Life-cycle biomagnification study in fish. Sijm D. T. H. M., Selnen W. and Opperhulzen A. Environmental Chemistry Group, Research Institute of Toxicology, State University of Utrecht, Padualaan 8, NL3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1992 26(11) 2162-2174. Summ. in Engl.
A life-cycle biomagnification model is presented for the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish; the model includes biotransformation, life stage, sex, and growth of the fish. Biomagnification of PCBs was studied in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Juvenile guppies (first generation) were fed PCB-contaminated food for 30 weeks. Thereafter, elimination was studied for 2 years. Second-generation guppies which were born in the period of elimination were also analyzed for PCBs. Low absorption efficiencies of the PCBs in juvenile guppies were found during their first life stage but efficiencies increased with age. Elimination of the PCBs can be described with pseudo-first-order kinetics. The processes that caused the decrease in the concentrations of the PCBs were growth, biotransformation, and mother-to-young transfer. In the case of the higher chlorinated biphenyls, growth dilution was the only important process. Biotransformation was the most important factor with chlorine and at least one pair of adjacent unsubstituted places. Second-generation guppies and their parents contained similar PCB concentrations at the same time. This may be caused by a vitellogenin-mediated transport from mother to young. Decachlorobiphenyl is probably eliminated via the offspring only. A passive sampler for airborne formaldehyde. Grosjean D. and Williams E. L. II. DGA Inc, 4526 Telephone Road, Suite 205, Ventura, CA 93003 USA. Atmos. Environ. Part A. Gen. Top. 1992 26(16)2923-2928. Summ. in Engl. A simple, inexpensive passive sampler is described that is capable of reliable measurements of formaldehyde at the parts per billion (ppb) levels relevant to indoor and outdoor air quality. The passive sampler consists of a modified dual filter holder in which the upper stage serves as the diffusion barrier, the lower stage includes a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated filter which collects formaldehyde, and the space between the two stages serves as the diffusion gap. The measured sampling rate, 18.8 + 1.8 ml min 1, was determined in experiments involving sampling of ppb levels of formaldehyde with the passive sampler and with DNPH-coated C 8 cartridges and agrees well with the value of 19.4 + 2.0 ml min -1 calculated from theory. The measured sampling rate was independent of formaldehyde concentration (16-156 ppb) and sampling duration (1-5-72 h). The precision of the measurements for co-located passive samplers averaged 8.6% in purified and indoor air (office and museums) and 10.2% in photochemically polluted outdoor air. With a 1.2-p,m pore size Teflon filter as the diffusion barrier, the detection limit is 32 ppb h, e.g. 4 ppb in an 8-h sample, 1.3 ppb in a 24-h sample, and so on. Perceived advantages and limitations of the sampler are discussed including flexibility, cost effectiveness and possible negative bias at high ambient levels of ozone. The composition and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, river sediments, and coastal peat of the Alaskan Beaufort sea: Implications for detecting anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs. Steinhauer M. S. and Boehm P. D. Marine Sciences Unit, Arthur D. Little Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 USA. Mar. Environ. Res. 1992 33(4) 223-253. Summ. in Engl.
Airborne contaminants at waste treatment plants. Rahkonen P. Paavo Ristola Ltd, Consulting Engineers, Terveystie 2, SF15870 Hollola, Finland. Waste Manage. Res. 1992 10(5) 411J,21. Summ. in Engl.
Microbiology of rainwater cistern systems: A review. Lye D. J. Envtl. Monitoring Systems Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268-1314 USA. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A Environ. Sci. Eng. 1992 27(8) 2123-2166. Summ. in Engl.
Heavy metal pollution profiles of dated sediment cores from Hehe Haven, Hong Kong. Lo C. K. and Fung Y. S. Environmental Engineering Unit. Dept. Civil Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hung Horn, Hong Kong. Water Res. 1992 26(12) 1605-1619. Summ. in Engl.
Rates of experimental microbiological contamination of fish exposed to polluted water. Fattal B., Dotan A. and Tchorsh Y. Division of Environmental Sciences, Grad. Schl. Applied Science Technol, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 israel. Water Res. 1992 26(12) 1621 1627. Summ. in Engl.
Binding of organic solutes to dissolved humic substances and its effects on adsorption and transport in the aquatic environment. Rav-Acha Ch. and Rebhun M. Division of Environmental Sciences, Grad. Schl. Applied Science Technol., The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. Water Res. 1992 26(12) 1645-1654. Summ in Engl.
Fish as a source of exposure to mercury and selenium. Svensson B.-G., Schutz A. and Nilsson A. et al. Dept. of Occupational/Environm. Med., University Hospital, Lund Sweden. Sci. Total Environ. 1992 126 (1-2) 61-74. Summ. in Engl.
Sulfide as an environmental factor and toxicant: Tolerance and adaptation in aquatic organisms. Bagarinao T. Southeast Asian Fisheries Dev. Cent., Aquaculture Department, Iloilo 5021, Philadelphia. Aquat. Toxicol. 1992 24(1-2) 21-62. Summ. in Engl.
Hydrocarbon contamination on the antarctic peninsula. Arthur Harbor inter- and subtidal limpets (Nacella concinna). Kennicutt M. C. II, McDonald T. J., Denoux G. J. and McDonald S. J. Geochemical Environ. Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 USA. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1992 24(10) 506-511. Summ. in Engl.
The effects of removing cloudwater and lowering ambient 0 3 on red spruce grown at high elevations in the southern Appalachians. Thornton F. C., McDuffie C. Jr., Pier P. A. and Wilkinson R.C. Atmospheric Science Department, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chemical Engineering Bldg, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660 USA. J. Environ. Manage. 1992 36(2) 21-29. Summ in Engl.