Experiments with mallein

Experiments with mallein

\IlSTR.\CTS. c., and its sterili5ation temperature is 70° C 4. In cultures at 45 ° and 50 ' the bacillus grows in long thick branched forms. 5. The ...

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c., and its sterili5ation temperature is 70° C 4. In cultures at 45 ° and 50 ' the bacillus grows in long thick branched forms. 5. The bacillus retains even after two years it~ vegetative and pathogenic powers. 6. The destruction of the bacilli produces a substance which is poisonous for guinea-pigs, and less poisonous for the adult fowl. 7. The tubercle excited by the growth of the bacillus in fowls is destitute oi giant cells. The bacillus of mammalian tuberculosis (Maffucci finds) differs from that of avian tuberculosis in the following respects :L It produces tuberculosis in guinea-pigs and rabbit~ , but not in fowl s. 2. Its cultures differ in appearance from those of th e avian bacillu5. 3. It grows at temperatures between 30° and 40° C. 4. It does not withstand the temperature of 65 ° C. for one hour. 5. \t • temperatures between 43° and 45 ° it does not change its form in the cultures. 6. At 45° it loses its vegetative power in a few days. 7. The old moist cultures after a year are with difficulty induced to grow on fresh culture media or in the animal body. 8. The destruction of the bacilli gives rise to a substance that is poisonous for guinea-pigs, and often also for the adult fowl. 9. The mammalian tubercle generally possesses giant-cells. On the ground of these differences Maffucci holds that the mammalian and the avian bacillus constitute two different varieties, but whether they ought to be regarded as distinct species he considers open to question. He also is undecided as to whether human beings can be infected with tuberculosis of the fowl.-Zeitsdzrijt fill' E£ygime, 1892. 3. It grows at temperatures between 35 ° and 4-5 "

EXPERIMENTS WITH MALLEIN. AI' a recent meeting of the "Societe Centrale de Medecine Veterinaire" M. Lalluerriere communicated details of thirty-four cases in which he had employed mallein in the diagnosis of glanders. He summarised the results of his observations as follows : I. Thirty-four horses in all were submitted to the test, eighteen singly and sixteen together. 2. Fourteen of these horses did not react and were sent to work; ten of these are still under observation by the authorities. 3. Seven other horses which displayed no reaction were slaughtered and at the post-mortem they were found to be free from glanders. Included in these seven horses were two which had been considered the subjects of farcy. 4. One of the animals that did not react died some days after it had been submitted to the test, and in that case also the post-mortem failed to reveal any glanders lesions. s. Seven horses exhibited a typical reaction, viz., elevation of temperature, 10c:1-1 swelling, and general disturbance. These seven animals were killed, and the post-mortem showed in each unmistakable lesions of glanders. 6. Three horses had displayed a feeble reaction to the mallein; in two of these the local swelling was painful and persistent ; in the third the temperature before inoculation was 40 c., and therefore no conclusion could be drawn from the test.


7. In two of the cases the reaction was peculiar. In one of these the mallein excited both a local and a general reaction and an elevation of temperature of nearly z degrees. Auto-inoculation, and inoculation of the discharge to pigs had a negative result. After the use of the mallein a nasal discharge, which the horse had, promptly disappeared. In the other case the temperature after injection with mallein rose l'f and a local swelling but not any general reaction was produced. The inoculation of the discharge to a dog had a negative result. A discharge had also been present in that case, but it promptly disappeared after the use of mallein and the animal re-acquired all the symptoms of health. M. Laquerriere believes that these last two animals were the subjects not of glanders but of strangles, and he is inclined to think that mallein is an agent which may be used to reveal the existence of strangles as well as of glanders. He thinks, further, that mallein is perhaps to some extent curative in cases of strangles. For glanders he thinks that mallein is the veritable touch-stone, and that its use should be rendered obligatory as it now is in Switzerland.--ReClteil de lIfCdecine Vetcrinaire.

TERPINE AND TERPINOL IN THE TREATMENT OF BRONCHITIS. TERPINE (CH. zHO.), or hydrate of the essence of crystalised terebenthine. presents itself under the form of smdll white transparent prismatic crystals, soluble in zoo parts of cold water and seven parts of alcohol. It is prepared by passing a strong current of air into a mixture of three part~ of alcohol, four parts of essence of terebenthine, and one part of ordinary nitric acid. The whole is exposed for some days to sunlight, and the supernatant fluid is decanted and diluted with water: the crystaline deposit which is formed is dried and purified with alcohol. Terpinol is an oily colourless product with a penetrating odour recalling that of jasmine. It is obtained by treating terpine either with sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. It is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and ether. Its therapeutic properties are almost the same as those of terpine and may be studied along with these. It acts on the lung and also to some extent on the bladder and kidneys. The therapeutic properties of terpine are thus given by M. Bissauge. In medium doses it is a powerful stimulant. Immediately after its absorption it provokes a transient stimulation of the principal organic functions, the respiration is accelerated, the pulse becomes more rapid and stronger, the mucous membranes become slightly congested, the heat of the skin augmented, and the urine more abundant. In some cases it produces slight irritation of the digestive tract, but that is much less frequent and much less severe than that excited by the administration of the essence of terebenthine. Some hours after the administration of terpine the respiration and the circulation become slower, the pulse also is reduced in frequency and the temperature is lowered; any nervous excitement that may have been present is allayed. One of its most important properties is that it is almost entirely eliminated by the lung. It increases considerably the bronchial secretion, and renders that more fluid, clearer, and consequently more easy of expectoration. It has been used very successfully in the treatment of chronic affections of the respiratory passages in man, and M. Bissauge has thus been led to introduce it into veterinary practice. He recommends its employment in affections of the kidneys and bladder. The medium dose for the dog is from 5-10 centi-