1221 made long and adventurous voyages, pushing East, step by step, from island to island, while there is much evidence that the Polynesians had ways ...

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1221 made long and adventurous voyages, pushing East, step by step, from island to island, while there is much evidence that the Polynesians had ways and

well depicted by of accurate comparative being outline drawings and photographs. The migration of means

the fluke in the human body, the pathological anatomy America which were employed of the disease, the clinical and therapeutical aspects before the discovery made by Columbus. are all passed under review, while the portions dealWhat is the absurdity of this theory that should tempt ing with the biology of the intermediate hosts, the geographical distribution of the disease, and the those who disagree with it to be rude about it ? We recommend this book to all who, while valuing question of its efficient prophylaxis are all welcome. the lessons of ethnology, are not aware of the extreme The monograph contains two important appendices. pains necessary to comprehend the ancient messages. The first, a zoological study of the molluscan hosts of Prof. Elliot Smith produces a mass of evidence in S. japonicum, is from the pen of the late Dr. Nelson support of the view that the influences of Asia might Annandale, F.R.S. elect, and must have been combe found in the remains of the pre-Columbian civilisa- pleted shortly before his death. Emanating from such tions of America, and Mr. Gerrard and Mr. Leigh- a source, and from the zoological survey of India and Pemberton have cooperated in a series of remarkable the Indian Museum, Calcutta, this contribution is woodcuts. The testimony cannot be pushed aside quite authoritative. The accurate description of the snails is illustrated with some fine illustrations of as supporting " an extravagant hypothesis, long since relegated to the rubbish pile of scientific discords." their morphology, and from this it appears that the Such an attitude towards scientific opponents is not correct nomenclature of the intermediate hosts is to be commended. Oncomelania, Gredler (1881), of which there are three. species-nosophora, formosana, and hupensis-which. ACTION OF TESTICLE ON OVARIAN GRAFTS. act as intermediaries in various parts of the Far East. Drs. A. Lipschütz and H. E. Voss have carried out The genus Blanfordia is now known to be quitedistinct. The other appendix contains a full some interesting experiments, described in the Comptes rendus de la Soc. de Biologie, in order to throw bibliography historically arranged. light on the mechanism of the inhibitory action exercised by the testicle on experimental glandular GOITRE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. hermaphroditism. It has previously been shown that if ovarian grafts are made in an intact male GoiTRE affecting animals in British Columbia has: guinea-pig no enlargement of the breasts occurs, the a seasonal incidence, being more prevalent in late effect of the grafts being inhibited by the action of winter and early spring when the fresh green food of the testes. Lipschutz and Voss have, however, now summer is not available. An article by Dr. W. D found that if previous to the grafting the lower pole Keith, of Vancouver, in the April issue of the Canadian of the epididymis be removed so as to convert the Medical Association Journal, draws this and other testicles into fragments having no connexion with interesting conclusions from his own personal observatheir excretory ducts, the inhibiting action of the tions. The incidence of goitre in the valley which he testicles is prevented, with the result that the ovarian studied has disappeared entirely following on the use transplantation produces a- marked development of of iodine. Sanitation appears to play little part, for’ the breasts. This at first sight would suggest that in the Indian Reserve, where conditions seem most the inhibiting action exerted by the testicles on the favourable for spread of contagion, no goitre was ovarian grafts depends on spermatogenesis rather found either among live-stock or human beings. But than on the interstitial cells. The experiments, goitre was endemic in the Pemberton Meadows, therefore, as far as they go, are in harmony with the inhabited only by white men during the last 30 or view that is held by many investigators, that the 40 years on a virgin soil with remarkably pure hormonal function of the testes is not entirely centred water-supply. Certainly, the iodine-deficiency theory in the interstitial cells. The epididymectomy carried of goitre is strongly supported by the evidence which out by Lipschutz and Voss is similar in its effect on Dr. Keith brings forward. There may be other spermatogenesis to ligature of the vas. It must, factors. In a recent British Medical Association however, always be borne in mind that regression in lecture1 Dr. R. McCarrison still lays special stress on the tubules does not occur immediately after ligature one of these-namely, the continued infection of the or epididymectomy, but only after an interval has bowel by way of polluted water. But wherever goitre occurred. Intact tubules, as Mr. Kenneth Walker arises in the absence of bowel hygiene, Colonel pointed out in an article published in THE LANCET McCarrison would now assume insufficiency of intake of Feb. 2nd, are found in the human subject as long of iodine in food and water. The method of prevention as three months after vasotomy. Care must, there- of goitre by iodine, he states, is at once simple,. fore, be exercised in interpreting Lipschutz’s experi- rational, cheap, and devoid of ill consequences. ments as a proof that the inhibitory action exercised by the testicle on an ovarian graft is entirely depenTHE ULTIMATE RESULTS OF RADICAL dent on the existence of spermatogenesis. OPERATIONS FOR MIDDLE-EAR DISEASE. SCHISTOSOMIASIS. IT is a disappointing feature of radical operations. THE scattered literature on the subject of the for middle-ear disease that they so often leave a schistosomiasis of the Far East, the disease produced serous or which, purulent discharge though it may by the trematode, Schistosoma japonicunz, has been not be a serious danger, is, at any rate, a blemish and collected and coordinated by Drs. E. C. Faust and H. E. a social hindrance. The causes of this sequel areMeleney in the Monographic Series of the American various ; it may be that the operation has not been Journal of Hygiene (No. 3, March, 1924), where they radical enough, some of the diseased bone havinghave supplemented and embellished our knowledge of been left behind, or, as happens frequently, the the fascinating subject with a considerable amount of has not succeeded in providing the cavum operator original work. This monograph consists of some 339 tympani with an epithelial lining suited to its modified pages with a comprehensive index, and is abundantly functions. Yet another important cause of a persistent illustrated with drawings and microphotographs. discharge is neglect of after-care, of that periodicThere is included an appreciation of the which patients should enjoy for at least a" supervision aspect of the schistosomiasis problems which was year after a radical operation. It is this lesson in badly needed, and in this survey the fine work of the particular that Dr. P. Henius and Dr. H. I. Schousboe earlier Japanese investigators is given due credit. in the last number of Acta Oto-LaryngoOther sections deal with the morphology, biology, and emphasise (1924, vi., fasc. 1 and 2). In the autumn of 1922 logica life-history of S. japonicum, its development with the they investigated the fate of the 301 patients on whom molluscan host, the cercaria stage of the fluke, its development within the definite host-all the stages 1 Brit. Med. Jour., June 7th, p. 989. means of some centuries