COMMENT I M M U N O L O G Y TO D AY
Table 1. Mouse antibody responses to GPGRAFY and ELDKWA induced by vaccines against HIV-1 Immunogen
Mean titre of antibody against:
rgp160 V3P-BSA V3P-P24EC (GPGRAFY)4–BSA
GPGRAFY 1600 6400 6400 12 800–25 600
rgp160 rgp41 CDP–BSA CDP–P24EC (ELDKWA)4–BSA
ELDKWA 1600 1600 6400 6400 25 600
Abbreviations: CDP, peptide of C-domain; rgp41, Env aa 539–684; V3P, peptide of V3 loop.
the fusion-active structure. The exposed coiled coils create a fusion intermediate, in which the C-domain and N-domain are exposed6. Recent studies have demonstrated that a fusion-competent vaccine with broad neutralization of HIV primary isolates is associated with these fusion intermediates7,8, suggesting that the C- and N-domain of gp41 in the fusion intermediates could contribute to their broad neutralization activity. In addition, the C- and N-domain of gp41 have been shown to bind a putative cellular receptor9,10, which might explain the protective mechanism of the C- and N-domainbased vaccine.
Manfred P. Dierich Institute of Hygiene, University of Innsbruck, Ludwig-Boltzmann-Innstitute for AIDSResearch, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. References 1 Connor, R.I., Korber, B.T.M., Graham, B.S. et al. (1998) J. Virol. 72, 1552–1576 2 Moore, J.P. (1995) Nature 376, 115 3 Javaherian, K., Langlois, A.J., LaRosa, G.J. et al. (1990) Science 250, 1590–1593 4 Purtscher, M., Trkola, A., Grassauer, A. et al. (1996) AIDS 10, 587–593 5 Chen, Y.H., Dierich, M.P. (1998) Immunol. Today 19, 586–587 6 Weissenhorn, W., Dessen, A., Harrison, S.C., Skehel, J.J. and Wiley, D.C. (1997) Nature 387,
Supported by the NSFC-39880043, the 863-Program, and the Ministry of Education of China.
426–430 7 LaCasse, R.A., Follis, K.E., Trahey, M., Scarborough, J.D., Littman, D.R. and Nunberg, J.H. (1999) Science 283, 357–362
could provide a new strategy to develop an effective vaccine against HIV-1 infection. Crystallographic analysis indicates that the binding of gp120 to both CD4 and a chemokine receptor induces conformational changes in gp41 from the native structure to
Ying-Hua Chen Yi Xiao Tianwei Yu Laboratory of Immunology, School of Life Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.
8 Montefiori, D.C. and Moore, J.P. (1999) Science 283, 336–337 9 Chen, Y.H., Ebenbichler, C., Vornhagen, R. et al. (1992) AIDS 6, 533–539 10 Chen, Y.H., Christiansen, A., Bock, G. and Dierich, M.P. (1995) AIDS 9, 1193–1194
book review Fundamental Immunology (4th edn) edited by W.E. Paul, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1999. $135.00 (xxi 1 1589 pages) ISBN 0 7817 1412 5
In assembling the fourth edition of Fundamental Immunology, W.E. Paul strives to cover the collective landscape of the field. This edition has been reorganized first to introduce concepts and review history, before moving on to chapters detailing the current status and future trends in focused areas. The reorganization is designed to help readers with a limited background in the field gain insight, but few should use this book as an introductory text. However, for readers with some background or with main interests
in related areas, and/or those desiring a current reintroduction to the field, this fourth edition will supersede Paul’s goal of providing an ‘authoritative presentation of the basic elements and mechanisms of clinical conditions’. Fundamental Immunology represents a superb collection of chapters pertinent to any individual interested in gaining current information about immunology. The 45 chapters are written by leading researchers in their respective areas of expertise. These chapters build from fundamental cell biology, tissue organization and immunoregulation to an integrated view of the mechanisms underlying clinical immunology. The individual chapters vary slightly in their organization and focus, but most include a comprehensive review of current thinking in the specific area, with some indication of the outstanding questions. Many readers may use a volume of this size and scope for reference. With this purpose in mind, the organizational annotation
is limited to a table of contents and a brief chronological outline at the beginning of each chapter. Additional notation of page numbers for subsections within the chapter would benefit readers trying to find specific, detailed information. Alternatively, an enhanced and expanded index with more precise terms could eliminate this deficiency. The fourth edition of Fundamental Immunology is a great resource covering a broad range of topics in depth. The individual contributors bring their own insight and bias with the benefits of their expertise. While some may choose to dwell on the primary literature for the most current information, those looking to gain a comprehensive and current view of immunology in one volume will find this book a most practical purchase. Philip F. Mixter Program in Microbiology, School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4233, USA. 0167-5699/99/$ – see front matter © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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