Feeding Value of Brewers’ Condensed Solubles for Broilers and Laying Hens

Feeding Value of Brewers’ Condensed Solubles for Broilers and Laying Hens

RESEARCH NOTES Feeding Value of Brewers' Condensed Solubles for Broilers and Laying Hens H. L. FULLER and N. M. DALE Department of Poultry Science, Un...

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RESEARCH NOTES Feeding Value of Brewers' Condensed Solubles for Broilers and Laying Hens H. L. FULLER and N. M. DALE Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (Received for publication June 10, 1982)

1983 Poultry Science 62:914-916 INTRODUCTION

Brewers' condensed solubles (BCS) is a by-product of the brewing industry consisting primarily of residual sugars recovered from the mashing vessels after wort production and prior to fermentation. The BCS contains about 50% solids of which approximately 80% are readily digested carbohydrates maltose and isomaltose (dextrins). It is currently being used in rations for poultry and ruminants, but it has not been officially defined as a feed ingredient by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (1982), nor has it been tested or characterized in published research reports. Because the product has not been subjected to fermentation, it should not necessarily resemble any of the brewers' or distillers' by-products in use by the livestock and poultry industries. From its chemical composition it would be expected to serve primarily as a source of readily available energy. These experiments were carried out to evaluate BCS as a feed ingredient in rations for broiler chicks and laying hens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Metabolizable Energy Determinations. True metabolizable energy (TME) assays were conducted according to the procedures des-

cribed by Sibbald (1976, 1977) except that excreta samples were dried in a forced-air oven at 60 C instead of being freeze-dried. Adult Leghorn roosters (Shaver) were fasted for 24 hr and then either force-fed 25 g of the respective test material or fasted for an additional 24 hr to serve as controls. Excreta were collected for 24 hr postfeeding. Each treatment was replicated with 8 roosters. Because of the physical nature of BCS there was some question as to how birds would respond to a single dose of this material fed alone. Thus, the design included an assay of BCS alone and also mixed at a level of 25% with ground yellow corn. A sample of beet molasses was also assayed concurrently with the first sample of BCS because of the similar physical and chemical nature of the two materials. The AME assay was conducted according to the method of Hill et al. (1960), as modified by Matterson et al. (1965), except that total collection of excreta was employed rather than the chromic oxide indicator method. The BCS was incorporated into the test diet at 15% at the expense of an equal portion of the basal ration. Two-week-old chicks were fed the basal and test diets for 10 days with total collection of excreta being made during the last 3 days. At the end of each day, excreta were removed and frozen in plastic containers. At the end of 3

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ABSTRACT Brewers' condensed solubles (BCS) is a by-product of the brewing industry. It contains about 50% solids, consisting mainly of residual sugars recovered from the mashing vessels after wort production. Several experiments were conducted to determine its value as a feed ingredient for chickens. The BCS was incorporated into both broiler and layer diets at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5%, isocalorically, based on a predetermined true metabolizable energy (TME) value. Four replicate groups of 10 chicks received each of the experimental rations to 4 weeks of age. No significant differences in growth rate or feed efficiency were observed on any of the treatments. In the laying hen trial three replicate groups of 10 hens each received each of the experimental rations for four 28-day periods. No significant differences among treatments occurred in egg production, egg weights, Haugh units, or feed efficiency. Two samples of BCS were assayed for TME on a corn carrier and found to contain 4.25 ± .12 and 4.58 ± .14 kcal/g DM, respectively. The second sample was also found to contain 4.32 ± .16 kcal/g DM apparent metabolizable energy (AME). These results indicate that BCS can serve as a satisfactory feed ingredient in broiler and layer rations at least up to 5%. (Key words: brewers' condensed solubles, true metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy, feeding value, broiler rations, layer rations)

RESEARCH NOTE

days the total quantity of excreta was weighed, thawed, homogenized, and sampled. In both assays feed and excreta were analyzed for gross energy with a Parr adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Feeding Trials. Two feeding trials were conducted, one with broiler chicks and one with laying hens. In both trials, BCS was incorporated into test diets isocalorically at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (Table 1) based on the determined TME value. Because the BCS contained 48% water and was stabilized with

Broiler

Ground yellow corn Soybean meal (dehulled) Alfalfa meal (17%) Poultry fat Limestone Defluorinated phosphate Salt Trace mineral mix a Vitamin mix*3 DL-Methionine Test component 0

Layer

52.75 35.50

62.25 21.00 2.50

3.00 .75

Calculated analysis: Apparent metabolizable energy (apparent), kcal/g protein

2.15

7.00 1.50

.40 .05 .25 .15

.40 .05 .25 .05

5.00

5.00

3000 21.93

2770 16.1

^ r a c e mineral mix provides (ppm of diet): Mn, 60; Zn, 50; Fe, 30; Cu, 5; I, 1.05. Vitamin premix provides (per kg/diet): vitamin A, 5,500 IU; vitamin D 3 , 1100 ICU; vitamin E, 11 IU; riboflavin, 4.4 mg; Ca pantothenate, 12 mg; nicotinic acid, 44 mg; choline CI, 220 mg; vitamin B 1 2 , 6.6 jug: vitamin B 6 , 2.2 mg; menadione, 1.1 mg (as MSBC); folic acid, .55 mg; d-biotin, .11 mg; thiamine, 2.2 mg (as thiamine mononitrate); ethoxyquin, 125 mg. Test component: Diet

Brewers' condensed solubles Corn Water* Total

A

B

C

D

1.00 2.48 1.52 5.00

2.50 1.55

5.00

3.10 1.90 5.00

.95

5.00

5.00

'Supplemented with 6 ml propionic acid/liter.

propionic acid, the levels of these substances in the diets were equalized by adding water and propionic acid in graded levels as shown in Table 1. Four groups of 10 male broiler chicks (Hubbard X Hubbard) received each of the experimental diets from 1 day to 4 weeks of age. Chicks were housed in battery brooders and fed ad libitum. Body weight gains and feed conversion at 4 weeks of age were determined. Single Comb White Leghorn hens approximately 8 months old were divided into 12 groups of 10 hens each and placed in single-hen laying cages. The groups were equalized for egg production on the basis of 4-week pretrial production records. Three replicate groups received each of the test diets for four 28-day periods. Records were kept of egg production and feed consumption. Egg weights and Haugh units were determined on a 3-day collection of eggs at the end of each 28-day period. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the ME assays are shown in Table 2. The TME of the first sample of BCS was quite similar when assayed alone or on a corn carrier and exceeded the TME of molasses on a dry matter basis. It also exceeded that of the corn used in this assay, which was determined to be 4.08 kcal/g DM. In previous reports the TME of corn has been shown to vary from 4.07 (Dale and Fuller, 1981) to 4.12 (Sibbald, 1977) kg/g dry matter. Sample no. 2 was a composite of several days production of BCS from one .plant and served as the source of BCS for the feeding trials. Both AME and TME demonstrated a high rate of absorption when mixed with a practical feed ingredient such as corn; however, when fed alone this sample appeared to be partially unabsorbed, which was similar to the results observed previously with molasses. Feeding Trials. In the broiler trial, growth rate was very good in all treatments (some pens exceeded 900 g/chick on a pen average); however, there were no significant differences in body weight gains among treatments (Table 3). The numerically greater gains in treatment B, however, resulted in a significant improvement in feed conversion for this treatment. It is entirely possible that 1% BCS exerted a favorable influence, either nutritional or physical, on the diet in that treatment; however, if that were the case it would be necessary to assume an

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TABLE 1. Experimental rations

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FULLER AND DALE

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TABLE 2. Apparent (AME) and true metabohzable energy (TME) of brewers' condensed solubles (BCS) and beet molasses BCS Sample

Dry matter (DM), % Gross energy, kcal/g DM TME, kcal/g DM TME, assayed alone TME, assayed on Corn2 AME, kcal/g DM

#1

#2

Beet molasses

52.1 4.54

51.0 4.77

72.5 3.97

4.30 ± .05 4.25 ± .12

I

I

4.58 ± .14 4.32 + .16

3.61 ± .06

1 Results were not satisfactory because much of the test material appeared unchanged in the excreta when fed alone. 2

25% BCS on ground yellow corn as a carrier. The TME of corn alone was determined to be 4.08 kcal/g.

Diet

BCS

Body weight gam

A B C D

0 1.0 2.5 5.0

(g) 830 a 851a 822 a 834 a

Feed/ gain

1.73 a b 1.66a 1.74 b 1.76 b

' Values with common superscript do not differ significantly (P<.05).

difference in treatment B was random. In the laying hen trial, there were no significant differences among treatments in egg production, feed conversion, egg weights, or Haugh units (Table 4). At levels of inclusion up to 2V%% of the ration as a straight substitute for dry ingredients, BCS appeared to improve the physical characteristics of the feed in terms of reduced dustiness and improved handling qualities. This could result from the relatively high level of dextrins, which have an adhesive quality, in the product. Results of these trials demonstrate that BCS can be used satisfactorily as a feed ingredient in broiler and layer rations at least up to 5%. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

TABLE 4. Effect of brewers' condensed soluble (BCS) on egg production traits in White Leghorn hens1 Layer diet

Egg BCS production

A B C D

0 1.0 2.5 5.0 1

(%) 73.1 69.4 75.6 77.1

-

Feed/ dozen

Egg weights

Haugh units

(kg) 1.58 1.64 1.52 1.50

(g) 61.6 61.2 61.1 60.9

85.9 87.0 85.8 85.3

No significant differences in any of the values.

offsetting negative effect at the higher levels. In view of the similarity of values at the 0, 2.5, and 5% BCS, it is more likely that the observed

This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from Anheuser-Busch Inc., St. Louis, MO. REFERENCES Association of American Feed Control Officials, 1982. Official publication, College Station, TX. Dale, N. M., and H. L. Fuller, 1981. The use of true metabohzable energy (TME) in formulating poultry rations. Pages 50—57 in Proc. Georgia Nutr. Conf. Atlanta, GA. Hill, J. W., D. L. Anderson, R. Renner, and L. B. Carew, Jr., 1960. Studies of the metabohzable energy of grain products for chickens. Poultry Sci. 39:573-579. Matterson, L. D., L. M. Potter, M. W. Stutz, and E. P. Singsen, 1965. The metabohzable energy of feed ingredients for chickens. Res. Rep. 7, July 1965. Agric. Exp. Sta., Univ. Connecticut. Sibbald, I. R., 1976. A bioassay for true metabolizable energy in feedstuffs. Poultry Sci. 55:303-308. Sibbald, I. R., 1977. The true metabolizable energy system, Part 2. Feedstuffs 49(43):23-24.

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TABLE 3. Effect of brewers' condensed solubles (BCS) on body weight gains and feed conversion of 4-week-old broilers