. We are also grateful to Professor Dr. Germano Guarim Neto (UFMT) for taxonomic identifications, the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), through the Programa Pró-Amazonia (ProAmazon program), for financial support (Process No. 100234/2013) and to Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Áreas Úmidas (INAU)/CNPq/MCTI for the award of research fellowship (DTI 1A) to Dr. Sikiru Olaitan Balogun (process No. 380909/2015-4), and UFMT for providing transportation.

68

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