Author’s Accepted Manuscript Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria) Bachir Benarba, Lakhdar Belabid, Kada Righi, Ahmed amine Bekkar, Mouffok Elouissi, Abdelkader Khaldi, Abderrahmane Hamimed www.elsevier.com
PII: DOI: Reference:
S0378-8741(15)30155-0 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030 JEP9753
To appear in: Journal of Ethnopharmacology Received date: 10 July 2015 Revised date: 10 September 2015 Accepted date: 25 September 2015 Cite this article as: Bachir Benarba, Lakhdar Belabid, Kada Righi, Ahmed amine Bekkar, Mouffok Elouissi, Abdelkader Khaldi and Abderrahmane Hamimed, Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria), Journal of Ethnopharmacology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Bachir Benarba1,2,*, Lakhdar Belabid1, Kada Righi1, Ahmed Amine Bekkar1, Mouffok Elouissi1, Abdelkader Khaldi1, Abderrahmane Hamimed1 1 Laboratory
Research on Biological Systems and Geomatics, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mascara, Algeria ([email protected]
) * Corresponding author Tel: 00213659319213
of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mascara,
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants are considered as a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in Mascara, North-west Algeria. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out in Mascara (North West of Algeria). Ethnobotanical data were recorded from 43 traditional healers practicing in Mascara. Data collected was analyzed using quantitative indices such as the use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC). Results: Traditional healers reported 141 medicinal plant species belonging to 54 families and 125 genera for the treatment of different ailments grouped into 14 ailments categories. Lamiaceae were the most represented family with 19 species (13.57%) followed by Asteracea, Apiaceae and Fabaceae. Thymus vulgaris L. was the most frequently used by local informants, with the highest UV of 0.883 (38 use reports). Our findings revealed that 39 species have not been previously reported as medicinal plants in the region. Furthermore, we report for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. F IC values ranged from 0.125 to 0.658. Gastro-intestinal diseases had the highest FIC (0.658) with 60 species and 261 use reports. Conclusion: The present study revealed the important local knowledge as showed by the variety of species used to treat several ailments. Recorded species with high UV should be subjects of further pharmacological studies to validate their popular use and to isolate the bioactive compounds.
Keywords: Ethnobotanical; plants; Mascara; Algeria, traditional healers. 1. Introduction Medicinal plants currently used for primary healthcare in developing countries, are considered as a promising source of important bioactive compounds. About 80% of the world’s population use medicinal plants for health purposes (Agisho et al., 2014). At least, 25% of modern drugs contain one or more active principles of plant origin (Enyew et al., 2014). Ethnobotanical studies are necessary to reveal locally important medicinal plant species, and to document popular knowledge, which is under threat of being lost (Magwede et al., 2014). Indeed, the ethnobotanical approach resulted in the discovery of digoxin, extracted from Digitalis purpurea, a plant used by European populations for its positive cardiovascular
effects and the identification of anticancer etoposide and teniposide extracted from Podophyllum peltatum (Tan et al., 2010). For centuries, medicinal and aromatic plants are used by Algerian populations to treat several ailments (Reguieg, 2011). Algeria is characterized by a flora rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, due to its climatic and topographic diversity (Azzi et al., 2012). Algeria is considered as one of the richest Arab countries in terms of plant diversity with 3,164 species of vascular plants (Vasisht and Kumar, 2004). Although, in recent years, several studies have been undertaken to explore biological activities of Algerian medicinal plants (Benarba et al., 2012 a, b; Benarba et al., 2014a), ethnobotanical investigations remain insufficient to document the ancestral knowledge. In this context, the present study aimed to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in Mascara, North-west Algeria. To our knowledge, this is the first ethnobotanical investigation carried out in the region, one of the most important departments (wilayas) in Algeria.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study area Algeria covers an area of 2.381.741 km², of which 84% is the Sahara, one of the largest deserts in the world. Mascara province (5941 km²) is located in the north west of Algeria (at N 35°26', E 02°11') with Mediterranean climate and mean annual precipitations of about 450 mm (Benarba et al., 2014b). Population of the region is estimated to be 1.000.000 with an average growth rate of 1.99%. The average population density is 168 Hab/ Km2 (Fig.1).
2.2. Data collection In total 43 traditional healers practicing in Mascara were interviewed. Most of them (83.72%) were illiterate. Demographic characteristics of the traditional healers are shown in table 1. Open questions were asked to record the use of medicinal plants (vernacular names, ailments treated, parts used, modes of preparation/administration, ingredients). Local names were given in Arabic and/or in Amazigh languages.
2.3. Ailment categories The ailments were categorized into15 categories according to the use-reports mentioned by traditional healers of the study area (Table 2). Each citation of a particular part of a particular plant was recorded as one use report. If one informant used a plant to treat more than one disease in the same category, it was considered as a single use-report (Musa et al., 2011).
2.4. Data analysis Data collected was analyzed using the following indices (Morvin Yabesh et al., 2014).
Use-value (UV): was calculated using the formula UV=ΣU/n U is the number of use reports cited by each informant for a given plant species and n is the total number of informants interviewed for a given plant.
Fidelity level (FL): Fidelity level was calculated according to the following formula FL (%)= (Np/N)*100 wher Np refers to the number of use-reports for a given species reported to be used for a particular ailment category, and N is the total number of use reports cited for any given species.
Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) was calculated according to the formula: FIC =(Nur – Nt)/(Nur – 1) where Nur is the number of use citations in each category and Nt is the number of species reported in each category.
3. Results and discussion 3.1. Botanical diversity In the present study, local healers reported 141 medicinal plant species belonging to 54 families and 125 genera for the treatment of different ailments. Our findings demonstrate the importance of knowledge of local healers regarding the use of medicinal plants to treat various ailments (supplemental material). Recently, an ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the region of M’sila (east Algeria) by Boudejelal et al. (2013). They reported 58 plant species and 50 genera distributed over 27 families with a dominance of especially Lamiaceae and Asteraceae. Lamiaceae were the most represented family with 19 species (13.57%) followed by Asteracea with 15 species (10.71%), Apiaceae with 13 species (9.29%) and Fabaceae with 8 species (5.71%) (Fig. 2). This order of importance was the same reported in western part of central Taurus Mountains in Turkey (Özdemir and Alpınar, 2015). Lamiaceae and Asteraceae have been reported to be the most predominant families in previous studies in different regions such as Brazil (Tribess et al., 2015), India (Bhatia et al., 2014) Spain (Rigat et al., 2015) and Italy (Vitalini et al., 2013). Predominance of species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae may be attributed to their wide occurrence with a number of traditional uses known by the local informants (Bano et al., 2014). 3.2. Parts used Leaves were the most used plant part (30%), followed by seeds (17%), roots and aerial parts (12% each), fruits (11%) and flowers (10%) (Fig. 3). On the other hand, use of whole plant, bark, bulb and laticeferus material was cited less than 5%. Our findings are in consistence with most of previous ethnobotanical studies revealing predominance of leaves use in preparation of different herbal remedies (Sher et al., 2015; Adnan et al., 2014; Chowdhury et al., 2009). These findings may be explained by the fact that leaves constitute a key factor of plants identification and are the most easily accessible part to collect by local populations (Akerreta et al., 2007). Furthermore, since leaves are main photosynthetic organ of plants, bioactive phytochemicals are concentrated in the leaves (Francis Xavier et al., 2015; Raterta et al., 2014). 3.3. Modes of preparation According to our results, decoction (48%), raw (30%), Infusion (13%) and paste (5%) were the most frequently used modes of preparation (Fig. 4). In Algerian Sahara, oral
administration has been reported to be the preferred way used by Local “Touareg” called “blue men of the Sahara” (Hammiche and Maiza, 2006). These findings are in line with those previously reported in neighbouring countries (Ouhaddou et al., 2015; Abouri et al., 2012). Recently, in the steppic region of M’sila (east Algeria), Sarri et al. (2014) found that decoction was the most used (44.7%), followed of infusion (27.1%) and powder (12.2%). Many active compounds are produced as a result of accelerated reactions by heating (Kayani et al., 2015). As Shown in Fig, 5 traditional healers prescribed most of their preparations (83%) orally. Oral administration is followed by topical application as bath, massage or lotion (15%). These findings are in agreement with recent ethnobotanical studies (Rashid et al., 2015; Giovannini, 2015; Ahmad et al., 2014). It has been suggested that oral and topical administrations permit quick physiological action promoting curating power of herbal remedy (Rehman et al., 2015). Most of cited species (51.40%) are used by local healers as mixtures with other plants or nonplant ingredients. 17 species are used in mixtures with one other plant, 13 species with two or three plants and 18 with more than three plants. Using mixtures of different species can result in positive synergic effect as well as attenuation of toxicity or of adverse effects of some plants composing the mixture (Bruschi et al., 2011). Out of the 73 species prescribed in mixtures, 53 species (72.60%) are mixed with other adjuvant such as honey, milk, olive oil, rose water, sugar, or eggs. Addition of these ingredients such as honey or sugar aims to improve the acceptability of certain plants having a bitter taste unbearable. Honey and milk remain the most added adjuvant (Fig. 6). Similar findings were reported by Bhatia et al. (2015) and Zamudio et al. (2010).
3.4. New reports and new uses When
Algeria and Morocco, our findings revealed that 39 species have not been previously reported as medicinal plants. Table shows the new reported species, and their vernacular name, parts used, therapeutic uses, modes of administration and use-value are given in table 3. Interestingly, 3 out of the 39 species newly reported with ethnomedicinal uses had higher UV: Ammoides pussila (UV= 0.465), Cassia angustifolia Vahl (UV=0.325) and Parietaria officinalis L. (UV=0.232). Decoction of Parietaria officinalis L. (Urticaceae) is used mainly
to treat kidney stones. It’s called in local language “fetatet el hejar” meaning “stones breaker” in relation to its ethnomedicinal use (to “dissolve” stones). The plant is used to treat kidney diseases and stones in different parts of the world (Popović et al., 2014; Tuttolomondo et al., 2014). To date, no scientific study has shown clearly the effect of the plant on kidney stones. Amar et al. (2010) have studied the effect of different concentrations of an infusion of Parietaria officinalis on oxalo-dependent calcium oxalate crystallization in urine of healthy Algerian subjects. They reported controversial properties of the plant: inhibition of the crystallization of monohydrate calcium oxalate and enhancement of the crystallization of dihydrate calcium oxalate. Furthermore, Hannache et al. (2012) reported that infusion of leaves and flowers of Parietaria officinalis did not induce any significant effect on dissolution of cystine stones. We report here for the first time the use of Astericus pygmaeus Coss as medicinal plant to treat headache and respiratory allergies. In Algeria, only one plant of the genus has been reported to be used in extreme south (Sahara): Astericus graveolens (Forsk.) DC to treat rheumatism, muscle contraction and fatigue (Hammiche and Maiza, 2006). In the present study, some edible plants consumed in other regions of the country are reported here to be used, for the first time, for medicinal purposes. For example, Corchorus olitorius Linn (Tiliaceae) is an important green leafy vegetable in many Arab countries such as Egypt or Sudan (Ilhan et al., 2007). In extreme east of Algeria, C. olitorius is used for the preparation of a very popular hot soup (called molokhia) consumed frequently. In West Algeria, the plant is not considered as edible. As revealed by our survey, the aerial parts of the plant are applied directly to the skin for preventing or treating hair loss. On the other hand, some edible species in the region are reported for the first time to possess ethnomedicinal properties. For example there are two major varieties of almonds, the sweet almond Prunus amygdalus var dulcis and the bitter almond Prunus amygdalus var amara. In the study area, local populations use seeds of the sweet variety (Prunus amygdalus var dulcis) for the management of nervous disorders, skin allergy, pregnant women problems and vision alteration. However, the bitter variety Prunus amygdalus var amara has been reported to be used in Morocco mainly in the treatment of diabetes (Eddouks et al., 2007; Ziyyat et al., 1997). Moreover, we report in the present study for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. Table 4 shows these new uses compared to those previously reported in the region.
3.5. Use value Regarding the use value of reported species, we found that Thymus vulgaris L. was the most frequently used by local informants, with the highest UV of 0.883 (38 use reports) (Fig. 7). Thymus vulgaris has been one of plants having the highest UV in Mediterranean countries such as Spain (Calvoa et al., 2011), Italy (Idolo et al., 2010) and Portugal (Neves et al., 2009). Local healers use the plant mainly (55%) to treat different respiratory ailments such as bronchitis, allergy, cold, flu and cough. This main ethnomodicinal use has been reported in different countries around the world such as Iran (Ashnagar et al., 2011), Iraq (El-Bayati, 2008) or Palestine (El-Ramahi et al., 2013). Presence of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, eugenol, phenols, luteolin and tetramethoxylated in the plant may explain its remedial potential (Monira et al., 2012).
These compounds are known to have antiviral, anti-
inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-nociceptive, anti-anaphylactic and antibacterial properties (Javed et al., 2013). Thymus vulgaris L. was followed by Zingiber officinale L. (UV= 0.69), Trigonella foenumgraecum L. (0.58), Lavandula latifolia medicus (0.55), Atriplex halimus L. (0.53), Ammoides pussila L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Juniperus phoenicia L. (0.46) and Pimpinella anisum L. (0.41) as most frequently cited species. These findings are in concordance with those reported by Jamila and Mostafa (2014). 3.6. Informant consensus factor Table 5 shows values of informant consensus factor calculated for the14 ailments categories. FIC values ranged from 0.125 to 0.658. Gastro-intestinal diseases had the highest FIC (0.658) with 60 species and 261 use reports. They were followed by general health (0.645) and respiratory diseases (0.642). Gastro-intestinal disorders have been reported to have the highest Fic in most of previously published studies in Algeria, neighboring countries such as Morocco (El-Hilaly et al., 2003), Tunisia (Leporatti and Ghedira, 2009), Italy (Dei Cas et al., 2015; Tuttolomondo et al., 2014) and Spain (Benítez et al., 2010). The high FIC of gastro-intestinal disorders may be explained by the fact that relative clinical signs are common and are more easily identified by the traditional healers (Punnam Chander et al., 2014). Interestingly, cancer is reported to have the 4th highest FIC (0.524) which could be attributed to relatively high incidence of the disease in the area study.
3.7. Fidelity level As shown in table 6, seven plants had the highest FL of 100%. Three of them were used to treat gastro-intestinal diseases (Pinus sylvestris L., Rhamnus alaternus L., Curcuma longa L), two species for respiratory diseases (Eucalyptus globules L. and Bunium mauritanicum L.), Daphne gnidium L. for haire care and Cucurbita maxima Duch for nervous system disorders. Rhamnus alaternus L. has been reported to be used in the treatment of one disease: hepatitis. Indeed, Rhamnus alaternus L. is considered as hepatic active plant and is used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases in most of arab countries (Azaizeh et al., 2006). Ben Ammar et al. (2008) demonstrated that extracts from the plant showed promising inhibition of aflatoxin B1-, nifuroxazide-, and sodium azide-induced mutagenicity, involved in hepatic cancers. Furthermore, It has been reported that Algerian Rhamnus alaternus L. Inhibited the enzymatic activities of Aspergillus oryzae-amylase (Khacheba et al., 2014). The genus Aspregillus is known to be aflatoxigenic, producing hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxins.
4. Conclusion This is the first study documenting the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Mascara (North West Algeria) by local traditional healers. Results of the present study revealed an important local knowledge as showed by the variety of species used to treat several ailments. In total, local healers reported 141 medicinal plants belonging to 54 families and 125 genera. Plants with high UV such as Thymus vulgaris L. , Zingiber officinale L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Lavandula latifolia medicus , Atriplex halimus L., Ammoides pussila L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Juniperus phoenicia L. and Pimpinella anisum L. should be studied in order to isolate the bioactive compounds and validate their popular uses. Interestingly, we report 39 species not previously reported as medicinal plants in the region. Furthermore, we document for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. With regard to fidelity levels, several plants used to treat a specified illness are recommended for further phytochemical and pharmaceutical investigations.
The authors are grateful to Mascara province traditional healers for sharing their ancestral knowledge throughout the study.
Abdellatif, F., Boudjella, H., Zitouni, A., Hassani, A., 2014. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L. Excli 13, 772-781. Abouri, M., El Mousadik, A., Msanda, F., Boubaker, H., Saadi, B., Cherifi, K., 2012. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Tata Province, Morocco. International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1, 99-123. Adnan, M., Ullah, I., Tariq, A., Murad, W., Azizullah, A., Khan, A.L., Ali, N., 2014. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10, 1-16. Agisho, H., Osie, M., Lambore, T., 2014. Traditional medicinal plants utilization, management and threats in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2, 94108. Ahmad, M., Sultana, S., Fazl-i-Hadi, S., Hadda, T., Rashid, S., Zafar, M., Ajab Khan, M., Pukhtoon Zada Khan, M., Yaseen, G., 2014. An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10, 1-36. Ahmed, A.A., 1992. Farnesol and Thymol Derivatives from Asteriscus, pygmaeus. Journal of Natural Products 55, 824–827. Akerreta, S., Cavero, R. Y., & Calvo, M. I., 2007. First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2007, 3, 1-26. Al-Bayati, F.A., 2008. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116, 403–406. Al-Ramahi, R., Jaradat, N., Adawi , D., 2013. Use of herbal medicines during pregnancy in a group of Palestinian women. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 150, 79–84. Amar. A., Harrache, D., Atmani. F., Bassou, G., Grillon, F., 2010. Effet de Parietaria officinalis sur la cristallisation de l’oxalate de calcium, dans l’urine. Phytothérapie 8, 342– 347. Anwer, M.S., Mohtasheem, M., Azhar, I., Ahmed, S.W., Bano, H., 2008. Chemical constituents from Melilotus officinalis. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4, 89-94. Ashnagar, A., Gharib Naseri, N., Ramazani, M., 2011. Characterization of the major chemical compounds found in Thymus vulgaris plant grown wildly in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province of Iran. International Journal of PharmTech Research 3, 01-04.
Ashraf, M.A., Mahmood, K., Wajid, A., Qureshi, A.K., Gharibreza, M., 2013. Chemical constituents of Haloxylon salicornicum plant from Cholistan Desert,Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment.11, 1176 – 1182. Ay, M., Bahadori, F., Öztürk, M., Kolak, U., Topçu, G., 2007. Antioxidant activity of Erica arborea. Fitoterapia 78, 571–573. Azaizeh, H., Saad, B., Khaleel, K., Said, O., 2006. The state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the eastern region of the Mediterranean: a review. eCAM 3, 229–235. Azzi, R., Djaziri, R., Lahfa, F., Sekkal, F.Z., Benmehdi, H., Belkacem, N., 2012. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in the North Western and South Western Algeria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6, 2041-2050. Bano, A., Ahmad, A., Ben Hadda, T, Saboor, A., Sultana, S., Zafar, M., Pukhtoon Zada Khan, M., Arshad, M., Aqeel Ashra, M., 2014. Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of plants used in the skardu valley at high altitude of Karakoram-Himalayan range, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10, 1-17. Bellakhdar, J., Claisse, R., Fleurentin, J., Younos, C., 1991. Repertory of standard herbal drugs in the Moroccan pharmacopoea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 35, 123-143. Ben Ammar, R., Ben Sghaier, M., Boubaker, J., Bhouri, W., Bouhlel, I., Kilani, S., Ghedira, K., Chekir-Ghedira, L., 2008. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of aflatoxin B1-, nifuroxazide-, and sodium azide-induced mutagenicity by extracts from Rhamnus alaternus L. Chemico-Biological Interactions 174, 1-10. Benarba, B., Ambroise, G., Aoues, A., Meddah, B., Vazquez, A., 2012a. Aristolochia longa aqueous extract triggers the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in BL41 Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 6, 45-49. Benarba, B., Meddah, B., Aoues, A., 2012b. Bryonia dioica aqueous extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in BL41 Burkitts lymphoma cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141, 510-516. Benarba, B., Meddah, B., Hamdani, H., 2014b. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry. Excli 13, 709-723. Benarba, B., Meddah, B., Tir-Touil, A., 2014a. Response of bone resorption markers to Aristolochia longa intaked by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 2014, 1-4. Benítez, G., González-Tejero, M.R., Molero-Mesa, J., 2010. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the western part of Granada province (southern Spain): Ethnopharmacological synthesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 129, 87–105.
Bhatia, H., Pal Sharma, Y., Manhas, R.K., Kumar, K., 2015. Traditional phytoremedies for the treatment of menstrual disorders in district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 160, 202–210. Bhatia, H., Sharma, Y.P., Manhas, R.K., Kumar, K., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the villagers of district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151, 1005–1018. Bicker, J., Petereit, F., Hensel, A., 2009. Proanthocyanidins and a phloroglucinol derivative from Rumex acetosa L. Fitoterapia 80, 483–495. Bouaziz, M., Dhouib, A., Loukil, S., Boukhris, M., Sayadi, S., 2009. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts of some wild plants collected from the south of Tunisia. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 7017-7027. Boudjelal, A., Henchiri, C., Sari, M., Sarri, D., Hendel, N., Benkhaled, A., Ruberto, G., 2013. Herbalists and wild medicinal plants in M'Sila (North Algeria): An ethnopharmacology survey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 148, 395-402. Bousetla, A., Zellagui, A., Derouiche, K., Rhouati, S., 2015. Chemical constituents of the roots of Algerian Bunium incrassatum and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity. Arab Journal of Chemistry 8, 313–316. Bousetla, A.,Akkal, S., Medjroubi, K., Louaar, S., Azouzi, S., Djarri, L., Zaabat, N., Laouer, H., Chosson, E., Seguin, E., 2005. Flavonoid Glycosides from Ammoides pusilla. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 41, 95-99. Bouzabata, A., 2013. Traditional treatment of high blood pressure and diabetes in Souk Ahras District. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 5, 12-20. Bruschi, P., Morganti, M., Mancini, M., Adele Signorini, M., 2011. Traditional healers and laypeople: A qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138, 543– 563. Budzianowki, J., Skrzypczak, L., Walkowiak, D., 1985. Flavonoids of Parietaria officinalis. Journal of Natural Products 48, 336–337. Calvoa, M.I., Akerreta, S., Cavero, R.Y., 2011. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Riverside of Navarra (Iberian Peninsula). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135, 22–33. Chebat, A., Skalli, S., Errihani, H., Boulaâmane, L., Mokrim, M., Mahfoud, T., Soulaymani, R., Kahoua, A., 2014. Étude de prévalence des effets indésirables liés à l’utilisation des plantes médicinales par les patients de l’Institut National d’Oncologie, Rabat. Phytothérapie 12, 25-32. Chermat, S., Gharzouli, R., 2015. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Flora in the North East of Algeria - An Empirical Knowledge in Djebel Zdimm (Setif). Journal of Materials Science and Engineering 5, 50-59.
Chorepsima, S., Tentolouris, K., Dimitroulis, D., Tentolouris, N., 2013. Melilotus: Contribution to wound healing in the diabetic foot. Journal of Herbal Medicine 3, 81–86. Chowdhury, M.S.H., Koike, M., Muhammed, N., Halim, M.A., Saha, N., Kobayashi H., 2009. Use of plants in healthcare: A traditional ethno-medicinal practice in southeastern rural areas of Bangladesh. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, 5, 4151. Codina-Torrella, I., Guamis, B., Trujillo, A.J., 2015. Characterization and comparison of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.) from different geographical origin Physico-chemical characteristics and protein fractionation. Industrial Crops and Products 65, 406–414. Cunningham, F.X., Gantt, E., 2011. Elucidation of the Pathway to Astaxanthin in the Flowers of Adonis aestivalis. Plant Cell 23, 3055-3069. Daoudi, A., Bammou, M., Zarkani, S., Slimani, I., Ibijbijen, J., Nassiri, L., 2015. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora in rural municipality of Aguelmouss - Khenifra province – (Morocco). Phytothérapie DOI 10.1007/s10298-015-0953-z Dei Cas, L., Pugni, F., Fico, G., 2015. Tradition of use on medicinal species in Valfurva (Sondrio, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 163, 113–134. Djellouli, M., Benmehdi, H., Mammeri, S., Moussaoui, A., Ziane, L., Hamidi, N., 2015. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (In press). Djellouli, M., Moussaoui, A., Benmehdi ,H., Ziane, L., Belabbes, A., Badraoui, M., Slimani, N., Hamidi, N., 2013. Ethnopharmacological study and phytochemical screening of three plants (Asteraceae family) from the region of south west Algeria. Asian Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 2013, 259-65. De Santis, D., Moresi, M., 2007. Production of alizarin extracts from Rubia tinctorum and assessment of their dyeing properties. Industrial Crops and Products 26, 151–162. Doukkali, Z., Bouidida, H., Srifi, A., Taghzouti, K., Cherrah, Y., Alaoui, K., 2015. Anxiolytic plants in Morocco. Ethnobotanical and ethno-pharmacological study. Phytothérapie DOI 10.1007/s10298-015-0921-z. Eddouks, M. Maghrani, M., Lemhadri, A., Ouahidi, M.-L., Jouad, H., 2007. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases in the south-east region of Morocco (Tafilalet). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 82, 97-103. Eddouks, M., Ouahidi, M.L., Farid, O., Moufid A., Khalidi, A., Lemhadri A., 2007. L’utilisation des plantes me´dicinales dans le traitement du diabe`te au Maroc. Phytothérapie 5, 194–203.
El Amrani, F., Rhallab, A., Alaoui, T., El Badaoui, K., Chakir, S., 2010. Étude ethnopharmacologique de quelques plantes utilisées dans le traitement du diabète dans la région de Meknès-Tafilalet (Maroc). Phytothérapie 8, 161–5. El-Hilaly, J., Hmammouchi, M., Lyoussi, B., 2003. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 86, 149–158. Enyew, A., Asfaw, Z., Kelbessa, E., Nagappan, R., 2014. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants in and Around Fiche District, Central Ethiopia. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 6, 154-167. Esfahlan, A.J., Jamei, R., Esfahlan, R.J., 2010. The importance of almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and its by-products. Food Chemistry 120, 349–360. Fadil, M., Farah, A., Haloui, T., Rachiq, S., 2015. Ethnobotanical survey of plants operated by cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalet aera in Morocco. Phytothérapie 13, 1930. Francis Xavier, T., Kannan, M., Auxilia, A., 2015. Observation on the traditional phytotherapy among the Malayali tribes in Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, South India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 165, 198–214. Gallo, L., Ramírez-Rigo, M.V., Wilson, E., Piña, J., Allemandi, D., Bucalá, V., 2013. SprayDried Cascara sagrada Extract for Direct Compression: Tablet Formulation and a Simple HPLC Method for Tablet Performance Evaluation. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 4, 1360-1370. Giovannini, P., 2015. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: Ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 164, 78–88. Hammiche, V., Maiza, K., 2006. Traditional medicine in Central Sahara: Pharmacopoeia of Tassili N’ajjer. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105, 358–367. Handoussa, H., Hanafi, R., Eddiasty, I., El-Gendy, M., El Khatib, A., Linscheid, M., Mahran, L., Ayoub, N., 2013. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of dietary phenolics isolated from Corchorus olitorius and Vitis vinifera. Journal of Functional Foods 5, 1204 – 1216. Hannache, B., Bazin, D., Boutefnouchet, A., Daudon, M., 2012. Effect of plant extracts on the in vitro dissolution of cystine stones: A study at the mesoscopic scale. Progrès en urologie 22, 577—582. Idolo, M., Motti, R., Mazzoleni, S., 2010. Ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long-history protected area, the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (Italian Apennines). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127, 379–395.
İlhan, S., Savaroğlu, F., Çolak, F., 2007. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Corchorus olitorius L. (Molokhia) Extracts. International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences 1, 59-61. Jamila, F., Mostafa, E., 2014. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by people in Oriental Morocco to manage various ailments. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154, 76–87. Javed, H., Erum, S., Tabassum, S., Ameen, F., 2013. An overview on medicinal importance of Thymus vulgaris. Journal of Asian Scientific Research 3, 974-982. Jouad, H., Haloui, M., Rhiouani, H., El Hilaly, J., Eddouks, M., 2001. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases in the North centre region of Morocco (Fez–Boulemane). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77, 175–182. Joseph, B., George, J., Mohan, J., 2013. Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Mimosa pudica. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 5, 41-44. Kayani, S., Ahmad, M., Sultana, S., Khan Shinwari, Z., Zafar, M., Yaseen, G., Hussain, M., Bibi, T., 2015. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants among the communities of Alpine and Subalpine regions of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 164, 186–202. Khacheba, I., Djeridane, A., Yousfi, M., 2014.Twenty Traditional Algerian Plants Used in Diabetes Therapy as Strong Inhibitors of α-Amylase Activity. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry 2014, 1-12. Khan, M.A., Alam, A., Husain, S., Ahmed, S., Nazamuddin, M., Ahmed, Z., 2013. Qust (Saussurea lappa clarke.) - A potent herb of unani medicine: a review. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 5, 1-4.
Lahsissene, H., Kahouadji A., 2010. Analyse ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales et aromatiques de la flore marocaine : cas de la région de Zaër. Phytothérapie 8, 202–209 Leporatti, M.L., Ghedira, K., 2009. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5, 1-31. Lodhi, G., Singh, H.K., Pant, K.K., Rao, C., Hussain, Z., 2012. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Product 5, 17-22. Lopéz-Cortés, I., Salazar-García, D.C., Malheiro, R., Guardiola, V., Pereira, J.A., 2013. Chemometrics as a tool to discriminate geographical origin of Cyperus esculentus L. based on chemical composition. Industrial Crops and Products 51, 19–25.
Maganha, E. G., Halmenschlager, R. D., Rosa, R. M., Henriques, J. A. P., Ramos, A., Saffi, J. 2010. Pharmacological evidences for the extracts and secondary metabolites from plants of the genus Hibiscus. Food Chemistry 118, 1–10. Magwede, K., Tshisikhawe, M.P., Luseba, D., Bhat, R.B., 2014. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in treatment of ticks. International Journal of Experimental Botany 83, 155-165. Márquez-García, B., Fernández, M.A., Córdoba, F., 2009. Phenolics composition in Erica sp. differentially exposed to metal pollution in the Iberian Southwestern pyritic belt. Bioresource Technology 100, 446–451. Martini,D., Taddei, F., Ciccoritti, R., Pasquini, M., Nicoletti, I., Corradini, D., D'Egidio, M.G., 2015. Variation of total antioxidant activity and of phenolic acid, total phenolics and yellow coloured pigments in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) as a function of genotype, crop year and growing area. Journal of Cereal Science 65, 175-185.
Miara, M.D., Ait Hammou, M. Hadjadj Aoul, S., 2013. Phytothérapie et taxonomie des plantes médicinales spontanées dans la région de Tiaret (Algérie). Phytothérapie 11, 206-218. Mikaili, P., Maadirad, S., Moloudizargari, M., Aghajanshakeri, S., Sarahroodi, S., 2013. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds. Iran Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 16, 1031–1048. Mohamadi, S., Zhao, M., Amrani, A., Marchioni, E., Zamaa, D., Benayache, F., Benayache, S., 2015. On-line screening and identification of antioxidant phenolic compounds of Saccocalyx satureioides Coss. et Dur. Industrial Crops and Products 76, 910–919. Monira, A., K.A. Eland Naima Z.., 2012. Evaluation of protective and antioxidant activity of thyme (thymus vulgaris) extract on paracetamol-induced toxicity in rats. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6, 467-474. Morvin Yabesh, J.E., Prabhu, S., Vijayakumar, S., 2014. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154, 774–789. Moussaoui, F., Alaoui, T., Aoudry, S., 2014. Census Ethnobotanical Study of Some Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in the City of Meknes. American Journal of Plant Sciences 5, 2480-2496. Musa, M.S., Abdelrasool, F.E., Elsheikh, E.A., Ahmed, L., Mahmoud, A.E., Yagi, S.M., 2011. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5, 4287-4297. Nacer Bey, N., Chabane, D., Abdelkrim, H., Aribi, I., 2015. Traditional herbal medicine in Jijel region, Northeast of Algeria. Advances in Environmental Biology 9, 54-61.
Neri, L., Dimitri, G., Sacchetti, G., 2010). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of cured chestnuts from three sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) ecotypes from Italy. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23, 23–29. Neugart, S., Rohn, S., Schreiner, M., 2015. Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in Vicia faba and Pisum sativum leaves by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn and the genotypic effect on their flavonoid profile. Food Research International 76, 114–121. Neves, J.M., Matos, C., Moutinho, C., Queiroz, G., Gomes, L.R., 2009. Ethnopharmacological notes about ancient uses ofmedicinal plants in Tras-os-Montes (Northern of Portugal). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124, 270-283.
Ouarghidi, A., Martin, G.J., Powell, B., Esser, G., Abbad, A., 2013. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9, 1-13. Ouhaddou, H., Boubaker, H., Msanda, F., El Mousadik, A., 2015. An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of the Agadir Ida Ou Tanane Province (Southwest Morocco). Journal of Applied Biosciences 84, 7707 – 7722. Olszewska, M., 2008. Separation of quercetin, sexangularetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin for simultaneous HPLC determination of flavonoid aglycones in inflorescences, leaves and fruits of three Sorbus species. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 48, 629– 635. Özdemir, E., Alpınar, K., 2015. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde – Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 166 53–65. Packer, L., Rimbach, G., Virgili, F., 1999. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 27. 704–724. Patočka, J., Jakl, J., 2010. Biomedically relevant chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis. Journal of Applied Biomedicine 8, 11–18. Popović, Z., Smiljanić, M., Kostić, M., Nikić, P., Janković, S., 2014. Wild flora and its usage in traditional phytotherapy (Deliblato Sands, Serbia, South East Europe). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13, 9-35. Punnam Chander, M., Kartick, C., Gangadhar, J., Vijayachari, P., 2014. Ethno medicine and healthcare practices among Nicobarese of Car Nicobar – An indigenous tribe of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 158, 18–24. Rashid, S., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Sultana, S., Ayub, M., Khan, M.A., Yaseen, G., 2015. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 166, 340–351.
Raterta, R., de Guzman, G.Q., Jonathan, G., Alejandro, D., 2014. Assessment, Inventory and Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in Batan and Sabtang Island (Batanes Group of Islands, Philippines). International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences 2, 147-154. Reguieg, L., 2011. Using medicinal plants in Algeria. American Journal of Food Nutrition 1, 126-127. Rebbas, K., Bounar, R., Gharzouli, R., Ramdani, M., Djellouli, Y., Alatou, D., 2012. Plantes d’intérêt médicinal et écologique dans la région d’Ouanougha (M’Sila, Algérie). Phytothérapie 10, 131–142. Rehman, K., Rehman Mashwani, Z., Ali Khan, M., Ullah, Z., Javed Chaudhary, H., 2015. An ethno botanical perspective of traditional medicinal plants from the Khattak tribe of Chonthra Karak, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 165, 251–259. Rezig, L., Chouaibi, M., Msaada, K., Hamdi, S., 2012. Chemical composition and profile characterisation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil. Industrial Crops and Products 37, 82–87. Ribeiro, B., Rangel, J., Valenta˜o, P., Andrade, P.B., Pereira, J.A., Bo¨lke, H., Seabra, R.M., 2007. Organic acids in two Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) varieties. Food Chemistry 100, 504–508. Rigat, M., Vallès, J., D'Ambrosio, U., Gras, A., Iglésias, J., Garnatje, T., 2015. Plants with topical uses in the Ripollès district (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): Ethnobotanical survey and pharmacological validation in the literature. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 164, 162–179. Sang, S., Lapsley, K., Jeong, W. S., Lachence, P. A., Ho, C. T., & Rosen, R. T., 2002. Antioxidative phenolic compounds isolated from almond skins (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50, 2459–2463. Sari, M., Sarri, D., Hendel, N., Boudjelal, A., 2012. Ethnobotanical study of therapeutic plants used to Treat arterial hypertension in the hodna region of Algeria. Global Journal of Research on Medicinal Plants & Indigene Medicine 1, 411–417. Sarikaki, V., Rallis, M., Tanojo, H., Panten, I., Dotsiva, Y., Laukas, Y.L., 2004. In vitro percutaneous absorption of pine bark extract (PYC) in human skin. J Toxicol Cutaneous Ocular Toxicol 23, 149–158. Sarri, M., Mouyeta, F.Z., Benzianea, M., Cherieta, A., 2014. Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria). Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research 2, 31- 35. Scognamiglio, M., Esposito, A., D’Abrosca, B., Pacifico, S., Fiumano, V, Tsafantakis, N., Monaco, P., Fiorentino, A., 2012. Isolation, distribution and allelopathic effect of caffeic acid derivatives from Bellis perennis L. Biochem Sys Ecol 43, 108–113.
Shakeri, A., Khakdan, F., Soheili, V., Sahebkar, A., Rassam, G., Asil I, J., 2014. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from Nepeta ucrainica L. spp. kopetdaghensis . Industrial Crops and Products 58, 315–321. Sher, H., Aldosari, A., Ali, A., de Boer, H.G., 2015. Indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 166, 157–167. Sindi, H.A., Marshall, L.J., Morgan, M.R.A., 2014. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Food Chemistry 164, 23–29. Tahraoui, A., El-Hilaly, J., Israili, Z.H., Lyoussi, B., 2007. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110, 105–117. Tan, A., Konczak, I., Sze, D.M., Ramzan, I., 2010. Towards the discovery of novel phytochemicals for disease prevention from native Australian plants: an ethnobotanical approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 19, 330-334. Toth, I., Mrlianova, J., Tekelova, D., Korenova, M., 2003. Rosmarinic acid - an important phenolic active composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae 2003; 139-46. Tribess, B., Pintarelli, G.M., Bini, L.A., Camargo, A., Funez, L.A., de Gasper, A.L., Zeni, A.L.B., 2015. Ethnobotanical study of plants used for therapeutic purposes in the Atlantic Forest region, Southern Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 164, 136–146. Tuttolomondo, T., Licata, M., Leto, C., Bonsangue, G., Letizia Gargano, M., Venturella, G., La Bella, S., 2014. Popular uses of wild plant species for medicinal purposes in the Nebrodi Regional Park (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 157, 21-37 Tuttolomondo, T., Licata, M., Leto, C., Gargano, M.L., Venturella, G., La Bella, S., 2014. Plant genetic resources and traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild shrub and herbaceous plant species in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155, 1362–1381. Urbaniak, L., 1991. The comparison between carex arenaria l. and carex ligerica gay sedges from arenariae group by phenolic compounds analysis. Bulletin de la Société des Amis des Sciences et des Lettres de Poznan Serie D Sciences Biologiques 29, 41-49. Vasisht, K., Kumar, V., 2004. Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Volume 1: Africa. ICS-UNIDO, Trieste, 23–56. Vitalini, S., Iriti, M., Puricelli, C., Ciuchi, D., Segale, A., Fico, G., 2013. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)—An alpine ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 145, 517–529.
Volpato, G., Kourková, P., Zelený, V., 2012. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8, 1-20. Wu, Q.P., Wang, Z.J., Tang, L.Y., Fu, M.H., He, Y., 2009. A new flavonoid glucoside from Cassia angustifolia. Chinese Chemical Letters 20, 320–321. Zamudio, F., Kujawska, M., Hilger, N.I., 2010. Honey as Medicinal and Food Resource. Comparison between Polish and Multiethnic Settlements of the Atlantic Forest, Misiones, Argentina. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal 2, 58-73. Yan, Y-Y., Wang, Y-W., Chen, S-L., Zhuang, S-R., Wang, C-K., 2013. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic crude extracts from five fractions of Corchorus Olitorius L. Food Chemistry 138, 1008–1014. Zhao, J., Evangelopoulos, D., Bhakta, S., Gray, A., Seidel, V., 2014. Antitubercular activity of Arctium lappa and Tussilago farfara extracts and constituents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155, 796–800. Ziyyat, A., Legssyer, A., Mekhfi, H., Dassouli, A., Serhrouchni, M., Benjelloun, W., 1997. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 58, 45–54.
Figures Figure 1. Location of the study area (Mascara, North West Algeria) Figure 2. Distribution of reported species among the botanical families Figure 3. Plant parts used by traditional healers Figure 4. Modes of preparation used by traditional healers Figure 5. Modes of administration Figure 6. Non-plant ingredient added to plants used by traditional healers Figure 7. Most reported species by traditional healers
Table1. Demographic characteristics of the traditional healers interviewed Demographical characteristics Age (years) 20-40 41-50 51-70 Education level Illiterate Primary level Secondary level
n (%) 21 (48.83) 11 (25.58) 11 (25.58) 36 (83.72) 4 (09.30) 3 (06.97)
Table2. Ailments grouped by different ailment categories Category Kidneys Dis
Ailments/disorders Stone, infections Haemorrhoids, stomach ulcer, stomach-ache, dysentery, colic, gases, constipation, parasites, hydatic cyst, liver problems, hepatitis, biliary Gatsro-intestinal system problems, anaemia, diarrhoea, toothache, foul dis odour, intoxications Skin diseases Skin diseases, fungal infections, burns Cancer Tumors, cancers, metastases Endocrine system diseases Diabetes, goitre, Weight loss Respiratory tract diseases Cold, Cough, Asthma, bronchitis, flu ,allergy Skeleto-muscular system Rheumatism, Arthritis, inflammation, body pain disorder Cardiovascular system Cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart problems diseases Fever Fever General health Blood purification, body pain Immune system Increasing immunity Hair care Hair loss, hair growth Nervous system Depression, anxiety, ... Sexual-reproductive Menstrual cramps, Infertility, Sexual impotence, problems genycological problems
Abbreviation KD GISD
SD Can ESD RTD SMSD CSD Fev GH IS HC NS SRP
Table 3. List of new recorded medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North west – Algeria). Botanical name
Com mon nam e
Ailment category: n of use reports
Preparati on method
Us e Val ue
0.0 (3,3′93 dihydroxyβ,β-carotene4,4′-dione)
(nam e in Arab ic)
Adonis aestivalis L.
ﺑﻦ Flo ﻧﻌﻤﺎﻥwer s
Ranuncu laceae Allium
SD : (rubeola)
3 Decocti on
CSD :1 (hypercholes terolemia) SRP :1
Cunnin gham and Gantt (2011) Mikaili
oscalonic um L.
disulphide, Sallylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide.
Ammoide ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺧ s pussila ﺓ Apiaceae
CSD : 4 Decocti Oral (hypertensio on Frui n) ts RTD : 5 Infusion (cough, flu, Asthma)
et al. (2013)
0.4 Flavonoid 65 Glycosides
Bousetl a et al. (2005)
0.0 Farnesol, 46 thymol derivatives
NS : 5 Decocti (soporific for on the child, vertigo, headache) GISD :3 (gases, intoxications , typhoid fever) GH: 1 (weakness) SMSD: (pain)
ESD:1 (ménopause disorders) Astericus pygmaeu s Coss Asterace ae/ composit ae Avena algeriens
Macerati Nasal ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪAeri RTD :1 on al (allergy) part NS : 1 s (headache)
Frui CSD:1 (hypertensio
KD:1 (renal Decocti on calculi)
SD:1 (skin Decocti on whiting)
Bellis annua L. Asterace ae Bunium mauritan icum L.
Carex arenaria L.
0.0 Phenolic 23 acids, flavonoid glycosides
Scogna miglio et al. (2012)
0.1 β-sitosterol 39 Pheznolic acids
Bousetl a et al. (2015)
RTD : 6 Raw (allergy, bronchitis, cough)
ﺷﺒﻮRoo ﺏ- ts ﺷﻮﺏ
Cassia angustifo lia Vahl
GISD:1 (stomachach e)
ﺯﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴ ﻉ
GISD :1 (stomachach e)
ESD :1 (hypertensio n)
Decocti GISD :13 (constipation on )
0.3 Apigenin-6,8- Wu et 25 di-C-glycoside al. (2009) Kaempferol glucopyranosi de
0.0 Malic, oxalic, Ribeiro citric, et al.
0.0 Phenolic 46 compounds
Urbani ak (1991)
ascorbic, (2007) malic, quinic and fumaric acid
Corchoru ﻣﻠﻮﺧ s ﻳﺔ olitorius L. Tiliaceae
Cotula cinerea L.
Aeri HC : 2 (hair Raw al loss) part s
Topical 0.0 Phenolic acids 46 Kaempferol glycosides, rutin isoquercitrin flavonoids
Yan et al. (2013)
RTD : 2 Raw (pharyngitis, cold)
Djellou li et al; (2015)
NS : 2 Raw (migraine)
GISD : 1 Decocti (stomachach on e)
KD :1 (kidney diseases) Cucurbit a maxima Duch
ﻗﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻳﺔ
NS : 3 Raw (migraine)
0.1 Thymol 39 derivatives, carvacrol
Handou ssa et al. (2013)
Djellou li et al. (2013)
0.0 Oleic, linoleic, Rezig 69 and palmitic et aal. (2012) acids Phenolic acids
Cucurbit aceae Cyperus esculentu s L.
Neri et al. (2010)
β -sitosterol ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳ ﺯ
GISD: 3 Raw (weight gain, appetite)
0.0 Starch, 93 acids
fatty Codina Torrell
Erica arborea L.
SRP: 1 (aphrodisiac )
LopézCortés et al. (2013)
KD : 2 Decocti (bedwetting, on urolithiasis) SRP : 1 Decocti (inflammatio on ns of pregnant women)
a et al. (2015)
0.1 (-)39 Epicatechin, quercitrin
Ay et al. (2007)
Kaempferol, myricetin and phenolic acids Márque zGarcía et al. (2009)
CSD : 1 Raw (hypertensio n) SRP : 1 Infusion (prostate) GH : 1 (blood heating) Haloxylo n salicorni cum Chenopo diaceae
Aeri GISD :1 al (toothache) part SD :2 s (wound, infections) GH :2 (body purification, pain) RTD : (Flu)
Topical 0.1 Saponins, 16 alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, unsaaturated fatty acids.
Ashraf et al. (2013)
Heloscia dium nodifloru m L.
Apiaceae Hibiscus sabdariff a L.
See ds And
Infusion CSD :4 (cholesterol, hypertension )
1 Decocti on
Aeri RTD :1 al (allergies) part NS :1 s (hydrocepha ly)
NS : (stress)
0.1 Anthocyanins 39 (cyanidin 3rutinoside, delphinidin 3sambubioside, cyanidin 3sambubioside)
GH : 1 Macerati Topical on (depilation) Melilotus officinali s Willd Legumin osae
Mellisa officinali s L.
GISD : (colon)
0.0 Coumarins 23 Lupanone, lupeol, hexadecanoic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid
NS : 1 Raw (strengthen)
Mimosa catechu L.
ﺣﺸﻴAeri GISD :1 ﺷﺔal (appetite) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚpart s
Fev : 1
GISD :1 (stomachach e)
0.0 Essential oil 69 (geranial, neral and citronellal) Flavonoids and phenolic acids (rosmarininc and caffeic acid)
0.0 Tanins 23 Mimosine
Sindi et al. (2014) Magan ha et al. (2010)
Chorep sima et al. (2013) Anwer et al. (2008)
Abdella tif et al. (2014)
Toth et al. (2003)
Joseph et al. (2013)
Nepeta apulei Ucria Lamiace ae
ﻗﻮﺯﻳﺔFlo - ﻗﻮﺯﺓwer
Parietari a officinali s L.
ﻓﺘﺎﺗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠ ﺭ
Pinus maritima L.
SRP : 1 Raw (aphrodisiac )
KD :9 (stones, kidney diseases)
0.0 Phenolics, 23 flavonoids, and terpenoids
Shakeri et al. (2014)
0.2 Quercetin, 32 Kaempferol, isorhamnetin
Budzia nowki et al. (1985)
SRP :1 (prostate problems) ﺍﻟﺼﻨLea ﻭﺑﺮves
RTD : 2 (flu, Raw bronchitis)
Taxifolin, catechin and Packer 0.0 ferulic acid et al. 46 (1999)
Pinaceae Sarikak i et al. (2004) Prunus amygdal us var. Dulcis
ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺯFrui SRP:1 ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮts (pregnant women)
SD:1 (skin allergy)
Aeri al part s
GISD : 3 Raw (ulcer, hemorrhoids )
SD :1 (wounds)
Sang et al. (2002)
Rhamnogluco side of 3β-Omethylquercet in, Esfahla rhamnoglucosi n et al. de of (2010) kaempferol
GH:1 (healing, vision)
Quercus ﻋﻔﺼ infectoria ﺓ
0.0 Flavonol 93 glycosides, phenolic acids
0.1 Tannins, gallic Lodhi et al; 16 acid, syringic acid, ellagic (2012) acid, βsitosterol
HC:1 (hair Macerati Topical on strength) Rhamnus ﺯﻋﻔﻮ purshian ﺭ a L.
Topical 0.0 Aloin, 46 Cascaroside, HydroxylTopical anthracene glycosides
Gallo et al. (2013)
0.0 Alizarin, 93 Tanins
De Santis and Moresi (2007)
Bicker 0.0 Rutin, et al. 23 hyperoside, quercitrin, (2009) quercetin-3-Oglucuronide, 1,8dihydroxyanth raquinones, phenolic acids
0.0 Quercetin, 46 apigenin, piceol, vanillin, ferulic aldehyde, caffeic acid, pcoumaric acid,
Moham adi et al. (2015)
RTD : 1 (flu) Decocti on
0.0 Flavonoids 23
Bouazi z et al. (2009)
GH : 1 Decocti on (exorcism)
0.0 Essential oil, Khan et al. 93 Saussurine
GH : 1 Raw (exorcism)
Rhamna ceae Rubia tinctoria L.
Rubiacea e Rumex acetosa L.
Raw RTD :1 (pharyngitis)
GISD : 3 Decocti on (Anaemia) SRP : (female sterility)
GH : (thirst)
Aeri CSD :1 al (hypercholes part terolemia) s ESD :1 (diabetes)
Saccocal yx satureioi des Lamiace ae
Salsola vermicul ata L.
ﻏﺴﺎﻟ ﺓ ﻟﻨﺨﻴﺮ
Chenopo diaceae Saussure a lappa
L. Asterace ae
SRP : 1 (sexual impotence)
ﻗﺴﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻱ
GISD : 1 (colon, stomachache ) SMSD: 1 (rheumatism )
Sorbus aria L.
1 Decocti on
0.0 Quercetin, 23 Sexangulareti n, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin
SMSD : (bone strength)
0.0 ----------------23 ---
GISD : (colon)
0.0 Fibers 46 Phenolics
ﺣﺸﻴLea ﺷﺔves ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎ ﻝ
RTD :1 (cough)
CSD :1 (hypertensio n)
sitosterol, Zhao et 0.0 β al. 46 stigmasterol, (2014) trans-caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, kaempferol-3O-glucoside, loliolide
CSD :1 (hypertensio
(Patočk 0.0 Alkaloids, a and 23 terpenes, organic acids, Jakl,
ﻣﺒﻠﺲFrui RTD : ts
Sorghum annum Trab
Olszew ska (2008)
Poaceae/ Gramina ceae Triticum durum L. Poaceae/ Gramina ceae Tussilago farfara L. Asterace ae
Valerian ﻧﺎﺭﺩﻳ a ﻥ officinale
Martini et al. (2015)
valepotriates and flavones
L. Valerian aceae
Vicia faba L.
Aeri SD :1 al (burns) part Fev :1 s
Fabaceae / Legumin oseae Vinca difformis Pourr. Apocyna ceae
RTD :1 (chronic cough)
0.0 Kaempferol 23 glycosides
Topical 0.0 ----------------46
Neugar t et al. (2015)
Table 4. New therapeutic uses recorded
Use from the present study
Uses from literature (AlgeriaMorocco)
Anethum graveolens L.
bad breath Insomnia
Diuretic, hepatic diseases
Boudjelal et al. (2013)
Aphrodisiac, gastrointestinal antiseptic
Bellakhdar et al. (1991) El-Hilaly et al. (2003)
Acacia gummifra Willd l
Ajuga iva (L.) Sch
Fumigation cough, bronchitis hypertension coup de soleil internal cold in women Diabetes Thyroid problems
Hypertension Digestive disorders
Ouarghidi et al. (2013)
Tahraoui et al. (2007) El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Moussaoui et al.
(2014) Eddouks et al. (2007) Stomach cancer Respiratory affections
Chebat et al. (2014) Daoudi et al. (2015) Boudjelal et al. (2013) Miara et al. (2013)
Cancer Dermatological problems Kidney diseases Diabetes
Alpinia officinarum Female sterility Hance Rheumatism
Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.)
female sterility cough Cancer
Apium graveolens hypertension var dulce
Digestive problems Respiratory diseases
Colds Gain weight Maux de gorge, rages de dents, stimulation de la peau Rheumatism Stomach problems
Antispasmodic Carminative Diuretic
Bouzabata (2013) Chebat et al. (2014) Jamila and Mostafa (2014)
Eddouks et al. (2007) Jamila and Mostafa (2014) Ouarghidi et al. (2013) Fadil et al. (2015)
Ouarghidi et al. (2013) Bouzabata (2013)
Doukkali et al. (2015)
Jamila and Mostafa (2014)
Artemisia campestris L.
Asparagus acutifolius L.
Boudjelal et al. (2013) Sari et al. (2012)
Chest pain, spasms, fever
Sarri et al. (2014) Chermat and Gharzouli (2015) Rebbas et al. (2012) Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)
Miara et al. (2013)
Feet and hands/skin oedemas
Volpato et al. (2012)
Boudjelal et al. (2013)
Hypertension Cardiac diseases
Eddouks et al. (2007)
Cancers Stomachache, hepatitis Diabetes Cough general pain Skin infections
Cichorium intybus L Cancer
Digestive problems Kidney diseases Diabetes
Miara et al.(2013) El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Daoudi et al. (2015)
Nervous disorders Ferula assa-foetida Fever (kids) L.
Glycine soja Sieb. et Appetite Zucc Bone strength
Diabetes Analgesic, antispasmodic
Eddouks et al. (2007) Lahsissene and Kahouadji (2010)
Jouad et al. (2001)
Analgesic, antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative.
Rebbas et al. (2012)
Digestive disorders, Antifungal
Lahsissene and Kahouadji (2010)
Skin diseases Hair care
Volpato et al. (2012)
Chebat et al. (2014)
Fadil et al. (2015) Eddouks et al. (2007) Eddouks et al. (2002) Eddouks et al. (2007) El Amrani et al. (2010)
Lawsonia inermis L. Kidney diseases
Lupinus albus L.
Nervous weakness Digestive disorders
Jouad et al. (2001) Bouzabata (2013)
Boudjelal et al. (2013)
Eddouks et al. (2002)
Digestive disorders Allergy Skin diseases
El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Jamila and Mostafa (2014) Sarri et al. (2014)
Sari et al. (2012) Jouad et al. (2001)
Anti-hemorrhoid, heart diseases
El-Hilaly et al. (2003)
Doukkali et al. (2015)
laryngitis cough stomchache Goitre Analgesic Papaver somniferum L.
Doukkali et al. (2015)
Petroselinum sativum Koffm.
Eddouks et al. (2002)
Phyllantus embelica Weight gain L. Hair loss
halepensis Stomachache Skin wounds
Piper nigrum L.
Prunus persica (L.) Cancer Batsch Colon
Disinfectant respiratory tract Antifungal
Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)
Rebbas et al. (2012)
Sari et al. (2012)
Chebat et al. (2014)
Tonsillitis, skin diseases
Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)
Rebbas et al. (2012)
Boudjelal et al. (2013) Miara et al. (2013) Eddouks et al. (2007) Jouad et al. (2001)
Rhamnus alaternus Anaemia L.
fructicosus Bronchitis Allergy
Diabetes Renal diseases
Ruta chalepensis L.
Diabetes, Renal caculi, migraine, vertigo, itch.
Satureja calamintha Cough L. Colon
indicum Memory problems
hirsuta Female sterility
Hypertension antispasmodic, eczema
Boudjelal et al. (2013)
Diuretic, Digestive disorders, abortifacients
Chermat and Gharzouli (2015)
El-Hilaly et al. (2003) Lahsissene and Kahouadji (2010)
Fever Tonic Stomachache
Sarri et al. (2014)
Tahraoui et al. (2007) Eddouks et al. (2007) Jouad et al. (2001)
Breast cancer Leishmanicidal, vermifuge, eczema
Chebat et al. (2014) Boudjelal et al. (2013)
Migraine, hair loss
Sarri et al. (2014)
Miara et al. (2013)
El Amrani et al.
Boudjelal et al. (2013)
Eddouks et al. (2007)
Breast milk secretion
Daoudi et al. (2015)
El-Hilaly et al. (2003)
Tahraoui et al. (2007)
Hypertension, cardiac diseases
Eddouks et al. (2002)
Sarri et al. (2014) Bouzabata (2013)
Thypha angustifolia haemorrhoids, intestinal infections, L. cold, pharyngitis, menopause disorders, Fever, Eczema
repens P. Cancer Diuretic Tonic
Viscum album L.
Weight gain Vitex agnus-cactus Female sterility L.
Vitis vinifera L.
Cancer, Anaemia, Digestive disorders, Memory
Cough, allergies, blood circulation, appetite, digestive disorders, liver diseases, Kidney diseases, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, Female sterility, Aphrodisiac,
relaxation, analgesic, tonic Diabetes
El Amrani et al.
(2010) Eddouks et al. (2007)
Increasing immunity, Rheumatism.
Table 5. Informant consensus factor for commonly used medicinal plants Ailment category
Number of usereports (Nur)
Number of taxa (Nt)
Cardiovascular system diseases
Informant consensus factor (Fic) 0,524 0,460
Endocrine system diseases
Gatsro-intestinal system diseases
0,366 0,125 0,658 0,645 0,375 Immune system
0,250 0,517 0,462 Respiratory tract diseases
0,642 0,364 Skeleto-muscular system disorders
Table 6. Fidelity level values for common medicinal plants used Ailment category Cancer
Plants Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
FL (%) 60
Cardiovascular system diseases
Hibiscus sabdarriffa L.
Endocrine system diseases
Lupinus albus L.
Ajuga iva (L.) Sch
Pinus sylvestris L.
Rhamnus alaternus L. Curcuma longa L.
Gatsro-intestinal system diseases
Cassia angustifolia Vahl
Pistacia lentiscus L.
Cyperus esculentus L.
Rubia tinctoria L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill
Cuminum cyminum Linn.
Eugenia caryophyllus L.
Satureja calamintha L. Quercus infectoria Myrtus communis L.
Artemisia herba-alba L. Carum carvi L.
Punica granatum L.
Borago officinalis L. Ajuga iva (L.) Sch Pinus halepensis Mill.
Ficus carica L. Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc Hair care
Daphne gnidium L.
Parietaria officinalis L.
Cucurbita maxima Duch
Peganum harmala L.
Eucalyptus globules L.
Bunium mauritanicum L. Lepidium sativum L. Respiratory tract diseases
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Mentha pulegium
Acacia gummifra Willd
Lippia citriodora L.
Thymus vulgaris L.
Mentha rotundifolia L.
Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Ocimum basilicum L. Skin diseases
Adonis aestivalis L.