Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria)

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria)

Author’s Accepted Manuscript Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria) Bachir Benarba, L...

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Author’s Accepted Manuscript Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria) Bachir Benarba, Lakhdar Belabid, Kada Righi, Ahmed amine Bekkar, Mouffok Elouissi, Abdelkader Khaldi, Abderrahmane Hamimed www.elsevier.com

PII: DOI: Reference:

S0378-8741(15)30155-0 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030 JEP9753

To appear in: Journal of Ethnopharmacology Received date: 10 July 2015 Revised date: 10 September 2015 Accepted date: 25 September 2015 Cite this article as: Bachir Benarba, Lakhdar Belabid, Kada Righi, Ahmed amine Bekkar, Mouffok Elouissi, Abdelkader Khaldi and Abderrahmane Hamimed, Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria), Journal of Ethnopharmacology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Bachir Benarba1,2,*, Lakhdar Belabid1, Kada Righi1, Ahmed Amine Bekkar1, Mouffok Elouissi1, Abdelkader Khaldi1, Abderrahmane Hamimed1 1 Laboratory

Research on Biological Systems and Geomatics, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mascara, Algeria ([email protected]) * Corresponding author Tel: 00213659319213

2 Department

Algeria.

of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mascara,

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants are considered as a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in Mascara, North-west Algeria. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out in Mascara (North West of Algeria). Ethnobotanical data were recorded from 43 traditional healers practicing in Mascara. Data collected was analyzed using quantitative indices such as the use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC). Results: Traditional healers reported 141 medicinal plant species belonging to 54 families and 125 genera for the treatment of different ailments grouped into 14 ailments categories. Lamiaceae were the most represented family with 19 species (13.57%) followed by Asteracea, Apiaceae and Fabaceae. Thymus vulgaris L. was the most frequently used by local informants, with the highest UV of 0.883 (38 use reports). Our findings revealed that 39 species have not been previously reported as medicinal plants in the region. Furthermore, we report for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. F IC values ranged from 0.125 to 0.658. Gastro-intestinal diseases had the highest FIC (0.658) with 60 species and 261 use reports. Conclusion: The present study revealed the important local knowledge as showed by the variety of species used to treat several ailments. Recorded species with high UV should be subjects of further pharmacological studies to validate their popular use and to isolate the bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Ethnobotanical; plants; Mascara; Algeria, traditional healers. 1. Introduction Medicinal plants currently used for primary healthcare in developing countries, are considered as a promising source of important bioactive compounds. About 80% of the world’s population use medicinal plants for health purposes (Agisho et al., 2014). At least, 25% of modern drugs contain one or more active principles of plant origin (Enyew et al., 2014). Ethnobotanical studies are necessary to reveal locally important medicinal plant species, and to document popular knowledge, which is under threat of being lost (Magwede et al., 2014). Indeed, the ethnobotanical approach resulted in the discovery of digoxin, extracted from Digitalis purpurea, a plant used by European populations for its positive cardiovascular

effects and the identification of anticancer etoposide and teniposide extracted from Podophyllum peltatum (Tan et al., 2010). For centuries, medicinal and aromatic plants are used by Algerian populations to treat several ailments (Reguieg, 2011). Algeria is characterized by a flora rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, due to its climatic and topographic diversity (Azzi et al., 2012). Algeria is considered as one of the richest Arab countries in terms of plant diversity with 3,164 species of vascular plants (Vasisht and Kumar, 2004). Although, in recent years, several studies have been undertaken to explore biological activities of Algerian medicinal plants (Benarba et al., 2012 a, b; Benarba et al., 2014a), ethnobotanical investigations remain insufficient to document the ancestral knowledge. In this context, the present study aimed to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in Mascara, North-west Algeria. To our knowledge, this is the first ethnobotanical investigation carried out in the region, one of the most important departments (wilayas) in Algeria.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Study area Algeria covers an area of 2.381.741 km², of which 84% is the Sahara, one of the largest deserts in the world. Mascara province (5941 km²) is located in the north west of Algeria (at N 35°26', E 02°11') with Mediterranean climate and mean annual precipitations of about 450 mm (Benarba et al., 2014b). Population of the region is estimated to be 1.000.000 with an average growth rate of 1.99%. The average population density is 168 Hab/ Km2 (Fig.1).

2.2. Data collection In total 43 traditional healers practicing in Mascara were interviewed. Most of them (83.72%) were illiterate. Demographic characteristics of the traditional healers are shown in table 1. Open questions were asked to record the use of medicinal plants (vernacular names, ailments treated, parts used, modes of preparation/administration, ingredients). Local names were given in Arabic and/or in Amazigh languages.

2.3. Ailment categories The ailments were categorized into15 categories according to the use-reports mentioned by traditional healers of the study area (Table 2). Each citation of a particular part of a particular plant was recorded as one use report. If one informant used a plant to treat more than one disease in the same category, it was considered as a single use-report (Musa et al., 2011).

2.4. Data analysis Data collected was analyzed using the following indices (Morvin Yabesh et al., 2014).

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Use-value (UV): was calculated using the formula UV=ΣU/n U is the number of use reports cited by each informant for a given plant species and n is the total number of informants interviewed for a given plant.

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Fidelity level (FL): Fidelity level was calculated according to the following formula FL (%)= (Np/N)*100 wher Np refers to the number of use-reports for a given species reported to be used for a particular ailment category, and N is the total number of use reports cited for any given species.

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Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) was calculated according to the formula: FIC =(Nur – Nt)/(Nur – 1) where Nur is the number of use citations in each category and Nt is the number of species reported in each category.

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Botanical diversity In the present study, local healers reported 141 medicinal plant species belonging to 54 families and 125 genera for the treatment of different ailments. Our findings demonstrate the importance of knowledge of local healers regarding the use of medicinal plants to treat various ailments (supplemental material). Recently, an ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the region of M’sila (east Algeria) by Boudejelal et al. (2013). They reported 58 plant species and 50 genera distributed over 27 families with a dominance of especially Lamiaceae and Asteraceae. Lamiaceae were the most represented family with 19 species (13.57%) followed by Asteracea with 15 species (10.71%), Apiaceae with 13 species (9.29%) and Fabaceae with 8 species (5.71%) (Fig. 2). This order of importance was the same reported in western part of central Taurus Mountains in Turkey (Özdemir and Alpınar, 2015). Lamiaceae and Asteraceae have been reported to be the most predominant families in previous studies in different regions such as Brazil (Tribess et al., 2015), India (Bhatia et al., 2014) Spain (Rigat et al., 2015) and Italy (Vitalini et al., 2013). Predominance of species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae may be attributed to their wide occurrence with a number of traditional uses known by the local informants (Bano et al., 2014). 3.2. Parts used Leaves were the most used plant part (30%), followed by seeds (17%), roots and aerial parts (12% each), fruits (11%) and flowers (10%) (Fig. 3). On the other hand, use of whole plant, bark, bulb and laticeferus material was cited less than 5%. Our findings are in consistence with most of previous ethnobotanical studies revealing predominance of leaves use in preparation of different herbal remedies (Sher et al., 2015; Adnan et al., 2014; Chowdhury et al., 2009). These findings may be explained by the fact that leaves constitute a key factor of plants identification and are the most easily accessible part to collect by local populations (Akerreta et al., 2007). Furthermore, since leaves are main photosynthetic organ of plants, bioactive phytochemicals are concentrated in the leaves (Francis Xavier et al., 2015; Raterta et al., 2014). 3.3. Modes of preparation According to our results, decoction (48%), raw (30%), Infusion (13%) and paste (5%) were the most frequently used modes of preparation (Fig. 4). In Algerian Sahara, oral

administration has been reported to be the preferred way used by Local “Touareg” called “blue men of the Sahara” (Hammiche and Maiza, 2006). These findings are in line with those previously reported in neighbouring countries (Ouhaddou et al., 2015; Abouri et al., 2012). Recently, in the steppic region of M’sila (east Algeria), Sarri et al. (2014) found that decoction was the most used (44.7%), followed of infusion (27.1%) and powder (12.2%). Many active compounds are produced as a result of accelerated reactions by heating (Kayani et al., 2015). As Shown in Fig, 5 traditional healers prescribed most of their preparations (83%) orally. Oral administration is followed by topical application as bath, massage or lotion (15%). These findings are in agreement with recent ethnobotanical studies (Rashid et al., 2015; Giovannini, 2015; Ahmad et al., 2014). It has been suggested that oral and topical administrations permit quick physiological action promoting curating power of herbal remedy (Rehman et al., 2015). Most of cited species (51.40%) are used by local healers as mixtures with other plants or nonplant ingredients. 17 species are used in mixtures with one other plant, 13 species with two or three plants and 18 with more than three plants. Using mixtures of different species can result in positive synergic effect as well as attenuation of toxicity or of adverse effects of some plants composing the mixture (Bruschi et al., 2011). Out of the 73 species prescribed in mixtures, 53 species (72.60%) are mixed with other adjuvant such as honey, milk, olive oil, rose water, sugar, or eggs. Addition of these ingredients such as honey or sugar aims to improve the acceptability of certain plants having a bitter taste unbearable. Honey and milk remain the most added adjuvant (Fig. 6). Similar findings were reported by Bhatia et al. (2015) and Zamudio et al. (2010).

3.4. New reports and new uses When

compared

to

ethnobotanical

studies

carried

out

in

Algeria and Morocco, our findings revealed that 39 species have not been previously reported as medicinal plants. Table shows the new reported species, and their vernacular name, parts used, therapeutic uses, modes of administration and use-value are given in table 3. Interestingly, 3 out of the 39 species newly reported with ethnomedicinal uses had higher UV: Ammoides pussila (UV= 0.465), Cassia angustifolia Vahl (UV=0.325) and Parietaria officinalis L. (UV=0.232). Decoction of Parietaria officinalis L. (Urticaceae) is used mainly

to treat kidney stones. It’s called in local language “fetatet el hejar” meaning “stones breaker” in relation to its ethnomedicinal use (to “dissolve” stones). The plant is used to treat kidney diseases and stones in different parts of the world (Popović et al., 2014; Tuttolomondo et al., 2014). To date, no scientific study has shown clearly the effect of the plant on kidney stones. Amar et al. (2010) have studied the effect of different concentrations of an infusion of Parietaria officinalis on oxalo-dependent calcium oxalate crystallization in urine of healthy Algerian subjects. They reported controversial properties of the plant: inhibition of the crystallization of monohydrate calcium oxalate and enhancement of the crystallization of dihydrate calcium oxalate. Furthermore, Hannache et al. (2012) reported that infusion of leaves and flowers of Parietaria officinalis did not induce any significant effect on dissolution of cystine stones. We report here for the first time the use of Astericus pygmaeus Coss as medicinal plant to treat headache and respiratory allergies. In Algeria, only one plant of the genus has been reported to be used in extreme south (Sahara): Astericus graveolens (Forsk.) DC to treat rheumatism, muscle contraction and fatigue (Hammiche and Maiza, 2006). In the present study, some edible plants consumed in other regions of the country are reported here to be used, for the first time, for medicinal purposes. For example, Corchorus olitorius Linn (Tiliaceae) is an important green leafy vegetable in many Arab countries such as Egypt or Sudan (Ilhan et al., 2007). In extreme east of Algeria, C. olitorius is used for the preparation of a very popular hot soup (called molokhia) consumed frequently. In West Algeria, the plant is not considered as edible. As revealed by our survey, the aerial parts of the plant are applied directly to the skin for preventing or treating hair loss. On the other hand, some edible species in the region are reported for the first time to possess ethnomedicinal properties. For example there are two major varieties of almonds, the sweet almond Prunus amygdalus var dulcis and the bitter almond Prunus amygdalus var amara. In the study area, local populations use seeds of the sweet variety (Prunus amygdalus var dulcis) for the management of nervous disorders, skin allergy, pregnant women problems and vision alteration. However, the bitter variety Prunus amygdalus var amara has been reported to be used in Morocco mainly in the treatment of diabetes (Eddouks et al., 2007; Ziyyat et al., 1997). Moreover, we report in the present study for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. Table 4 shows these new uses compared to those previously reported in the region.

3.5. Use value Regarding the use value of reported species, we found that Thymus vulgaris L. was the most frequently used by local informants, with the highest UV of 0.883 (38 use reports) (Fig. 7). Thymus vulgaris has been one of plants having the highest UV in Mediterranean countries such as Spain (Calvoa et al., 2011), Italy (Idolo et al., 2010) and Portugal (Neves et al., 2009). Local healers use the plant mainly (55%) to treat different respiratory ailments such as bronchitis, allergy, cold, flu and cough. This main ethnomodicinal use has been reported in different countries around the world such as Iran (Ashnagar et al., 2011), Iraq (El-Bayati, 2008) or Palestine (El-Ramahi et al., 2013). Presence of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, eugenol, phenols, luteolin and tetramethoxylated in the plant may explain its remedial potential (Monira et al., 2012).

These compounds are known to have antiviral, anti-

inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-nociceptive, anti-anaphylactic and antibacterial properties (Javed et al., 2013). Thymus vulgaris L. was followed by Zingiber officinale L. (UV= 0.69), Trigonella foenumgraecum L. (0.58), Lavandula latifolia medicus (0.55), Atriplex halimus L. (0.53), Ammoides pussila L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Juniperus phoenicia L. (0.46) and Pimpinella anisum L. (0.41) as most frequently cited species. These findings are in concordance with those reported by Jamila and Mostafa (2014). 3.6. Informant consensus factor Table 5 shows values of informant consensus factor calculated for the14 ailments categories. FIC values ranged from 0.125 to 0.658. Gastro-intestinal diseases had the highest FIC (0.658) with 60 species and 261 use reports. They were followed by general health (0.645) and respiratory diseases (0.642). Gastro-intestinal disorders have been reported to have the highest Fic in most of previously published studies in Algeria, neighboring countries such as Morocco (El-Hilaly et al., 2003), Tunisia (Leporatti and Ghedira, 2009), Italy (Dei Cas et al., 2015; Tuttolomondo et al., 2014) and Spain (Benítez et al., 2010). The high FIC of gastro-intestinal disorders may be explained by the fact that relative clinical signs are common and are more easily identified by the traditional healers (Punnam Chander et al., 2014). Interestingly, cancer is reported to have the 4th highest FIC (0.524) which could be attributed to relatively high incidence of the disease in the area study.

3.7. Fidelity level As shown in table 6, seven plants had the highest FL of 100%. Three of them were used to treat gastro-intestinal diseases (Pinus sylvestris L., Rhamnus alaternus L., Curcuma longa L), two species for respiratory diseases (Eucalyptus globules L. and Bunium mauritanicum L.), Daphne gnidium L. for haire care and Cucurbita maxima Duch for nervous system disorders. Rhamnus alaternus L. has been reported to be used in the treatment of one disease: hepatitis. Indeed, Rhamnus alaternus L. is considered as hepatic active plant and is used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases in most of arab countries (Azaizeh et al., 2006). Ben Ammar et al. (2008) demonstrated that extracts from the plant showed promising inhibition of aflatoxin B1-, nifuroxazide-, and sodium azide-induced mutagenicity, involved in hepatic cancers. Furthermore, It has been reported that Algerian Rhamnus alaternus L. Inhibited the enzymatic activities of Aspergillus oryzae-amylase (Khacheba et al., 2014). The genus Aspregillus is known to be aflatoxigenic, producing hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxins.

4. Conclusion This is the first study documenting the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Mascara (North West Algeria) by local traditional healers. Results of the present study revealed an important local knowledge as showed by the variety of species used to treat several ailments. In total, local healers reported 141 medicinal plants belonging to 54 families and 125 genera. Plants with high UV such as Thymus vulgaris L. , Zingiber officinale L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Lavandula latifolia medicus , Atriplex halimus L., Ammoides pussila L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Juniperus phoenicia L. and Pimpinella anisum L. should be studied in order to isolate the bioactive compounds and validate their popular uses. Interestingly, we report 39 species not previously reported as medicinal plants in the region. Furthermore, we document for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. With regard to fidelity levels, several plants used to treat a specified illness are recommended for further phytochemical and pharmaceutical investigations.

5. Acknowledgment

The authors are grateful to Mascara province traditional healers for sharing their ancestral knowledge throughout the study.

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Figures Figure 1. Location of the study area (Mascara, North West Algeria) Figure 2. Distribution of reported species among the botanical families Figure 3. Plant parts used by traditional healers Figure 4. Modes of preparation used by traditional healers Figure 5. Modes of administration Figure 6. Non-plant ingredient added to plants used by traditional healers Figure 7. Most reported species by traditional healers

Table1. Demographic characteristics of the traditional healers interviewed Demographical characteristics Age (years) 20-40 41-50 51-70 Education level Illiterate Primary level Secondary level

n (%) 21 (48.83) 11 (25.58) 11 (25.58) 36 (83.72) 4 (09.30) 3 (06.97)

Table2. Ailments grouped by different ailment categories Category Kidneys Dis

Ailments/disorders Stone, infections Haemorrhoids, stomach ulcer, stomach-ache, dysentery, colic, gases, constipation, parasites, hydatic cyst, liver problems, hepatitis, biliary Gatsro-intestinal system problems, anaemia, diarrhoea, toothache, foul dis odour, intoxications Skin diseases Skin diseases, fungal infections, burns Cancer Tumors, cancers, metastases Endocrine system diseases Diabetes, goitre, Weight loss Respiratory tract diseases Cold, Cough, Asthma, bronchitis, flu ,allergy Skeleto-muscular system Rheumatism, Arthritis, inflammation, body pain disorder Cardiovascular system Cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart problems diseases Fever Fever General health Blood purification, body pain Immune system Increasing immunity Hair care Hair loss, hair growth Nervous system Depression, anxiety, ... Sexual-reproductive Menstrual cramps, Infertility, Sexual impotence, problems genycological problems

Abbreviation KD GISD

SD Can ESD RTD SMSD CSD Fev GH IS HC NS SRP

Table 3. List of new recorded medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North west – Algeria). Botanical name

Com mon nam e

Part used

Ailment category: n of use reports

Preparati on method

Adminis tration

Us e Val ue

Active compounds

Oral

0.0 (3,3′93 dihydroxyβ,β-carotene4,4′-dione)

Referen ces

(nam e in Arab ic)

Adonis aestivalis L.

‫ﺑﻦ‬ Flo ‫ ﻧﻌﻤﺎﻥ‬wer s

Ranuncu laceae Allium

‫ﺑﺼﻴﻠ‬

Wh

SD : (rubeola)

3 Decocti on

CSD :1 (hypercholes terolemia) SRP :1

Raw

Oral

Allicin, diallyl

Cunnin gham and Gantt (2011) Mikaili

oscalonic um L.

‫ﺓ‬

ole

disulphide, Sallylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide.

(female sterility)

Liliaceae

Ammoide ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺧ‬ s pussila ‫ﺓ‬ Apiaceae

CSD : 4 Decocti Oral (hypertensio on Frui n) ts RTD : 5 Infusion (cough, flu, Asthma)

et al. (2013)

0.4 Flavonoid 65 Glycosides

Bousetl a et al. (2005)

0.0 Farnesol, 46 thymol derivatives

Ahmed (1992)

NS : 5 Decocti (soporific for on the child, vertigo, headache) GISD :3 (gases, intoxications , typhoid fever) GH: 1 (weakness) SMSD: (pain)

1

ESD:1 (ménopause disorders) Astericus pygmaeu s Coss Asterace ae/ composit ae Avena algeriens

Macerati Nasal ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ‬Aeri RTD :1 on al (allergy) part NS : 1 s (headache)

‫ﺧﺮﻃﺎ‬

Frui CSD:1 (hypertensio

Raw

Oral

0.1 ------

is L.

‫ﻝ‬

Poaceae

‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‬

ts

n)

16

KD:1 (renal Decocti on calculi)

Oral

Decocti on

Oral

NS:1 (sedative)

SD:1 (skin Decocti on whiting)

Bellis annua L. Asterace ae Bunium mauritan icum L.

Carex arenaria L.

Oral

Decocti on

Oral

0.0 Phenolic 23 acids, flavonoid glycosides

Scogna miglio et al. (2012)

Oral

0.1 β-sitosterol 39 Pheznolic acids

Bousetl a et al. (2015)

GISD:1 (diarrhoea)

‫ﺗﺎﻟﻐﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﺓ‬

Roo ts

RTD : 6 Raw (allergy, bronchitis, cough)

Coumarins

‫ ﺷﺒﻮ‬Roo ‫ﺏ‬- ts ‫ﺷﻮﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻲ‬

Fabaceae

Castanea sativa

Decocti on

Lea ves

Cyperac eae

Cassia angustifo lia Vahl

GISD:1 (stomachach e)

‫ﺯﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴ‬ ‫ﻉ‬

Apiaceae

Topical

Lea ves

GISD :1 (stomachach e)

Decocti on

Oral

ESD :1 (hypertensio n)

Decocti on

Oral

Decocti GISD :13 (constipation on )

Oral

0.3 Apigenin-6,8- Wu et 25 di-C-glycoside al. (2009) Kaempferol glucopyranosi de

Oral

0.0 Malic, oxalic, Ribeiro citric, et al.

SD :1

‫ﺑﻠﻮﻁ‬

Frui GISD:1

Decocti

0.0 Phenolic 46 compounds

Urbani ak (1991)

ts

Mill.

(diarrhoea)

on

23

Fagaceae

ascorbic, (2007) malic, quinic and fumaric acid

Polyphenols

Corchoru ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺧ‬ s ‫ﻳﺔ‬ olitorius L. Tiliaceae

Cotula cinerea L.

‫ﻗﺮﻃﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬

Aeri HC : 2 (hair Raw al loss) part s

Wh ole

Asterace ae

Topical 0.0 Phenolic acids 46 Kaempferol glycosides, rutin isoquercitrin flavonoids

Yan et al. (2013)

RTD : 2 Raw (pharyngitis, cold)

Oral

Djellou li et al; (2015)

NS : 2 Raw (migraine)

Oral

GISD : 1 Decocti (stomachach on e)

Oral

Decocti on

Oral

KD :1 (kidney diseases) Cucurbit a maxima Duch

‫ﻗﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺔ‬

See ds

NS : 3 Raw (migraine)

Vapour

0.1 Thymol 39 derivatives, carvacrol

Flavonoids, tannins

Handou ssa et al. (2013)

Djellou li et al. (2013)

0.0 Oleic, linoleic, Rezig 69 and palmitic et aal. (2012) acids Phenolic acids

Cucurbit aceae Cyperus esculentu s L.

Neri et al. (2010)

β -sitosterol ‫ﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳ‬ ‫ﺯ‬

Tub er

GISD: 3 Raw (weight gain, appetite)

Oral

0.0 Starch, 93 acids

fatty Codina Torrell

Cyperac eae

Erica arborea L.

SRP: 1 (aphrodisiac )

‫ﺧﻠﻨﺞ‬

Flo wer

β -sitosterol

LopézCortés et al. (2013)

KD : 2 Decocti (bedwetting, on urolithiasis) SRP : 1 Decocti (inflammatio on ns of pregnant women)

Ericacea e

a et al. (2015)

Oral

0.1 (-)39 Epicatechin, quercitrin

Ay et al. (2007)

Kaempferol, myricetin and phenolic acids Márque zGarcía et al. (2009)

CSD : 1 Raw (hypertensio n) SRP : 1 Infusion (prostate) GH : 1 (blood heating) Haloxylo n salicorni cum Chenopo diaceae

‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣ‬ ‫ﺙ‬

Raw

Aeri GISD :1 al (toothache) part SD :2 s (wound, infections) GH :2 (body purification, pain) RTD : (Flu)

1

Topical 0.1 Saponins, 16 alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, unsaaturated fatty acids.

Ashraf et al. (2013)

Heloscia dium nodifloru m L.

‫ﺯﻳﺎﺗﺔ‬

Apiaceae Hibiscus sabdariff a L.

‫ﻛﺮﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺔ‬

See ds And

Malvace ae

Raw

Oral

Decocti on

Oral

Infusion CSD :4 (cholesterol, hypertension )

Oral

1 Decocti on

Oral

Aeri RTD :1 al (allergies) part NS :1 s (hydrocepha ly)

flow ers

NS : (stress)

0.0 ----------------23

0.1 Anthocyanins 39 (cyanidin 3rutinoside, delphinidin 3sambubioside, cyanidin 3sambubioside)

GH : 1 Macerati Topical on (depilation) Melilotus officinali s Willd Legumin osae

Mellisa officinali s L.

‫ﻣﻠﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬

Lea ves

Mimosac eae

GISD : (colon)

Oral

‫ﻧﻄﺲ‬

Roo ts

0.0 Coumarins 23 Lupanone, lupeol, hexadecanoic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid

1 Infusion

Oral

NS : 1 Raw (strengthen)

Lamiace ae

Mimosa catechu L.

Infusion

‫ ﺣﺸﻴ‬Aeri GISD :1 ‫ ﺷﺔ‬al (appetite) ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ‬part s

Fev : 1

Decocti on

GISD :1 (stomachach e)

Raw

0.0 Essential oil 69 (geranial, neral and citronellal) Flavonoids and phenolic acids (rosmarininc and caffeic acid)

Oral

0.0 Tanins 23 Mimosine

Sindi et al. (2014) Magan ha et al. (2010)

Chorep sima et al. (2013) Anwer et al. (2008)

Abdella tif et al. (2014)

Toth et al. (2003)

Joseph et al. (2013)

Nepeta apulei Ucria Lamiace ae

‫ ﻗﻮﺯﻳﺔ‬Flo -‫ ﻗﻮﺯﺓ‬wer

Parietari a officinali s L.

‫ﻓﺘﺎﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠ‬ ‫ﺭ‬

s

Lea ves

Urticace ae

Pinus maritima L.

SRP : 1 Raw (aphrodisiac )

KD :9 (stones, kidney diseases)

Decocti on/Raw

Oral

0.0 Phenolics, 23 flavonoids, and terpenoids

Shakeri et al. (2014)

Oral

0.2 Quercetin, 32 Kaempferol, isorhamnetin

Budzia nowki et al. (1985)

Procyanidins

SRP :1 (prostate problems) ‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻨ‬Lea ‫ ﻭﺑﺮ‬ves

RTD : 2 (flu, Raw bronchitis)

Oral

Taxifolin, catechin and Packer 0.0 ferulic acid et al. 46 (1999)

Pinaceae Sarikak i et al. (2004) Prunus amygdal us var. Dulcis

‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺯ‬Frui SRP:1 ‫ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮ‬ts (pregnant women)

Raw

Oral

NS:1 (disorders)

Rosaceae

SD:1 (skin allergy)

Fagaceae

Aeri al part s

GISD : 3 Raw (ulcer, hemorrhoids )

Oral

Raw

Oral

SD :1 (wounds)

Sang et al. (2002)

Rhamnogluco side of 3β-Omethylquercet in, Esfahla rhamnoglucosi n et al. de of (2010) kaempferol

GH:1 (healing, vision)

Quercus ‫ﻋﻔﺼ‬ infectoria ‫ﺓ‬

0.0 Flavonol 93 glycosides, phenolic acids

0.1 Tannins, gallic Lodhi et al; 16 acid, syringic acid, ellagic (2012) acid, βsitosterol

HC:1 (hair Macerati Topical on strength) Rhamnus ‫ﺯﻋﻔﻮ‬ purshian ‫ﺭ‬ a L.

Topical 0.0 Aloin, 46 Cascaroside, HydroxylTopical anthracene glycosides

Gallo et al. (2013)

Oral

0.0 Alizarin, 93 Tanins

De Santis and Moresi (2007)

Oral

Bicker 0.0 Rutin, et al. 23 hyperoside, quercitrin, (2009) quercetin-3-Oglucuronide, 1,8dihydroxyanth raquinones, phenolic acids

Infusion

Oral

Infusion

Oral

0.0 Quercetin, 46 apigenin, piceol, vanillin, ferulic aldehyde, caffeic acid, pcoumaric acid,

Moham adi et al. (2015)

Wh ole

RTD : 1 (flu) Decocti on

Oral

0.0 Flavonoids 23

Bouazi z et al. (2009)

Roo ts

GH : 1 Decocti on (exorcism)

Oral

0.0 Essential oil, Khan et al. 93 Saussurine

bar ks

GH : 1 Raw (exorcism)

Rhamna ceae Rubia tinctoria L.

‫ﻓﻮﺓ‬

Roo ts

Rubiacea e Rumex acetosa L.

Raw RTD :1 (pharyngitis)

GISD : 3 Decocti on (Anaemia) SRP : (female sterility)

1 Raw

GH : (thirst)

1 Raw

‫ﺣﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﺽ‬

Lea ves

‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻞ‬

Aeri CSD :1 al (hypercholes part terolemia) s ESD :1 (diabetes)

Polygona ceae

Saccocal yx satureioi des Lamiace ae

Salsola vermicul ata L.

‫ﻏﺴﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺨﻴﺮ‬

Chenopo diaceae Saussure a lappa

‫ﻗﺴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ‬

L. Asterace ae

‫ﻱ‬

(2013)

SRP : 1 (sexual impotence)

‫ﻗﺴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﻱ‬

GISD : 1 (colon, stomachache ) SMSD: 1 (rheumatism )

Sorbus aria L.

1 Decocti on

Oral

0.0 Quercetin, 23 Sexangulareti n, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin

SMSD : (bone strength)

1 Raw

Oral

0.0 ----------------23 ---

‫ ﻧﺨﺎﻟﺔ‬See ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻤﺢ‬ds

GISD : (colon)

2 Raw

Oral

0.0 Fibers 46 Phenolics

‫ ﺣﺸﻴ‬Lea ‫ ﺷﺔ‬ves ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻝ‬

RTD :1 (cough)

Infusion

Oral

CSD :1 (hypertensio n)

Decocti on

sitosterol, Zhao et 0.0 β al. 46 stigmasterol, (2014) trans-caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, kaempferol-3O-glucoside, loliolide

CSD :1 (hypertensio

Decocti on

Oral

(Patočk 0.0 Alkaloids, a and 23 terpenes, organic acids, Jakl,

‫ ﻣﺒﻠﺲ‬Frui RTD : ts

(allergy)

seed s

Rosaceae

Sorghum annum Trab

‫ﺩﺧﻦ‬

Olszew ska (2008)

Poaceae/ Gramina ceae Triticum durum L. Poaceae/ Gramina ceae Tussilago farfara L. Asterace ae

Valerian ‫ﻧﺎﺭﺩﻳ‬ a ‫ﻥ‬ officinale

Roo ts

Martini et al. (2015)

valepotriates and flavones

n)

L. Valerian aceae

Vicia faba L.

‫ﻓﻮﻝ‬

See ds

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻧﻜ‬ ‫ﺓ‬

Aeri SD :1 al (burns) part Fev :1 s

Fabaceae / Legumin oseae Vinca difformis Pourr. Apocyna ceae

RTD :1 (chronic cough)

Raw

Oral

0.0 Kaempferol 23 glycosides

Raw

Topical 0.0 ----------------46

Raw

Topical

2010)

Neugar t et al. (2015)

Table 4. New therapeutic uses recorded

Plant

Use from the present study

Uses from literature (AlgeriaMorocco)

Reference

Anethum graveolens L.

bad breath Insomnia

Diuretic, hepatic diseases

Boudjelal et al. (2013)

Aphrodisiac, gastrointestinal antiseptic

Bellakhdar et al. (1991) El-Hilaly et al. (2003)

Kidney stones

Acacia gummifra Willd l

Ajuga iva (L.) Sch

Fumigation cough, bronchitis hypertension coup de soleil internal cold in women Diabetes Thyroid problems

Hypertension Digestive disorders

Ouarghidi et al. (2013)

Tahraoui et al. (2007) El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Moussaoui et al.

(2014) Eddouks et al. (2007) Stomach cancer Respiratory affections

Leishmanicidal, eczema

Chebat et al. (2014) Daoudi et al. (2015) Boudjelal et al. (2013) Miara et al. (2013)

Aloe socotrina

Hypertension

Cancer Dermatological problems Kidney diseases Diabetes

Alpinia officinarum Female sterility Hance Rheumatism

Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.)

female sterility cough Cancer

Apium graveolens hypertension var dulce

Digestive problems Respiratory diseases

Colds Gain weight Maux de gorge, rages de dents, stimulation de la peau Rheumatism Stomach problems

Antispasmodic Carminative Diuretic

Bouzabata (2013) Chebat et al. (2014) Jamila and Mostafa (2014)

Eddouks et al. (2007) Jamila and Mostafa (2014) Ouarghidi et al. (2013) Fadil et al. (2015)

Ouarghidi et al. (2013) Bouzabata (2013)

Anxiolytic

Doukkali et al. (2015)

Digestive problems

Jamila and Mostafa (2014)

Artemisia campestris L.

Asparagus acutifolius L.

Atriplex halimus

Antidiabetic, antihypertensive

Boudjelal et al. (2013) Sari et al. (2012)

Bronchitis

Digestive disorders

Irritation

Chest pain, spasms, fever

Sarri et al. (2014) Chermat and Gharzouli (2015) Rebbas et al. (2012) Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)

Rhumatism

Diuretic Stomachache

Miara et al. (2013)

Cancers

Feet and hands/skin oedemas

Volpato et al. (2012)

Eczema

Boudjelal et al. (2013)

Hypertension Cardiac diseases

Eddouks et al. (2007)

Goitre Cough

Cold

goitre

Berberis vulgaris

Cancers Stomachache, hepatitis Diabetes Cough general pain Skin infections

Cichorium intybus L Cancer

Digestive problems Kidney diseases Diabetes

Miara et al.(2013) El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Daoudi et al. (2015)

Nervous disorders Ferula assa-foetida Fever (kids) L.

Glycine soja Sieb. et Appetite Zucc Bone strength

Diabetes Analgesic, antispasmodic

Eddouks et al. (2007) Lahsissene and Kahouadji (2010)

Diabetes

Jouad et al. (2001)

Analgesic, antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative.

Rebbas et al. (2012)

Digestive disorders, Antifungal

Lahsissene and Kahouadji (2010)

Skin diseases Hair care

Volpato et al. (2012)

Breast cancer

Chebat et al. (2014)

Pharyngitis Diabetes

Fadil et al. (2015) Eddouks et al. (2007) Eddouks et al. (2002) Eddouks et al. (2007) El Amrani et al. (2010)

Memory

Hyoscyamus L.

niger Eczema

Lawsonia inermis L. Kidney diseases

Lupinus albus L.

Nervous weakness Digestive disorders

Diabetes Hypertension

Myrtus L.

communis Cancer

Diabetes

Jouad et al. (2001) Bouzabata (2013)

Hypertension,

Boudjelal et al. (2013)

cardiac diseases

Eddouks et al. (2002)

Digestive disorders Allergy Skin diseases

El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Jamila and Mostafa (2014) Sarri et al. (2014)

Ocimum basilicum

Flu

Hypertension

Sari et al. (2012) Jouad et al. (2001)

Anti-hemorrhoid, heart diseases

El-Hilaly et al. (2003)

Anxiolytic

Doukkali et al. (2015)

laryngitis cough stomchache Goitre Analgesic Papaver somniferum L.

Analgesic

Anxiolytic

Doukkali et al. (2015)

Petroselinum sativum Koffm.

Acne

Diuretic Hypertension

Eddouks et al. (2002)

Heart diseases

Bouzabata (2013)

Phyllantus embelica Weight gain L. Hair loss

Pinus Mill.

halepensis Stomachache Skin wounds

Piper nigrum L.

Bronchitis

Prunus persica (L.) Cancer Batsch Colon

Anxiolytic

Doukkali (2015)

Disinfectant respiratory tract Antifungal

Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)

Kidney disorders

Rebbas et al. (2012)

Hypertension

Sari et al. (2012)

Pancreas cancer

Chebat et al. (2014)

Anxiolytic

Doukkali (2015)

Tonsillitis, skin diseases

Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)

Laxative, purgative

Rebbas et al. (2012)

Hepatitis

Boudjelal et al. (2013) Miara et al. (2013) Eddouks et al. (2007) Jouad et al. (2001)

et

et

al.

al.

Weight loss

Rhamnus alaternus Anaemia L.

Rubus L.

fructicosus Bronchitis Allergy

Diabetes Renal diseases

Ruta chalepensis L.

Diabetes, Renal caculi, migraine, vertigo, itch.

Satureja calamintha Cough L. Colon

Sesamum L.

Thymelaea Endl.

indicum Memory problems

hirsuta Female sterility

Hypertension antispasmodic, eczema

Boudjelal et al. (2013)

Diuretic, Digestive disorders, abortifacients

Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)

Ear pain

El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Lahsissene and Kahouadji (2010)

Fever Tonic Stomachache

Asthma, appetite

Sarri et al. (2014)

Diabetes

Tahraoui et al. (2007) Eddouks et al. (2007) Jouad et al. (2001)

Anxiolytic

Doukkali (2015)

Breast cancer Leishmanicidal, vermifuge, eczema

Chebat et al. (2014) Boudjelal et al. (2013)

Migraine, hair loss

Sarri et al. (2014)

Cough, constipation

Miara et al. (2013)

Diabetes

et

El Amrani et al.

(2010)

al.

Wound healing

Boudjelal et al. (2013)

Diabetes

Eddouks et al. (2007)

Flu

Hypertension

Bouzabata (2013)

Breast milk secretion

Anxiolytic

Doukkali (2015)

Digestive disorders

Daoudi et al. (2015)

Cough, Rhumatism

El-Hilaly et al. (2003)

Diabetes

Tahraoui et al. (2007)

Hypertension, cardiac diseases

Eddouks et al. (2002)

carminative, rheum,

Sarri et al. (2014) Bouzabata (2013)

Thypha angustifolia haemorrhoids, intestinal infections, L. cold, pharyngitis, menopause disorders, Fever, Eczema

Triticum Beauv.

repens P. Cancer Diuretic Tonic

Viscum album L.

Fractures

et

al.

Weight gain Vitex agnus-cactus Female sterility L.

Vitis vinifera L.

Zingiber officinale

Cancer, Anaemia, Digestive disorders, Memory

Cough, allergies, blood circulation, appetite, digestive disorders, liver diseases, Kidney diseases, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, Female sterility, Aphrodisiac,

relaxation, analgesic, tonic Diabetes

El Amrani et al.

(2010) Eddouks et al. (2007)

Increasing immunity, Rheumatism.

Table 5. Informant consensus factor for commonly used medicinal plants Ailment category

Number of usereports (Nur)

Number of taxa (Nt)

Cancer

22

11

Cardiovascular system diseases

64

35

Informant consensus factor (Fic) 0,524 0,460

Endocrine system diseases

42

27

Fever

9

8

Gatsro-intestinal system diseases

261

90

General health

187

67

Hair care

17

11

0,366 0,125 0,658 0,645 0,375 Immune system

5

4

Kidneys Diseases

30

15

Nervous system

66

36

0,250 0,517 0,462 Respiratory tract diseases

149

54

Sexual-reproductive problems

45

29

0,642 0,364 Skeleto-muscular system disorders

26

19

Skin diseases

40

32

0,280 0,205

Table 6. Fidelity level values for common medicinal plants used Ailment category Cancer

Plants Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

FL (%) 60

Cardiovascular system diseases

Hibiscus sabdarriffa L.

66

Endocrine system diseases

Lupinus albus L.

66.66

Ajuga iva (L.) Sch

50

Pinus sylvestris L.

100

Rhamnus alaternus L. Curcuma longa L.

Gatsro-intestinal system diseases

Cassia angustifolia Vahl

92.85

Pistacia lentiscus L.

84.61

Cyperus esculentus L.

75

Rubia tinctoria L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill

65.28

Juniperus phoenicia

65

Cuminum cyminum Linn.

63.63

Eugenia caryophyllus L.

60

Satureja calamintha L. Quercus infectoria Myrtus communis L.

57.14

Artemisia herba-alba L. Carum carvi L.

54.45

Punica granatum L.

50

Borago officinalis L. Ajuga iva (L.) Sch Pinus halepensis Mill.

Ficus carica L. Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc Hair care

Daphne gnidium L.

100

Kidneys Diseases

Parietaria officinalis L.

90

Nervous system

Cucurbita maxima Duch

100

Peganum harmala L.

75

Eucalyptus globules L.

100

Bunium mauritanicum L. Lepidium sativum L. Respiratory tract diseases

75

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Mentha pulegium

64.28

Acacia gummifra Willd

62.5

Lippia citriodora L.

60

Thymus vulgaris L.

55.26

Mentha rotundifolia L.

50

Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Ocimum basilicum L. Skin diseases

Adonis aestivalis L.

75

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

*Graphical Abstract