Wear 301 (2013) 717–726
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Failure mode in sliding wear of PEEK based composites R. Schroeder a, F.W. Torres b, C. Binder a, A.N. Klein a, J.D.B. de Mello a,c,* a b c
Materials Laboratory—Federal University of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil Whirlpool S.A/Embraco Unit, Joinville, SC, Brazil Laboratory of Tribology and Materials—Federal University of Uberlˆ andia, Uberlˆ andia, Brazil
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 31 August 2012 Received in revised form 20 November 2012 Accepted 22 November 2012 Available online 3 December 2012
Polymers and polymer composites are commonly used as solid lubricants. Polyether–ether–ketone (PEEK) is an engineering thermoplastic with a very good combination of thermal and mechanical properties. Although PEEK presents relatively high friction coefﬁcients during unlubricated sliding, the wear rates are remarkably low. Despite this potential as a good tribological material, the high performance abilities of PEEK have not been entirely realized in practice because PEEK-ferrous metal contacts may fail by scufﬁng and/or two-three body abrasion for certain tribosystems. The traditional design approach to reinforce PEEK has been to use ﬁbres for strengthening and ﬁller particles for lubrication. In this work three materials were analysed: PEEK, carbon-ﬁbre (CF) reinforced PEEK and PTFE þGraphite þ CF ﬁlled PEEK. A series of different tribo-tests was carried out: (i) Reciprocating linear scufﬁng test with 7 N incremental loading every 10 min up to 910 N; (ii) constant load (10 N, 5 h duration), reciprocating sliding tests assessing friction coefﬁcient and wear rates of both specimen and counter body; (iii) free ball micro-abrasion tests using soft, ﬁne abrasive particles. The wear tracks were analysed using SEM and light interferometry in order to assess the morphology of the wear tracks during scufﬁng, abrasion and sliding tests. The aim was to identify whether the failure mode in the sliding wear of these PEEK based materials is dominated by scufﬁng or by abrasive mechanisms. Unﬁlled PEEK exhibited very low scufﬁng resistance and a large wear rate during reciprocating sliding wear and abrasion, presenting a clear tendency to fail by abrasion mechanisms. CF-reinforced PEEK also presented very low scufﬁng resistance but higher sliding and micro abrasive wear resistance. It seemed that the presence of CF enhanced protection against abrasion by minimizing plastic deformation, although ﬂaky debris probably originated from subsurface cracking were observed. The addition of PTFE and Graphite to the CF-reinforced PEEK produced a sharp decrease in friction coefﬁcient, high scufﬁng and abrasion resistance, with an almost non-measurable wear rate in the reciprocating sliding test. The behaviour observed for PTFE þ Graphiteþ CF ﬁlled PEEK suggested the transfer of a protective tribo-layer from the composite to the counter-body and vice-versa. & 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: PEEK composites Sliding wear Scufﬁng wear Micro-abrasion wear
1. Introduction Despite the spectacular advances in tribology since the word was coined in the mid sixties, a considerable amount of energy is still dissipated just to overcome friction even in modern mechanical systems. A nice example was recently reported by Holmberg et al.  concerning passengers cars: about one-third of the fuel energy is wasted to overcome friction in engine, transmission, tires and brakes. Inefﬁcient systems like those in passenger cars are found in many other industrial sectors such as power generation, mining, petroleum, heavy transportation, etc. The impact of these systems
n Corresponding author at: Laboratory of Tribology and Materials—Federal University of Uberlˆandia, Uberlˆandia, Brazil. Tel.: þ55 3432394009; fax: þ 55 3432394273. E-mail addresses: [email protected]
, [email protected]
(J.D.B. de Mello).
0043-1648/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2012.11.055
involves not only economic losses but many others factors; they also contribute to an increase in environment degradation, e.g., with increasing amounts of CO2 emissions and over consumption of natural raw materials. Therefore, any action towards a reduction in friction and wear losses may have a large impact on society. Solid lubrication has been considered one of the most promising means to achieve better tribological behaviour in these critical modern systems . The so-called ‘‘self-lubricating materials’’ have been used in industry for many decades, mainly in applications where ﬂuid lubrication is not feasible (high vacuum and temperature, high speeds and loads, tight clearances, etc.) . Even in lubricated contacts where hydrodynamic lubrication is supposed to be effective, the use of self-lubricating materials demonstrated a beneﬁcial synergistic effect . Therefore, tribologists tend to investigate the lubricity behaviour of unexplored or even of new materials for certain tribosystems. Particularly, polymers tribology has become a mature
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technology and gained much attention mainly as a replacement material for steels . It is already known that polymers can be rarely used in practice. On the other hand, polymer composites capable of resisting higher temperatures, speed, load and environment effects are competitive materials for metals or ceramics. Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) composites are certainly some of the most promising materials in current polymer tribology . The traditional design approach of using ﬁbres to reinforce and additive particles to improve lubrication has proved to be efﬁcient in PEEK composites development . At the end of the eighties Voss and Friedrich  showed that the wear behaviour of PEEK could be improved by short-glass and carbon ﬁbre (CF) additions. The best results were obtained by using carbon ﬁbres. Recently , the morphology of such carbon ﬁbres added to PEEK was studied: long woven CF-reinforced PEEK exhibited both better friction coefﬁcient and wear properties than short CF-reinforced composite. Ceramic particles were also successfully investigated as possible reinforcements for PEEK composites [10,11]. Like papers concerning the reinforcement of PEEK for strengthening many others focused on using ﬁllers for lubrication, in particular PEEK/PTFE composites [12–16]. Although presenting reduced wear properties, Polytetraﬂuoroethylene (PTFE) is a well know solid lubricant which is recognized as being a good combination of thermal and chemical resistance. Therefore PTFE additions to the tough and stable PEEK produce a reasonable self-lubricating behaviour for certain blends. As an example, Bijwe  investigated the optimal fraction (up to 30%) of PTFE in PEEK; results showed an interesting decrease in friction coefﬁcient and wear rate with increasing PTFE contents. In a different approach, Vail et al.  used high tenacity expanded polytetraﬂuoroethylene (ePTFE) ﬁlaments as both ﬁbre reinforcement and reservoir for solid lubricants in PEEK. The wear rates and friction coefﬁcient obtained from the ePTFE ﬁlled composites were better than conventionally ﬁlled PTFE–PEEK composites. Besides the many works performed on reinforcements and ﬁllers, the systemic character of tribological behaviour has also been addressed in many investigations using PEEK composites. Some examples treated the quality of the counter face surface , the effect of cryogenic or elevated temperature [19,20] and also the inﬂuence of various gas environments . Despite being a good tribological material, the high performance abilities of PEEK have not been entirely realized in practice because PEEK-ferrous metal contacts may fail by scufﬁng and/or two–three body abrasion for certain tribosystems. Despite the high volume of published work, the failure mode of the composites during sliding is still unclear and this is the main goal of our investigation. In this work, three materials based on Polyether-ether-ketone (unﬁlled PEEK and two PEEK composites) were submitted to a series of wear test conﬁgurations in order to assess their failure mode, in particular, aiming to address whether their failure mode in sliding leaned towards scufﬁng or towards abrasion; in addition to determine how the additives (ﬁbres and solid lubricants) affect the tribological behaviour of PEEK under different wear conﬁgurations.
2. Materials and methods Three different commercially available proprietary materials were selected based on their characteristics: (i) unﬁlled PEEK (PEEK) which was used as a reference; (ii) a wear grade, carbon ﬁbre reinforced PEEK (Composite A) and; (iii) a self-lubricating grade 10%PTFEþ10%Graphiteþ10%CF ﬁlled PEEK (Composite B).
Table 1 Mechanical and thermal properties of the materials used in this work. Material properties
Tensile strength (MPa) Tensile elongation (%) Tensile modulus (GPa) Melting point (1C) Glass transition (1C) Thermal conductivity (W m 1 1C 1)
110 25 3.90 343 143 0.29
180 1.9 18 343 143 1.30
140 2.2 12.5 343 143 0.87
Table 1 presents nominal mechanical and thermal properties of the studied materials. All materials were produced by injection moulding (100 100 3 mm plate). A series of different tribo-tests, schematically presented in Fig. 1, were carried out: 1. Reciprocating linear constant load sliding tests; 2. Reciprocating linear scufﬁng tests; 3. Free-ball micro-abrasion tests. The reciprocating linear sliding tests Fig. 1a, were conducted in a CETR universal tribometer UMT. In the constant load mode, it was conﬁgured in a ball-on-plate mode, where the plate was the test-material and the counter body an AISI 52100 steel (|: 10 mm) ball. The test had duration of 5 h under a constant load of 10.0 N, with a reciprocation frequency of 2 Hz and stroke of 10 mm. It was conducted in air, without any ﬂuid lubricant, in controlled humidity (50%) and at room temperature (2273 1C). The results are the average of, at least, 5 tests for each material. These experiments intended to access friction coefﬁcient and wear rates of specimen and counter-bodies. The wear rates were calculated using wear volumes measured by using white-light interferometry (Zygo New View 7200). The second series of tests was carried out in order to investigate the scufﬁng behaviour of the three materials Fig. 1a. In this case, the scufﬁng resistance was deﬁned as the extension of the lubricious regime (m o0.2). The tests used the same tribological parameters imposed to that of the sliding test. By increasing the normal load in increments of 7 N at 10 min interval the scufﬁng resistance was determined. In this study, the scufﬁng resistance was deﬁned as the work (N m) at which the value of the friction coefﬁcient ﬁrst rose above 0.20. Again, the results were the average of 5 tests. Abrasive wear tests were carried out in a CSM CaloWears ‘free ball’ micro-abrasion tester [22,23]. In this method Fig. 1b, a sphere of radius R is rotated against a specimen in the presence of a slurry of ﬁne abrasive particles. The geometry of the wear scar is assumed to reproduce the spherical geometry of the ball, and the wear coefﬁcient k was calculated by using Eq. (1) : 4
pb 64R S N
where K is the coefﬁcient of wear (mm3/N m); b the surface chordal diameter of the crater, S the sliding distance, N the normal load applied and R the radius of the ball. Hard martensitic steel bearing balls (AISI 52100, 20 mm in diameter) were used as a counter-body. They were ultrasonically cleaned before each test and induced a normal load of 0.2270.01 N, monitored by a load cell. The drive shaft rotation was kept constant at 150 rpm. Abrasive slurries of silica (SiO2) particles suspended in distilled water were used, at a concentration of 75 g of abrasive per cubic centimetre of water. The slurries were agitated continuously throughout each test to prevent the settling of the abrasive particles.
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Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the wear tests. (a) Reciprocating linear sliding (left scufﬁng tests—right constant load tests. (b) Free-ball micro abrasion.
0.35 Friction Coefficient
A peristaltic pump fed slurry on to the top of the ball at a rate of approximately three drops per minute. In order to determine the permanent wear regime, sequential tests at a range of test times (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 min were carried out on the specimen at the same location. Wear tracks were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM—Jeol) and by white-light interferometry in order to understand the wear mechanisms occurring in each tribosystem.
3. Results and discussions
0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15
Composite B 0.10 0.05
3.1. Reciprocating sliding tests
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 Test time (s) Fig. 2. Typical evolutions of the friction coefﬁcient.
0.40 0.35 Friction Coefficient
Fig. 2 presents typical evolutions of the friction coefﬁcient with test time for the studied materials. The friction coefﬁcient of all samples rapidly reaches the steady-state condition and remains in such mode during the whole test (5 h). In order to avoid any inﬂuence of the running in period on friction behaviour the average friction coefﬁcient was calculated only in the permanent regime (test time higher than 5000 s) and are presented in Fig. 3. The tribological behaviour in pure sliding was drastically inﬂuenced by the composition and properties of each material. Unﬁlled PEEK presented a relative high friction coefﬁcient (m ¼0.3470.01) and this was modiﬁed by the addition of reinforcing ﬁbres and solid lubricant particles. For CF reinforced PEEK (Composite A), the friction coefﬁcient decreased a little to m ¼0.2970.01, whereas when ﬁlled with CF ﬁbre þGraphiteþPTFE (Composite B) the friction coefﬁcient sharply decreased to m ¼0.0970.01. Fig. 4 shows the wear volume variation of all studied materials after the reciprocating sliding tests. Wear was evidently different between the unﬁlled PEEK and the two composites. Wear rates were strongly inﬂuenced by the material composition Fig. 5. Composite B presented a wear rate (2.15 mm3 N 1 m 1 10 7)
0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15
Fig. 3. Average friction coefﬁcient.
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Fig. 4. Typical wear scars after 5 h of reciprocating sliding tests.
Fig. 5. Wear rate in sliding tests.
three orders of magnitude lower than PEEK (1370.0 mm3 N 1 m 1 10 7) and even one order of magnitude lower than composite A (22.10 mm3 N 1 m 1 10 7) which in turn had a two orders of magnitude lower wear rate when compared to unﬁlled PEEK. The hard steel ball was very little affected by sliding tests. In fact, it was impossible to quantify any expressive and accurate wear scar within the 5 h test.
The reinforcement of the PEEK, e.g., with ﬁbres (Composite A), increased its resistance to plastic ﬂow, thus diminishing stick-slip and resulting in lower friction coefﬁcients. This is in agreement with the results presented by Lu and Friedrich  for low temperature experiments. However, the friction coefﬁcient induced by Composite A is still high (0.29) in particular for selflubricating applications, especially for oil-free systems. On the other hand, the addition of carbon ﬁbres and solid lubricants to PEEK (composite B) promoted a signiﬁcant reduction in the friction coefﬁcient. This may be associated with a protective tribo-layer formed at the sliding interface which may be explained in terms of transfer mechanisms from the polymeric specimen to counter-body and vice-versa. The transferring mechanism in polymeric composites has already been widely discussed mainly in terms of two complementary effects [25,26]: (i) the protective effect against the metallic asperities found in the metallic ball which shift the wear mode from severe to mild and (ii) the marked reduction in the friction coefﬁcients which diminishes the energy availability to cause plastic deformation in cases where the tribo-layer has lubricating effects. Fig. 6 shows the early steps of the formation of the tribo-layer, particularly when loose PTFE particles in the interface adhere to the specimen Fig. 6a and to the counter body Fig. 6b. As the PTFE particles are homogeneously dispersed in the volume of the
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Fig. 6. PTFE debris originating the protective tribo-layer. (a) PTFE wear debris. (b) Counter body wear scar. (c) EDX spectra of region 1 in Fig. 6a. (d) EDX spectra of region 2 in Fig. 6a.
composite B, there is a continuous self-replenishment or resupply of solid lubricants to the contact, thus keeping the friction coefﬁcient highly stable at low values. Fig. 7 summarizes the main aspects of the wear scars after the sliding tests. The low magniﬁcation images (left column) give an idea of the magnitude of the wear whereas the high magniﬁcation images focus on the wear mechanisms. Due to low resistance to plastic deformation PEEK presented high levels of wear as can be seen on the very large wear track Fig. 7a. The detailed analysis (Fig. 7a and b) revealed that smearing in the earlier stage of sliding (arrows Fig. 7a) and ploughing constituted the dominant mechanism in surface modiﬁcations, with typical grooves aligned in the direction of sliding mainly in the middle of the track. According to Zhang et al.  frictional heat generated during sliding provoked an increase of the contact temperature. Thus, the deterioration of mechanical properties such as hardness and shearing strength occur as a result of a rise in interfacial temperature which produces the high plastic ﬂow. The grooves probably originate from the cutting effect of the hard asperities of the counter face and also from third-body polymeric debris that slide on the contact. Improvement of polymer debris hardness can occur during the reciprocating sliding process as a result of work hardening caused by repeated plastic deformation . The debris is surely harder than the specimen and can act as an abrasive grain in the following sliding process. Composite A had a considerably small scar width Fig. 7c. Abrasive wear was not noticeable and the wear mechanism changed to the production of ﬂaky debris. Composite B exhibited a wear track even smaller Fig. 7e. The wear scars were very smooth and almost indistinguishable by SEM. The carbon ﬁbres clearly protruding in the virgin surfaces Fig. 7f, were almost indistinguishable inside the wear scars.
The decreasing of two orders of magnitude in the wear rate of composite A when compared to PEEK may be attributed to the higher strength obtained with CF addition. In other words, microploughing was largely inhibited in this material, but still with some surface damage persisted as it can be seen in Fig. 7d. The production of ﬂaky debris instead of grooving indicates that the wear mode has changed to probably micro-cracking/surface fatigue. The surface fatigue behaviour of PEEK composites was recently investigated by Avanzini et al.  in severe rolling contact experiments and similar production of ﬂaky debris from subsurface micro-cracking was also identiﬁed. However, despite presenting a brittle failure mode, it is important to emphasize that the wear resistance is greatly improved compared to the unﬁlled PEEK by the addition of Carbon ﬁbres. Additionally, Greco et al.  also revealed that with ﬁbre addition, the counter-body wear is to some extent increased as a consequence of the fracture of ﬁbres and abrasive particles formation. However, as already mentioned, it was impossible to quantify any accurate wear scar in the balls within the 5 h test. The explanation for that may be linked to the low speed (0.4 m/s) and nominal contact pressure (PEEK¼0.07 GPa/Composite A ¼0.2 GPa/Composite B¼0.05 GPa, i.e., a 10 N normal load applied to a 10 mm diameter ball) applied in the present tests versus the high speeds (65 m/s) and loads used by Greco et al. . It is reasonable to suppose that the tribo-layer formed on the surface of composite B and transferred to the counter-body during sliding protects the surface of the composite against the abrasive action of the hard asperities of the steel ball, thus contributing to the minimization of the abrasive wear. Furthermore, the reduction of the friction coefﬁcient by the action of a PTFE tribo-layer led to less frictional energy dissipation, which is associated with less heat in the contact and less energy available for plastic deformation and/or crack propagation. The synergistic
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Wear scar Wear scar
Fig. 7. Typical wear scars seen under low (left) and high (right) magniﬁcation: (a) and (b) PEEK, (c) and (d) Composite A, (e) and (f) Composite B.
Normal Load ( N )
composites can be markedly inﬂuenced by the ratio of each polymer in the blend and therefore the behaviour reported here cannot be postulated for all PEEK/PTFE composites.
100 150 Sliding distance (m)
Fig. 8. Friction coefﬁcient behaviour during the scufﬁng tests.
beneﬁcial effect of all these aspects ensure a very low wear rate ((2.1570.43) 10 7 mm3/N m) and very smooth wear tracks, as seen in Fig. 7d and e. It is important to emphasize that, as pointed out earlier by Burris and Sawyer , the wear mechanism in PEEK/PTFE
3.2. Reciprocating linear scufﬁng tests Fig. 8 shows typical evolution of the friction coefﬁcient and the applied normal load with sliding distance for the three studied materials submitted to reciprocating linear scufﬁng test. Unﬁlled PEEK presented a high friction coefﬁcient (around m ¼0.30) from the beginning of the test i.e., it had very low scufﬁng resistance. Composite A showed some lubricity capability in the very beginning of the experiment but already in the second/third load steps, the frictional forces increased markedly. In a completely different manner, Composite B showed a very low friction coefﬁcient (around m ¼0.09) during the whole experiment, which guaranteed higher scufﬁng resistance. Typical aspects of the wear tracks are presented in Fig. 9. PEEK presented a large wear scar with grooves typical of abrasive wear mechanism Fig. 9a. Composite A Fig. 9b, although showing equivalent thickness of the wear track, presented a quite different aspect: Abrasive wear was not noticeable, and the wear mechanism
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Fig. 9. SEM images of wear tracks formed during reciprocating scufﬁng tests: (a) PEEK, (b) Composite A, (c) Composite B.
Scuffing Resistance (N.m)
100 1105 10 15 1 PEEK
Fig. 10. Scufﬁng resistance of PEEK composites.
changed to the production of ﬂaky debris. Composite B exhibited a small wear track Fig. 9c. The wear scars were very smooth and almost indistinguishable by SEM. The values of the scufﬁng resistance for each test were computed. At least ﬁve tests were performed for each material, and an average scufﬁng resistance was thus calculated. The results are summarized in Fig. 10. The scufﬁng resistance of composite B presented very small dispersion and was greater (16834 752 N m), by about three orders of magnitude when compared to the scufﬁng resistance of PEEK (15711 N m) and one order of magnitude when compared to composite A (11057759 N m). Typical sliding grooves from micro-ploughing were observed in the wear track of PEEK Fig. 11a. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of smearing in the genesis of the degradation followed by two/three-body abrasion, just as observed in pure sliding. It seems that a similar failure mode was acting in both constant and incremental loading experiments which can be inputted to
the intense elastic/plastic deformation on polymer/metal contacts associated with the large adhesive forces. These forces originated from the growth of the real area of contact caused by the high level of plastic deformation The increase in strength promoted by the addition of carbon ﬁbres in composite A reduced the intensity of elastic/plastic deformation as well as the growth of the real area of contact. Again, an important formation of ﬂaky debris, typical of subsurface micro-cracking, was evident in the worn surfaces Fig. 11b. As the stresses imposed in scufﬁng tests were greater than those acting in sliding tests, the associated damage was also more severe, leading to large scars and fractures, but did not change signiﬁcantly the micro-mechanism of failure by micro-cracking/ surface fatigue acting in pure sliding. On the other hand, composite B exhibited an extremely high scufﬁng resistance. In fact the friction coefﬁcient remained stable at low values up to the end of the incremental loading test (91 N) which corresponds to maximum load allowed by the tribometer used to perform the tests. The tribo-layer apparently resisted the increased load and there was no evidence of failure either by scufﬁng or by abrasive wear. The wear tracks kept very smooth, a consequence of the ﬂattening of the surface topography Fig. 11c. The ﬁgure also shows the abundant presence of PTFE ‘‘islands’’. It looks like the combination of solid lubricants (PTFEþGraphite) and CF-ﬁbres play a major role in this tribosystem. The great durability of the tribo-layer is certainly a combination of the continuous lubricant self-replenishment mechanism associated with the large bearing capacity of the ﬁbre reinforced matrix. 3.3. Free-ball micro-abrasion tests The evolution of the wear coefﬁcient with test time is illustrated in Fig. 12. This ﬁgure shows the results presented by unﬁlled PEEK when abraded by silica. The results are typical of all the tested conditions. Wear coefﬁcients were obtained in four sets (PEEK 1, PEEK2, PEEK3 and PEEK 4) of 6 tests each. The wear
R. Schroeder et al. / Wear 301 (2013) 717–726
Fig. 11. Wear mechanisms acting on scufﬁng mode: (a) PEEK, (b) Composite A and (c) Composite B.
Fig. 12. Wear coefﬁcient evolution with test time during micro abrasion tests for Composite B.
Fig. 13. Micro abrasion wear coefﬁcients.
coefﬁcient was evolved in a random manner with the test time up to 12 min. After that, the dispersion decreased and the evolution of the wear coefﬁcient became roughly constant. In this paper, all the analyses were done in the permanent wear regime, which was represented by an averaged wear coefﬁcient (k), obtained by the averaging of the results relative to the test times 12, 15 and 18 min, e.g., this coefﬁcient is representative of an average of 12 tests carried out in each sample. Fig. 13 summarizes the results of free-ball micro-abrasion tests. Again, the smallest abrasive wear coefﬁcients were presented by Composite B (k¼(1.19 70.09) 10 15 m3 N 1 m 1) whereas unﬁlled PEEK showed the highest (k¼(40.00 7 5.00) 10 15 m3 N 1 m 1). Composite A presented a wear coefﬁcient (k¼8.5070.50 10 15 m3 N 1 m 1) 7 times higher than composite B but 5 times lower than PEEK which in turn had a wear coefﬁcient one order of magnitude higher than composite B. Fig. 14 shows typical aspects of the abraded surfaces and illustrates the wear mechanism acting in accord with the material. A grooving wear mechanism similar to a two-body mechanism was found to be dominant for PEEK Fig. 14a. This process occurs in the micro-scale abrasion test when a signiﬁcant proportion of the particles on the specimen/ball interface slide without rolling, thus producing a series of ﬁne parallel grooves in the specimen surface . Moreover, high magniﬁcation showed intense debris formation associated with plastic deformation Fig. 14b. Wear scars associated with composite A also presented the aligned grooves typical of sliding abrasion Fig. 14c, with formation of very ﬁne debris Fig. 14d. In a different way, composite B presented very shallow and smooth wear scars with almost no generation of debris. Moreover, the randomly oriented carbon ﬁbres were visible in the images of the wear tracks of both composites. In addition, reservoirs of PTFE (clear rounded regions) were clearly exposed on the wear track of Composite B. Unﬁlled PEEK, again, presented very low wear resistance against abrasive particles, particularly in terms of micro-ploughing. However,
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Fig. 14. SEM images of wear tracks formed during the micro-abrasion experiments.
the large production of debris seen on the worn surface (Fig. 14b) was not typical for pure micro-ploughing, particularly if it is assumed that the material loss should be ideally zero . It is reasonable to suppose that there are transitions in abrasive wear mode, probably caused by superimposition of interactions [31,32]. In fact, the continuous sliding of soft abrasives over the PEEK surface and the interaction of grooves may, at some moment, change the wear mechanism from pure plastic deformation to brittle fracture, thus increasing debris formation. Da Silva et al.  showed this superimposition of interactions in ductile abrasive wear mode of metals, and it is reasonable to suppose that the same variation in wear mechanisms may occur in the abrasion of polymers. In the case of composite A, the presence of grooves was not so evident indicating a wear mechanism transition, probably from micro-ploughing to a more fracture dependent mechanism, as a consequence of the increase in strength promoted by the addition of carbon ﬁbres as already related. Reinforced by Carbon ﬁbre and modiﬁed by graphite and PTFE as internal lubricants, the wear mechanisms of composite B became even more complicated. Despite presenting shallow and smooth wear scars with almost no generation of debris, a few tiny
grooves were still present in the wear scar of composite B (Fig. 14e). The better performance of composite B was a little surprising because both graphite and PTFE are very well known for their low mechanical resistance. In theory increasing the content of solid lubricants induces a reduction in global abrasive wear resistance. According to Zhang et al. , PTFE and graphite also reduce the adhesion between the materials and counterparts. For this reason PTFE and graphite additions decrease the frictional coefﬁcient as well, and the Carbon ﬁbre improves the hardness and creep resistance, which ﬁnally lead to a signiﬁcant improvement of the wear resistance.
4. Concluding remarks The tribological behaviour, summarized in Table 2, was drastically inﬂuenced by the composition and properties of the material. Unﬁlled PEEK presented a relative high friction coefﬁcient and this was modiﬁed by the addition of reinforcing ﬁbres and solid lubricant particles. For CF reinforced PEEK (Composite A), the
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Table 2 Summary of the tribological behaviour. Sample
Wear rate (mm3 N 1 m 1) 10 7
Scufﬁng resistance (N m)
Abrasive wear coefﬁcient k (m3 N 1 m 1) 10 15
PEEK Composite A Composite B
0.34 70.01 0.29 70.01 0.09 70.01
1370.0 7 90 22.1 7 2.2 2.17 0.4
157 11 11057 759 168347 52
40.0 75.0 8.5 70.5 1.2 70.1
friction coefﬁcient slightly decreased, whereas when ﬁlled with CF ﬁbreþ GraphiteþPTFE (Composite B) the friction coefﬁcient sharply decreased. In all studied conﬁgurations (sliding, scufﬁng and microabrasion) wear rates were also strongly inﬂuenced by the material composition. Composite B presented the best performance and unﬁlled PEEK presented the worst. In general the difference was in the order of magnitude range. The hard steel ball was very little affected and it was impossible to identify any expressive wear scar in it. Wear mechanisms and failure mode were much more dependent on material composition than on test conﬁguration and severity. Plastic deformation, in particular sliding grooves typical for micro-ploughing, was always observed in the wear track of PEEK. This was due to the intense elastic/plastic deformation in polymer/metal contacts associated with the large adhesive forces. In the case of composite A, the presence of grooves was not so evident indicating a wear mechanism transition, probably from micro-ploughing to a more fracture dependent mechanism, as a consequence of the increase in strength promoted by the addition of carbon ﬁbres. Reinforced by Carbon ﬁbre and modiﬁed by graphite and PTFE as internal lubricants, the wear mechanisms acting on composite B became even more complicated. Despite presenting shallow and smooth wear scars, a consequence of the ﬂattening of the surface topography, with almost no generation of debris, the wear scar always showed an abundant presence of PTFE reservoirs. These reservoirs, accordingly to the literature, give rise to a strong protective tribo-layer. The great durability of the tribo-layer is certainly a combination of the continuous lubricant self-replenishment mechanism associated with the large bearing capacity of the ﬁbre reinforced matrix. Finally, the role of graphite particles was not discussed in the present study, but the question is of fundamental importance. This topic is still under investigation and will hopefully be clariﬁed by future work.
The authors wish to thank the Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy (LCME) of the Federal University of Santa Catarina for carrying out SEM analysis. The authors also thank CNPq and Capes/Proex for ﬁnancial support.
   
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