Flame retardancy of polymeric materials

Flame retardancy of polymeric materials

Book Reviews Flame retardancy of polymeric materials Edited by W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973, Vol 1 : 317 pp; Vol 2: 242 p...

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Book Reviews Flame retardancy of polymeric materials Edited by W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973, Vol 1 : 317 pp; Vol 2: 242 pp. $24.50 'These volumes are designed to fill the existing need for a comprehensive review of the basic aspects of the field of flame retardancy. Both synthetic and naturally occurring polymers are examined, and particular emphasis is placed on polymers of commercial significance. The contributing authors (who are active workers in the field) present factual information along with their own theories and interpretations in order to provide diversified viewpoints on this complex subject.' This description on the fly leaf adequately describes these volumes. They provide an excellent review by chemists for chemists in the textiles, fibres, plastics and coating industries. A feature of each chapter is the large number of supporting references provided. In some chapters nearly three hundred references are cited. The first chapter lists the available flame retardants which are classified into inorganic, phosphorus, halogen, nitrogen and composite compounds. Chemical formulae, reactive functionality, analysis of active components, product name and supplier are tabulated for each compound. No indication is given at this stage of the polymers in which the compounds are most effective. Inorganic flame retardants and their mode of action are then considered in some detail. The remaining chapters describe in detail the actions to improve the fire retardancy of poly(vinyl chloride) and related polymers; wool, nylon and other natural and synthetic polyamides. Volume 2 contains the chapters dealing with polystyrene and related polymers; polyethylene and polypropylene; natural and synthetic rubbers; phenolic resins and urea- and melamine-formaldehyde resins. Each chapter is complete in itself and contains a description of the range of polymers available, together with an indication of applications. Pyrolysis studies and the mechanism of flame retardancy are then described and the behaviour of a substantial range of flame retardants is analysed. Usually too, attention is given to future developments. Some reference is made to the smoke problem but this is not a major consideration in this work. The chapters were obviously written before the US Federal Trade Commission's complaint regarding misleading test results described as self-extinguishing and non-burning. However, bearing in mind that the book is intended for workers in the flame retardancy field, the use of ASTM D635, D2843, D2863, etc. in no way invalidates the value of the book. Indeed many of the authors go to great pains to emphasize that many of the small scale laboratory

Conference Announcement ACS Division of PolymerChemistry, Inc,

7th Biennial Polymer Symposium Florida, 9-12 December 1974 The ACS Division of Polymer Chemistry, Inc. will hold its Seventh Biennial Polymer Symposium at the Tides Hotel and Bath Club of North Redington Beach, Florida, from 9 to 12 December 1974. The conference is being arranged so that lectures will be given in the mornings and evenings with the afternoons free for the many recreational activities in the area. Further information and registration forms may be obtained from Dr J. C. Salamone, Publicity Chairman, c/o Department of Chemistry, Lowell Technological Institute, Lowell, Mass. 01854, USA.

tests are excellent for evaluating new formulations in the laboratory, but may not always reflect behaviour in the product's application. The book reflects the extensive skills and ingenuity shown by chemists in their efforts to contribute to a 'safer' fire situation through minimizing the ease of ignition and reducing the flammability of combustible polymeric materials. These volumes are strongly recommended but one critical note must be made. It is that unsaturated polyester resins have not been included. This is surprising since a considerable amount of work has been done not only with additives for GRP products but also in modifying the polyester chain, monomers etc. to reduce flammability. The resins are also used extensively in aircraft transport.

K. A. Scott

Peptides 19"/2 Edited by H. Hanson and H.-D. Jakubke North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973, 470 pp. Dfl. 90.00 This account of the proceedings of the Twelfth European Peptide Symposium, held in East Germany in September 1972, has been produced with commendable speed, for which the editors are to be congratulated. As with its predecessors, it deals mainly with peptide synthesis (both methods and achievements) and there is little in it of direct interest to readers of Polymer, apart perhaps from the three papers on insulin and pre-insulin, by Professors Hodgkin and Zahn and Dr Markussen. One whole section (13 contributions) is devoted to problems of peptide synthesis using polymeric supports. There is no doubt that this, the Merrifield solid-phase method, is the one method which offers the promise of eventual successful synthesis of enzymes and other biologically active proteins. It has at present, however, many deficiencies some, at least, of which might be overcome by using something better than the chloromethylated, or otherwise chemically modified, divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrenes at present used in the procedure. If this review leads any reader of Polymer to address himself to this problem and come up with something better it will have more than achieved its purpose.

H. N. Rydon

Developments in P V C technology Edited by J. H. L. Henson and A. Whelan Applied Science, Barking, 1973, 161 pp. £4.50 This book is based on a symposium at the Polytechnic of North London in February 1973, and although interference of the editors with the individual authors' contributions appears to be minimal most of the ten chapters do present reasonably balanced statements of the subject matter with which they are concerned. While appropriate in its original context the opening chapter on the pattern of usage of PVC is perhaps out of place here, as readers will either be aware of its contents or can readily find them elsewhere. Important aspects of the rapidly growing technology of processing of unplasticized PVC receive appropriate treatment in chapters devoted to lubricants, impact modifiers, and dry blends, although the second of these is remarkable for its scant reference to acrylic impact modifiers. A similar criticism of possible bias might be levelled at the chapter on mass PVC, which seems to overplay possible deficiencies of suspension polymers. Bottle production and injection moulding are treated mainly with respect to machine and processing characteristics, while guidance on formulation for these processes is almost absent apart from what can be gleaned from the chapters concerned with additives. The book is well produced and clearly printed with generally clear diagrams, tables and photographs, apart perhaps from Figure 2 on p 80 which is a little obscure, and Figure 11 on p 27 which is reproduced upside down. At 161 pages this is a relatively small book, but its price is reasonable by today's standards. It should be read by all concerned with the technology of PVC in industry, whether the main interest is with materials, machinery or processing. The subject matter is too specific to be very relevant to undergraduate courses, but will be of interest to postgraduate academics working in appropriate fields.

G. A. R. Matthews

544 POLYMER, 1974, Vol 15, August