JOURNAL OF THE LESS-COMMON
Book Reviews Internal stresses and fatigue in metals, edited by G. M. RASSWILER Publishing Co.. Amsterdam, 1959. 451 pages, 23 12s.
W. I,. GRUBE, Elsevier
This book is a compilation of a series of twenty-four papers presented as a Symposium on Internal Stresses and Fatigue, organized by the General Motor Research Laboratories in Detroit in 1958. The purpose of the Symposium was to consider and interrelate the phenomena of internal stresses and fatigue in metals from the point of view of the atomic and the solid-state physicist, and to attempt to answer such questions as, what causes and influences internal stress and fatigue in metals, and where do the lines of approach to these problems followed by the engineer and the metal physicist come together. The field is covered under the headings of concepts and significance of internal stresses; crystal lattices, imperfections, and stresses; dislocations, internal stresses and fatigue; and fatigue and related phenomena. Much has been written on these subjects and there are still some aspects of them which are not fully understood. This new book reviews in detail the relevant information now available, and the practical significance of internal stress and fatigue. Both have many facets, and one of the attractions of this book is its breadth of treatment. Appreciation of thecausesandeffects of internal stress is necessary for a proper understanding of its significance in engineering applications, and similarly increase in fatigue life can only be achieved if the causes of fatigue failure in practice can be defined. These are merely examples of the type of information provided, but the book goes much further: and in addition to discussion of fundamentals consideration is, for instance, given to the techniques available for the study of the phenomena involved, and to ancillary matters such as the time-dependent embrittling effect of hydrogen on steel and its influence in static fatigue, and the effects of internal and applied stress on the chemical properties, and hence on the mode of corrosion, of ferrous metals and stainless steels. The book is considerably more comprehensive than its title might appear to indicate. However, all the information it contains is directly or indirectly relevant, and the inclusion of so much data in a single volume is to be commended. Clarity of exposition is evident throughout, and it is obvious that much careful thought has been given to the choice of the topics presented. The book includes a useful summary of the Symposium papers. J. W. C.
Friction and wear, edited by R. DAVIES, Elsevier Er 16s6d.
This book, which covers the Proceedings of the Symposium on Friction and Wear, organized by the General Motors Research Laboratories in Detroit in 1957, should readily appeal to all those interested in the fundamental and practical implications of these very important subjects. The demand for longer life and greater reliability from internal combustion engines and other engineering components is enforcing closer control over the wear and friction of moving parts, and such control can properly be exercised only when the basic mechanisms of these processes are understood. Recent advances in solid state and surface state physics have shed more light on the nature of friction and wear, and phenomena such as stick-slip, seizure under boundary lubrication, wettability, and the adsorption of monomolecular films, which are amongst those topics considered in this book, can now be more rationally explained. Likewise the metallurgical aspects of friction and wear have now become clarified and under this heading useful information is provided on the sliding characteristics for various metallic couples, including some metals that come particularly within the terms of reference of this Journal. It is not however necessary to offer this as an excuse for publishing this review, as although friction and wear may not interest all our readers they are undoubtedly the serious concern of others, for instance, those interested in the engineering uses of titanium. The book contains a considerable amount of fundamental information, and the inclusion of the discussions, although presumably abridged, following the presentation of the various papers that form its individual sections, adds considerably to their value. Each section in consequence is a remarkably good summary of the latest information on its particular aspect of these two important subjects, and the book as a whole covers them in a masterly fashion. The result is a compilation that should be of considerable value to the engineer and others who may be concerned with the problems of combating friction and reducing wear. J. W. C.