LITERATURE AND CURRENT EVENTS
Book Reviews Friction and Wear, edited by R. DAVIES, Elsevier Publishing 64 x g& in., viii + rgz pp., IZO illus., 13 tables; & 1.16.6.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the first of a series of annual symposia organized by the Research Laboratories of General Motors Co. and held near Dearborn, Michigan, in June, 1947. This particular symposium was devoted to friction and wear because, as the editor explains in his preface, recent developments in this field have significantly influenced modem technical progress. If the reviewer is right in his contention that these symposia aim at providing opportunities for assembling and exchanging ideas in fields that are influenced by a variety of scientific disciplines, the present field constitutes indeed a suitable and timely choice. Various leading authorities on friction and wear have presented the following contributions in a generally laudable way: R. DAVIES, “A Tentative Model for the Mechanical Wear Process”; R. C. DRUTOWSKI, “Energy Losses of Balls Rolling on Plates”; L. F. COFFIN, JR., “Some Metallurgical Aspects of Friction and Wear”; C. I,. Goodzeit, “The Seizure of Metal Pairs during Boundary Lubrication”; F. P. BOWDEN “Recent Experimental Studies of Solid Friction”; W. A. ZISMAN, “Friction, Durability and Wettability Properties of Monomolecular Films on Solids”; E. RABINOWICZ, “A Study of the StickCrvsSlip Process”: A. T. GWATHMEY AND L. D. DYER, “Cohesion between Two Oriented Single _ tais of Copper”. H.B.
Internal Stresses and Fatigue in Metals, edited by G. M. RASSWEILER AND W. L. GRUBE, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1959. 64 X g$ in., x + 451 pp., 280 illus., g tables; & 3.rz.o. In this book are presented the papers read at a symposium on internal stresses and fatigue in metals, which was held at General Motors Technical Center (Detroit and Warren, Michigan, U.S.A.) in September 1958. The phenomena of internal (= residual) stresses and fatigue are considered -in some cases even in interrelation-using the atomistic approach of the solid state physicist or the phenomenological point of view of the engineer. Physicists interrelate dislocations (involving stress fields) and fatigue. Some of the papers are of a theoretical nature; the majority relate to experimental work. In theoretical contributions ESHELBY, HAASEN AND FRIEDEL consider dislocation stress fields, also in interaction. In the experimental sector, results are described of various experimental techniques, viz. light microscopy (HIRSCH describes direct observations of dislocations made by transmitting directly thin metal specimens of about ZOO A thickness), X-ray microscopy, field ion microscopy, birefringence in infrared polarized light, and X-ray diffraction methods. Some experiments performed at whiskers are described. In the phenomenon of corrosion of steel, whisker growth appears to be a consistent process; this was investigated by means of electron microscopy, transmitting the edge of small specimens. Electron interference effects (Moire patterns) in thin crystals are described; one of the illustrations is a remarkable electron micrograph of a microcrack (Fig. 5 on p. 124). Nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks are described, placing emphasis on FORSYTH’S discovery of extrusions and intrusions. Engineers have correlated internal stresses and fatigue strength (DOLAN, HEMPEL, MATTSONAND ROBERTS). The influence of internal stress appears to be limited to low stress levels, since at high levels of plastic strain range any internal strains are washed out. In the paper of COFFIN, one might prefer to read “total strain range” instead of “plastic strain range” in Figs. 14-16, since at low load the elastic part of the deformation is not negligible. In other papers the surface condition is considered, shot peening being one of the topics discussed. Further subjects dealt with are: phase transformations, e.g. those caused by grinding (KOISTINEN), effect of environment, and hydrogen diffusion in steel. Especially remarkable is the subject of measuring internal stress. A measuring method employing X-ray diffraction is described (GUINIER). This technique was applied to hardened steel by MARBURGER AND KOISTINEN. In the field of fatigue a change of focus appears on internal stress; this book gives an excellent picture of the present stage of the development in this direction. It is up-to-date, appearing within a year of the symposium taking place, highly stimulating, illustrated effectively and, also typographically, of a high standard; it can be recommended to research workers who are interested in the fundamental problems of fatigue.
J.L. Wear, 3 (1960) 163