epoxy hybrids using Taguchi approach

epoxy hybrids using Taguchi approach

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ScienceDirect Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 23974–23983

www.materialstoday.com/proceedings

IConAMMA_2017

Experimental investigation of dry sliding wear behaviour of jute/epoxy and jute/glass/epoxy hybrids using Taguchi approach Anurag Paturkara, Ashok Machea,*, Abhijeet Deshpandea, Atul Kulkarnia a

Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Kondhawa, Pune-411048, India

Abstract Natural fibre reinforced polymer composites are being used as replacement to conventional non-renewable reinforcing materials due to its significant properties such as light weight, competitive strength and low cost. It has gathered attention in many industries such as automotive and construction. Among all natural fibres, jute fibres possess good properties, low cost and easy commercial availabilities. The behaviour of jute/epoxy and jute/glass/epoxy composites was examined under dry sliding wear condition. The wear test was performed on pin-on-disc wear test machine and results were further analyzed using Taguchi technique. Effect on wear performance of composite plates were investigated for different sliding velocities (1m/s, 2m/s and 3m/s), applied loads (10N, 20N and 30N) and sliding distances (1000m, 1500m and 2000m). The analysis of variance was carried out to study the relative significance of individual factor on wear characteristics. Linear regression analysis was used to obtain an empirical relation between operating parameters and wear rate. Experimental results showed that, hybridization of jute epoxy with glass fibre shows better resistance to wear. It was also observed that the applied load was more influencing parameters on tribological performance of composites. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and/or Peer-review under responsibility of International Conference on Advances in Materials and Manufacturing Applications [IConAMMA 2017]. Keywords:Taguchi approach, Jute, Hybrids, Wear;

*

Corresponding author: Email address: [email protected] 2214-7853© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and/or Peer-review under responsibility of International Conference on Advances in Materials and Manufacturing Applications [IConAMMA 2017].

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Nomenclature SV AL SD

Sliding Velocity Applied Load Sliding Distance

1. Introduction In recent years, there is demand of new materials with higher strength and low cost. The use of fibre reinforced metal material because of attractive physical and mechanical properties. These composites are finding competitive due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, corrosion resistance and low coefficient of friction in several applications including tribological [1,2].With growing ecological and environmental concerns, government is in supports of eco-friendly products. As such, the natural fibres are being considered as substitute to synthetic fibres in composite manufacturing. The natural fibre based composite has drawback of moisture absorption. In earlier studies however, it has been shown that the there was significant improvement in moisture absorption resistance when jute reinforced composites were prepared by adding different coatings [3]. The numerous research work has been reported earlier on tribological performance of fibre reinforced composite material. Sudhir K. and K. Panneeerselvam [4] studied mechanical and abrasive wear behaviour of Nylon 6 and GFR Nylon 6 by varying glass fibre content (0- 30 wt.%) and applied loads (5 N, 10 N, 15 N and 20N) at constant sliding distance of 500m and temperature 230oC. The result showed that, 30 wt. % of glass fibre content in Nylon 6 has lowest specific wear rate. Li et al. [5] examined 30 wt. % glass fibres reinforced in PEEK and pure PEEK composite and found that the GF/PEEK has excellent wear resistance than pure PEEK. Sumer M. et al. [6] studied tribological performance of pure poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and 30 wt. % fibre glass (GFR) reinforced PEEK under dry and water lubricated conditions. The results revealed that, specific wear rate and coefficient of friction for both composites slightly increases with increase in applied pressure. Also it was seen that the values of specific wear rate and coefficient of friction at water lubricated condition found to be lower than dry sliding condition. The 30 wt. % GFR reinforced PEEK has shown high wear resistance than pure PEEK. Sudheer et al. [7] studied the influence on mechanical and dry sliding wear behaviour of glass/epoxy composite incorporation with ceramic whisker (7.5 wt. %) and solid lubricant filler (2.5 wt. %). Results shows that, incorporation of whisker reduces strength of composites; however incorporation of solid lubricant gives significant improvement of both tribological and mechanical properties of composites. Hasim P. and Nihat T. [8] investigated experimentally wear behaviour of 300 GSM and 500 GSM glass fabric and aramid fibre reinforced fabric under different speeds and loads. The results show that the aramid-fibre reinforced composite has less weight loss than the 300 GSM glass fabric reinforced composite followed by 500 GSM glass fabrics reinforced composite. Davim et al. [9] studied reinforcement of carbon and glass fibres in PEEK on tribological behaviour. The resulting composite PEEK-CF30 and PEEK-GF30 shown excellent wear resistance compare to PEEK. The PEEK with 30 wt. % carbon fibre presented best tribological performance. Gajjal et al. [10]in their studies found that incorporation of CF, PTFE and graphite in PEEK gives improved tribological performance on dry sliding wear behaviour of this composite. Authors used Taguchi technique for analysis based on plane of experiments. Similarly, Rupesh L. et al. [11] have used Taguchi technique for investigation of influence of adhesive layer thickness, overlap length and curing temperature on the performance of adhesive joints of hemp epoxy composites. Basavarajappa et al. [12] examined tribological behaviour of glass epoxy composite with SiC and graphite particles incorporated secondary filler. The SiC and Graphite as filler materials in glass/epoxy composite showed significant improvement in wear resistance properties. Unal et al. [13] explored tribological behaviour of pure Poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE), GFR and bronze and carbon filled PTFE polymer. The results showed that, addition of glass fibre, bronze and carbon fibre in pure PTFE resulted in low coefficient of friction and large wear resistance; it shows addition of 17 wt. % glass fibre in PTFE gives lowest friction coefficient. Navin C. et al. [14] studied three abrasive wear behaviour of short E-glass fibre reinforced polyester with and without filler material. They found that wear behaviour of composite depends on different test parameter such as abrasive particle size, sliding velocity, load etc. Also it is seen that higher weight fraction of glass improves wear resistance of polyester composites.

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With the use of natural fibers in the area of composite material applications, research have been also carried out to investigate the tribological performance of natural fibre reinforced composite [15-19]. Ahmed et al. [15] investigated effect of ceramic filler SiC and Al2O3 for three different percentage (5%, 10% and 15%) on wear behaviour of jute/epoxy composites. The results found that with Al2O3 filled jute/epoxy composite has better tribological performance than SiC filled composite. Yallew et al. [16] shows jute fabric reinforced polypropylene composites gives 3.5-45% reduction in friction coefficient value and 65% reduction in specific wear rate than neat polypropylene at different working parameters like sliding speed, load and sliding distance. Bajpai et al. [17] presented tribological behaviour of inexpensive plant developed natural fibre (nettle, grewia optiva and sisal) reinforced PLA composite, with different operating parameters at dry contact condition. Experimental results show natural fibre mats into PLA significantly improves wear behaviour of neat PLA. There was 10-44% reduction in friction coefficient and more than 70% reduction found in specific wear rate of developed reinforced composite. Navin C. and Dwivedi U. K. [18] investigated abrasive wear behaviour of jute fibre polypropylene composites with addition of coupling agent maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP) by two different approac1100h i.e. by varying sliding speed and load. Authors found that addition of MA-g-PP coupling agent gives significant improvement in wear resistance compared to jute –PP composites. Emad et al. [19] reviewed tribological behaviour of natural fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites, and summarized that reinforced natural fibre composite have seen improved tribological properties and these composite properties comparable with conventional fibres. In addition, fibre treatment and orientation in composites affect the tribological Properties: where treated and normal oriented fibre gives better friction coefficient and wears characteristics. This papers focuses on enhancement of wear resistance of jute fiber based composite material by its proper hybridization using glass fiber as an additional reinforcement. Jute/glass/epoxy hybrid composite have been studied earlier for their basic mechanical properties [20]. The present study aims at investigation of wear behaviour of jute/glass/epoxy hybrid composite at dry sliding condition and compare its performance with pure jute/epoxy composite. 2. Taguchi technique Taguchi method is simple, systematic and efficient to optimize design of experiments. It is better method than conventional design of experiments which reduces number of tests, time as well as cost. Taguchi method based on orthogonal array which provides a set of balanced experiments. In the present work, an L27 orthogonal array was selected; this consists of 27 rows and 13 columns. The operating parameters and level is shown in Table 1. The experiments consist of 27 experiments as per orthogonal array (OA). In OA, the first column was assigned to sliding velocity, second column to applied load and fifth column for the sliding distance, and remaining column were assigned to interactions. Table 1. Levels of test parameters Levels Sliding Velocity (m/s)

Applied Load (N)

Sliding Distance (m)

1

1

10

1000

2

2

20

1500

3

3

30

2000

3. Experimental details 3.1. Materials In the current study, for fabricating composite laminates, commercially available woven jute mat is used as reinforcement in epoxy matrix. To improve the wear performance of composite, 580 GSM glass fabrics is used as additional reinforcement along with jute. Among all, jute appears to be auspicious material because of low cost, commercially availabilities in the form of woven mat and good specific properties. Glass shows good properties like light in weight, strong and robust. It has good strength to weight ratio when compared to metals. Epoxy 520 and

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PAM hardener used as a matrix material. Epoxy resin has viscosity of 9000 to 11000 millipascals-second, density of 1.1 g/cm3. Tensile strength 71 MPa and shows shore D hardness of 80. Table 2. Physical properties of Jute and Glass Physical properties

Jute

Glass

Density (g/cm3)

1.4

2.55

Diameter (mm)

0.60

-

Tensile Strength (MPa)

108

1950

Young’s Modulus (GPa)

3.42

72

3.2. Fabrication of composite laminates In present study, three different types of laminates of jute and glass fibre reinforcement were prepared with hand lay-up technique using compression molding machine. Compression molding machine reduces porosity and voids between the matrix and fibres [21]. Laminates prepared using the Epoxy resin-520 and PAM hardener with proportion of 10:1 by weight. The woven jute and glass mat were impregnated with resin and were arranged one over the other in the molding plate with different stacking sequence. To prevent sticking of resin to mold plate, Mylar film sheet were used on top and bottom of the mold plates. The prepared laminates were labeled as jute-epoxy (J/E), jute-glass epoxy (J/G/E) and glass jute epoxy (G/J/E). The Fig.1. shows fabricated laminates and volume fraction of all laminates is given in Table 3.

Fig. 1. (a) J/E (b) J/G/E (c) G/J/E Table 3.Volume fraction (VF) and stacking sequence Composite Laminate Stacking Sequence J/E

J-J-J-J-J-J

J-G/E

J-G-J-J-G-J

G-J/E

G-J-J-J-J-G

Jute VF (%)

Glass VF (%)

Matrix VF (%)

40

0

60

26.10

13.90

60

26.08

13.92

60

3.3 Wear test The wear performance was measured using Pin-on-Disc set up (Ducom India; TL-20) as per ASTM G99 standard procedure. In Pin-on-Disc wear test set up, disc of 165 mm diameter rotates with speed of 200 to 2000 rpm using DC motor with wear track diameter of 50 to 145 mm. The disc is made up of ground hardened steel. The load normal to rotating disc was applied on pin (specimen) by dead weight in step of 5N with max loading of 200N. The specimen of size 3, 6, 10 and 12 mm was used. Specimen with size 10 x 10 mm were cut from laminates using hacksaw cutter as per ASTM standard G99 and finished to required dimension using grinding wheel machine. The cut specimen were glued using an adhesive (Araldite) to metal pins of size 12 x 12 mm and length 30 mm in such a way that contact between sample and counter face was oriented parallel to the plane of laminates. The friction measurement on pin-on-disc was measure trough load cell and wear measurement was done using LVDT.

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Test conducted under dry sliding condition at applied load of 10N, 20N and 30N with sliding velocities of 1m/s, 2m/s and 3m/s for sliding distance of 1000m, 1500m and 2000m. Surface contact between specimen and counter face abraded with 600 SiC paper to obtain surface roughness of 0.7-1.4 μm. For each composition, wear test conducted as per plan of experiments based on Taguchi technique. Before and after each test, specimen’s assembly was weighted to calculate weight loss of the specimens.

Fig. 2. Wear test setup of pin-on-disc

4. Results and discussion The experimental tests were performed to find effect of parameters such as, sliding velocity, applied load and sliding distance under dry sliding condition on wear performance of composite. The table 4. Shows experimental results of all composite materials. 4.1 Signal- to-Noise Ratio While investigation of materials to change the quality characteristics of product, a factor introduced in response in experimental design is “signal” of the desired effect. However, when experiments were executed, there were several outside factors not considered into experiments which effect on response (output). These outside factors called noise factor and their influence on the output of experimental test is called “Noise”. The Signal-to-Noise ratio is log function of deserved output response, for optimization perform as an objective function. It helps in analyses the data and to predict optimum results. All interaction plots for S/N ratios of composite materials shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. In the existent study, smaller wear rate to be considered, hence the S/N ratio as ‘smaller is better’ is considered. The S/N ratio is calculated from equation given below.

S 1   1 0 lo g 1 0  N  n



n i 1

 y i2  

(1)

Where, n= number of experiments trial. 4.2 Analysis of variance Analysis of variance (ANOVA) can be used as an introductory tool to define observations. It is used to determine the dependent significance of the different parameters on the behaviour of response. In current study ANOVA used to investigate the effect of test parameter sliding velocity, applied load and sliding distance on wear performance of composite materials. The analysis was performed for 95% significance level of confidence. Percentage contribution of influencing factor has been calculated on sum of square. Higher value of sum of square indicates higher

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influencing parameters on the output. Tables 5, 6 and 7 shows the wear performance of ANOVA results of composite materials. The ANOVA results for wear performance of Jute/epoxy (J/E) tabulated in Table 5. From the results it is found that the applied load (PC= 51.90%) is more influencing parameter in test whereas sliding velocity (PC=36.21%) has moderate effect on wear characteristics. Sliding distance (PC=9.5%) has low influence in the wear characteristics. The total error of 2.39% found. It is observed in experiments that increasing applied load and sliding velocity weight loss of the composite increases. An increase in applied load the friction between contact surface of composite and rotating counter face is increases. Hence applied load is more influencing parameters on the composite. From the analysis of Analysis of variance show that applied load more influencing parameter compared to other. Table 4. Taguchi orthogonally array with experimental results and Signal-to Noise ratio Exp. No.

SV

AL

SD

weight loss (g) J/E

weight loss (g) J/G/E

weight loss (g) G/J/E

S/N ratio for J/E

S/N ratio for J/G/E

S/N ratio for G/J/E

1

1

1

1

0.0800

0.0710

0.0310

21.9382

22.9748

30.1728

2

1

1

2

0.0950

0.0820

0.0390

20.4455

21.7237

28.1787

3

1

1

3

0.1030

0.0890

0.0450

19.7433

21.0122

26.9357

4

1

2

1

0.1260

0.1120

0.0750

17.9926

19.0156

22.4988

5

1

2

2

0.1530

0.1430

0.0930

16.3062

16.8933

20.6303

6

1

2

3

0.1630

0.1550

0.0990

15.7562

16.1934

20.0873

7

1

3

1

0.1540

0.1450

0.1150

16.2496

16.7726

18.7860

8

1

3

2

0.1890

0.1800

0.1350

14.4708

14.8945

17.3933

9

1

3

3

0.2110

0.2020

0.1540

13.5144

13.8930

16.2496

10

2

1

1

0.1090

0.0930

0.0410

19.5762

20.6303

27.7443

11

2

1

2

0.1290

0.1060

0.0510

18.2728

19.4939

25.8486

12

2

1

3

0.1420

0.1160

0.0590

17.9926

18.7108

24.5830

13

2

2

1

0.1600

0.1505

0.0850

15.9176

16.4493

21.4116

14

2

2

2

0.1960

0.1855

0.1130

14.1549

14.6331

18.9384

15

2

2

3

0.2090

0.1900

0.1250

13.5971

14.4249

18.0618

16

2

3

1

0.2270

0.2170

0.1390

12.8795

13.2708

17.1397

17

2

3

2

0.2600

0.2270

0.1700

11.7005

12.8795

15.3910

18

2

3

3

0.2700

0.2605

0.2030

11.3727

11.6838

13.8501

19

3

1

1

0.1450

0.1180

0.0490

16.7726

18.5624

26.1961

20

3

1

2

0.1790

0.1390

0.0590

14.9429

17.1397

24.5830

21

3

1

3

0.1990

0.1500

0.0700

13.3512

16.4782

23.0980

22

3

2

1

0.2100

0.1900

0.1100

13.5556

14.4249

19.1721

23

3

2

2

0.2500

0.2190

0.1400

12.0412

13.1911

17.0774

24

3

2

3

0.2990

0.2370

0.1630

10.4866

12.5050

15.7562

25

3

3

1

0.2470

0.2370

0.1630

12.1461

12.5050

15.7562

26

3

3

2

0.2900

0.2530

0.1890

10.7520

11.9376

14.4708

27

3

3

3

0.3300

0.2800

0.2440

9.6297

11.0568

12.2522

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Fig.3. Interaction plot For S/N ratio of J/E

Fig.4. Interaction plot for S/N ratio of J/G/E

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Table 5. ANOVA for S/N ratio J/E Source

DF

Adj SS

Adj MS

F

P

Percentage Contribution (%)

SV

2

101.49

50.7451

870.48

0

36.21

AL

2

145.494

72.747

1247.9

0

51.9

SD

2

26.617

13.3083

228.29

0

9.5

SV*AL

4

4.905

1.2261

21.03

0

SV*AD

4

1.302

0.3255

5.58

0.019

AL*SD

4

0.066

0.0166

0.28

0.88

0.0583

Residual Error

8

0.466

Total

26

280.341

2.39

Table 6 shows Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Jute-Glass Epoxy (J/G/E), it is seen that in wear test applied load (AL) (PC=67.18%) has most influencing parameter than sliding velocity (PC=24.73%) on wear characteristics. Here sliding distance (PC=6.87%) has low influencing parameter in all test condition. Also interaction of test parameter on wear characteristics has negligible influence. It is also observed that, addition of glass material in different stacking sequence gives low wear rate i.e. high wear performance. Table 6. ANOVA for S/N ratio J/G/E Source DF Adj SS

Adj MS

F

P

Percentage Contribution (%)

SL

2

71.161

35.5807

472.05

0

24.73

AL

2

193.335

96.6675

1282.48

0

67.18

SD

2

19.78

9.89

131.21

0

6.87

SV*AL

4

1.844

0.4611

6.12

0.015

SV*AD

4

0.641

0.1602

2.13

0.169

AL*SD

4

0.481

0.1203

1.6

0.266

Residual Error

8

0.603

0.0754

Total

26

287.864

1.22

Table 7 for sample Glass Jute Epoxy (G/J/E), shows that major influencing parameter in wear test is applied load (PC=82.90%) and Sliding velocity and Sliding distance has low influence on the wear loss. however the interaction of sliding velocity with load, load with distance and Sliding velocity with distance has negligible influence in tests so it has neglected. Addition of glass in jute epoxy gives highest wear performance in all composites. Table 7. ANOVA for S/N ratio G/J/E Source DF Adj SS

Adj MS

F

P

Percentage Contribution (%)

SL

2

59.144

29.572

864.32

0

9.24

AL

2

530.759

265.38

7756.45

0

82.90

SD

2

43.981

21.991

642.74

0

6.87

SV*AL

4

0.838

0.21

6.12

0.015

SV*AD

4

0.55

0.138

4.02

0.045

AL*SD

4

0.492

0.123

3.6

0.058

0.034

Residual Error

8

0.274

Total

26

636.039

0.99

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Fig. 5. Interaction plot for S/N ratio of G/J/E

5. Regression Analysis To study wear characteristics under dry sliding contact condition, the regression analysis has been done for the all composites. From the regression analysis, the empirical relations were obtained in terms of sliding velocity, applied load and sliding distance. The linear regression equation of all types of composite for weight loss can be expressed as follows. Linear regression equation for Jute/Epoxy (J/E) is, W

0.0140741

0.00958333 SV 2.08333e SV

0.00300833 AL SD 1.15e AL

1.22222e SD

SD

0.000433333 SV

1.36111e SD

SD

0.00065 SV

AL 2

Linear regression equation for Jute-Glass/Epoxy (J/G/E) is, W

0.0128241

0.0217778 SV 0.00270139 AL 6.6666e SV SD 1.175e AL

AL 3

Linear regression equation for Glass-Jute Epoxy (G/J/E) is, W

0.0348704

0.0187222 SV 1.3e SV SD

0.00050833 AL 3.0333e 2.183e AL SD

SD

0.001075 SV

AL 4

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6. Conclusion In the present work, the wear performance of jute/epoxy and jute/glass/epoxy was analyzed using Taguchi approach under dry sliding condition. The study examined effect of operating parameters on wear characteristics of all composites. From present study following conclusion was drawn:  Design of experiments by Taguchi approach allows us to analyses successfully the wear performance of the jute/epoxy and jute/glass/epoxy hybrids with sliding velocity, applied load and sliding distance as operating parameters.  The analysis of variance of composite materials shows that, among all test parameters the applied load is most influencing parameter on all composition composites followed by sliding velocity and sliding distance. Sliding distance gives very less influence on wear properties.  The analysis show that at sliding velocity of 1m/s, applied load of 10N and sliding distance of 1000m, is optimum condition of minimum wear rate as seen from S/N ratio.  Linear regression analysis has been developed to correlate between test parameters and wear rate.  Hybridization of jute epoxy with glass fibre shows better wear performance of jute epoxy composites. References [1] A. Shalwan and B. F. Yousif, Material and Design 48 (2013) 14-24. [2] Umer Nirmal, Jamil Hashim, M.M.H. Megat Ahmed, Tribology International 83 (2015) 77-104. [3] Radhika Londhe, Ashok Mache, Aparna Kulkarni, Perspective in Science (2016) 8, 580-582. [4] Li E. Z., W.L. Guo, H.D. Wang, B.S. Xu, X.T. Liu, Physics Procedia 50 (2013) 453-460. [5] Sudhir Kumar, K. Panneerselvam, Procedia Technology 25 (2016) 1129-1136. [6] Sumer M., H. Unal, A. Mimaroglu, Wear 265 (2008) 1061-1065. [7] Sudheer M., K. Hemanth, K. Raju, Thirumaleshwara Bhat, Procedia Material science 6 (2014) 975-987. [8] Hasim Pihtili, Nihat Tosun, Wear (2002) 979-984. [9] Davim J. Paulo, Rosaria Cardoso, Wear 266(2009) 795-799. [10] Gajjal S. Y., Aishwarya J. Unkule, P.S. Gjjal, Material Today: procedings (2016), PMME 2016. [11] Rupesh Lokhande, Abhijeet Deshpande, Ashok Mache, Int. Journal of Engineering Technology and Science, Vol. 5, June 2016. [12] Basavarajappa S., K.V. Arun, J. Paulo Davim, J. of mineral & Characterization &Engg. 8 (2009) 379-391. [13] Unal H., A. Mimaroglu, U. Kadioglu, H. Ekiz, Materials and Design 25 (2004) 239-245. [14] Navin Chand, Ajay Naik, Somit Neogi, Wear (2000) 38-46. [15] Ahmed K. Sabeel, Syed Sha Khalid, V. Mallinatha, S.J. Amith Kumar, Materials and Design 36 (2012) 306-315. [16] Yallew Temesegen Berhanu, Pradeep Kumar, Inderdeep Singh, Procedia Engineering 97 (2014) 402-411. [17] Bajpai Pramendra Kumar, Inderdeep Singh, Jitendra Madaan, Wear 297 (2013) 829-840. [18] Navin Chand, U. K. Dwivedi, Wear (2006) 1057-1063. [19] Emad Omrani, Pradeep L. Menezes, Pradeep K. Rohatgi, Engineering Science and Technology, An International Journal 19 (2016) 717-736. [20] Pradip Sature, Ashok Mache, American journal of Materials Science 2015, 5(3C): 133-139. [21] K.L. Pickering, M.G. Aruan E. Fendy, T.M. Le, Composites: Part A (2016) 98-112.