Hematogenous spread of sporotrichosis

Hematogenous spread of sporotrichosis

Advances Page 5 Author Conclusion The dissemination of S. schenckii through the bloodstream may be an early event, unrelated to FIV or FeLV co-infec...

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Advances

Page 5

Author Conclusion The dissemination of S. schenckii through the bloodstream may be an early event, unrelated to FIV or FeLV co-infection. Inclusions One table, 23 references.

Hematogenous Spread of Sporotrichosis Background Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This fungus occurs worldwide and grows as a saprophytic mold in association with dead or decaying plant material. The mycosis presents typically as cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions, with or without regional lymphatic involvement. Transmission is by traumatic implantation of S. schenckii in the skin, often from puncture by plant thorns. Occasionally, the fungus may be inhaled, causing pulmonary sporotrichosis. The infection can also disseminate hematogenously. Objectives To describe the hematogenous spread of S. schenckii in cats with naturally acquired sporotrichosis. Procedure Blood was collected from 49 cats with sporotrichosis to be examined for hematogenous spread. Necropsy was performed on 9 cats. Results Evidence of hematogenous spread was based on the isolation of S. schenckii from the peripheral blood of 17 (34.4%) cats. Twenty-one cats died, and 9 were necropsied. S. schenckii was isolated at necropsy from 2 or more internal organs in each of the 9 cats. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected, and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) present in 9 cases apparently did not affect the isolation of S. schenckii from peripheral blood or from the internal organs.

Editor Annotation S. schenckii is a ubiquitous dimorphic subcutaneous mycotic infection of both humans and animals. Feline sporotrichosis is a relatively rare infection, but clinical presentation and microscopic morphology are similar to Histoplasma spp. Clinicians should be aware of this mycotic infection because of possible misdiagnosis and because of the potential for zoonotic disease. The most common presentation is associated with skin lesions and, since spread is through draining lymphatics, with lymphadenopathy. Systemic disease is also common. While cytologic examination may increase the index of suspicion, culture and biopsy are required. The organism will grow on glucose-neopeptone agar in several days at 25 to 35°C. This article discusses the probable hematogenous spread of the organisms. (LDM) Schubach TMP, Schubach A, Okamoto T, et al. Haematogenous spread of Sporothrix schenckii in cats with naturally acquired sporotrichosis. J Small Anim Pract 2003;44:395-398.