1254 before I went there in 1868. Of this I am certain, syphilis could not have existed among the Samoans without my knowing it and seeing cases of it, and up till Dec. 1879 I had heard of no cases of it, nor have I heard of it since, though it may have been introduced since I left. Long may it remain unknown there ! If there is any further point on which I can give you information I shall be very glad. Yours truly, "GEO. W. TURNER." "
HONG KONG. THE report of the colonial surgeon of Hong Kong for 1887i shows the admissions into hospital of the white troops to havebeen 1173, the deaths 8’22, and the mean daily sick 47’28 per 1000 of the strength in a force of 1217 non-commissioned officers and men. Among the black troops, who were only 177 strong, the admissions were 1842, the deaths 22-60, and the mean daily sick 36-89 per 1000. The police force averaged 636 men, of whom 116 were Europeans, 201 Indians, and 319 Chinese. Among the Europeans the cases were 1198 and the deaths 34-5, among the Indians 1458 and 4’9, and among the Chinese 586 and 12’5 respectively per 1000 of strength. The small numbers from which these ratios are derived deprive them of much of their value, especially as regards the mortality. The Chinese appear to enjoy a marked exemption from sickness compared with the other portions of the force ; while that of the Europeans corresponds closely with the ratio of the white troops. In an average of 584 prisoners in the Victoria gaol, the cases of sickness were 572and the deaths 10’27per 1000, results differing very slightly from those of the Chinese in the police. The statistics of the Tung Wa Hospital show a fearfully high rate of mortality ; 1213 deaths having occurred in 2231 cases, or 544 per 1000. It is stated that 376of these were brought to hospital in a moribund condition, but deducting these the deaths are still in the ratio of 168-5 per 1000. Mr. Ayres, the colonial surgeon, states that " the great majority admitted into this institution are incurables in a destitute condition." An epidemic of small-pox prevailed during the last two months of the year, when 310 cases were admitted into the Tung WaHospital, of which 221 died. The majority of the cases were childen under four years of age, and nearly all unvaccinated. The mortality among the European and American residents in Hong Kong, in number 3040, was in the ratio of 35.5 per 1000, being higher than in any of the nine preceding years. As no information is given as to the ages of the it is impossible to draw any deductions regarding it. The medical superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital appears to have experienced great difficulty in carrying on the duties from the insufficiency of the nursing staff. A scheme for its reorganisation was drawn up by -Nir. Atkinson, and is stated to be still under consideration. The difficulty appears to be the result of a combination of overwork and insufficient pay. Mr. Crow, the Government analyst, reports that he examined 328 waters derived from wells and springs, and placed 233, or 71 per cent., of them in "the category oi waters that were evidently much polluted," and he recom. mended "that when an abundant water supply was avail. able the Government would do well to order the closing or all wells in the city of Victoria." Of nine samples of milh obtained by the nuisance inspectors, three were returned af adulterated, one of them having at least 50 per cent. o added water. The milk supplied morning and evening t( the Civil Hospital is analysed at least once a month; in all thirty-six samples were analysed during the year. An interesting account is given of a substance called ch’; tsai ping," being the refuse matter of the seeds of the cccynellie ulei fera after the tect oil has been expressed. It appear to be used for poisoning fish ; the fish so killed do not seer, to act injuriously when used as food. It is used in garden for eradicating earthworms, the cake being crushed an, boiled and the decoction poured on the grass. The worm come to the surface; the smaller die, but the large recover after a time. The worms are eaten greedily b the fowls and ducks, which experience no inconveniencf but appear to thrive on them.
ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND. THE
report of the Committee of Management of the
which was adopted at the meeting of the Council on the 13th inst., included amongst its recommendations a revised schedule of drugs. This is similar to the old schedule, but combines various alterations in and additions to it, suggested by the examiners in materia medica and pharmacy. This revised schedule will be used on and after Oct. 1st, 1889. Those drugs of which the candidates are required to show a practical knowledge are printed in italics. The only drug the new ones added from the list is cinchonine ; expunged are-acetic acid, zinc chloride, citrate of iron and quinine,
butyl-chloral hydrate, collodion, apomorphine, codeine, ammoniacum, myrrh, guaiacum, senega, croton oil, cascara sagrada, copaiba, cubebs, and santonin. The following is the complete list :Chlorine ; chlorinated lime; chlorinated soda. Bromine; bromides. Iodine ;iodides. Sulphur; sulphurous acid ; sulphides. Phosphorus; phosphates; hypophosphites. AcidsHydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, boric, acetic, citric, tartaric, hydrocyanic (dilute). Alkalies-Ammonia, potash, soda.
carbonate, chloride, acetate. Potassium biearbonate, sulphate, chlorate, permanganate, acid tartrate. Sodium bicarbonate, sulphate; borax. Calcium oxide, carbonate. Magnesia, magnesium carbonate, rnccgnesiunc sulphate. Alum. Zinc oxide, chloride, zinc sulphate.
nitrate. Mercury, oxides,
chlorides, iodides. Lead oxide, acetate, subacetate. Tartarated antimony. Arsenious acid; arseniates. Bismuth citrate. Iron carbonate, sulphate, subnitrate, perchloride, ammonio-citratc. Citrate of iron and qumine, Dialysed solution of iron. Alcohol, ether, chloroform, iodoform. Chloral hydrate. Butyl-chloral hydrate. :Nitrite
of amyl. Nitrous ether. Nitro-glycerin. Collodion. Carbolic acid. Salicylic acid. Salicylate of soda. Aconite; aconitine. Opium; morphine; apomorphine: codeine. Coca; cocaine. Jaborandi; pilocarpine. Quassia. Calumba. Gentian. Calabar bean; physostigmine. Caffeine. Conium. Asafoetida. Ammoniacum. Myrrh. Guaiacum. Cinchona ; sulphate of quinine. Salicine. Ipecacuanha, Senega. Glycerine. Nux vomica; strychnine. Belladonna ; atropine. Hyoscyamus. Stramonium. Cannabis Indica. Digitalis. Castor oil; croton oil; ccloes ciiid cclozn: cascara sagrada; colocynth; elaterinm and elaterin; jalop:
podophylln ; rhubarb;;
Tannic acid. Gallic acid. Kino. Catechu. Benzoic acid. Copaiba. Cubebs. Colchicum. Squill. Male fern. Santonin. Ergot. Cod-liver oil. Cantharides.
Public Health and Poor Law. I LOCAL
REPORTS OF INSPECTORS OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD.
Diphtheria at Ashbourne.-An interestingreport has been submitted to the Local Government Board on diphtheria at Ashbourne by Dr. BRUCE Low. Ashbourne is a small centre for agricultural purposes and for visitors who in summer travel about Dovedale ; there are also some manufacture, in the district. Diphtheria, as in so many cases, was formerly wont to attack the rural area around the small town : indeed, the last recorded diphtheria death in the urban di-trict prior to the outbreak under consideration seems to have taken place as far back as 1883. Then the town began to suffer slightly, two non-fatal attacks taking place in ,? yard which has been associated with the present attack. Again there was a lull, until in September, 1887, there began a prevalence of throat disease, which was maintained and continuously month by month until the end epidemically of April, 1888. In all twenty-six houses were invaded, the attacks numbering fifty-six and the deaths eighteen. Fura while the disease was not fully understood. The real signi-