Human factors for pilots

Human factors for pilots

23.6.3 (126279) Hoffberg, L I 'Designing user interface guidelines for time-shift programming on a video cassette recorder (VCR)' in Visions. ABSTRAC...

131KB Sizes 1 Downloads 46 Views

23.6.3 (126279) Hoffberg, L I 'Designing user interface guidelines for time-shift programming on a video cassette recorder (VCR)' in Visions.

ABSTRACTS To provide readers of Applied Ergonomics with a selection of current ergonomics literature likely to be of direct practical value, abstracts are published selected from the collection held at the Ergonomics Information Analysis Centre. These abstracts are classified in a similar manner to the main articles in the journal; for easy reference, the code number at the head of each abstract (eg, 1.1.21) consists of the volume number, part or issue number and a sequential abstract number. The published abstracts are only a selection of the Centre's material and readers concerned with specific areas are invited to contact the Centre for further information. Those readers unable to obtain copies of the original articles abstracted here through their usual sources, such as company librarian, may obtain photocopies from the Centre. Details of this service are available from The Ergonomics Information Analysis Centre, School of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TI'. Tel. 021-414 4239.

General ergonomics 23.6.1 (126264) Gal, R and Mangeisdorff, A D (eds) Handbook of military psychology John Wiley, Chichester (1991) 780 pp This book describes the scope of military psychology and how the branches of psychology are applied in military settings, the similarities and differences within multinational and multi-service settings, the historical basis for the development and application of psychological principles in multi-service military settings, and the ongoing research and applications of military psychology. The volume editors have brought together a team of authors, under the leadership of section editors, who examine all areas in the field of military psychology: assessment; leadership; human factors; environmental factors; individual and group behaviour; clinical and organizational applications; and special groups and special issues. The chapters include an up-to-date overview of the given subject, a historical review of the field, a critical analysis of the applications, and an extensive bibliography. The military must evaluate large numbers of people, screen out the unfit, select individuals with needed abilities, and place people in the jobs most appropriate both to their skills and to military needs. Military personnel, of all sorts, must be trained and prepared for warfare. Individuals have to be led and motivated and units must maintain high morale and cohesion in order to achieve their missions. Furthermore, military missions are frequently carried out under most stressful conditions and usually require strenuous adjustment between human capabilities and weapon systems' peculiarities. These characteristics of military organization all have their psychological aspects.

Vol 23 N o 6 D e c e m b e r 1992

This handbook is aimed at military psychologists, trainers and leaders dealing with these aspects. It could also be of interest both to practitioners and researchers working in the field of occupational and industrial psychology, and to those working in personnel management. 23.6.2 (126265) Green, R G, Muir, H, James, M, Gradwell, D and Green, R L Human factors for pilots Avebury Technical, Aldershot, Hants (1991) 136 pp (11 refs) 'Human factors' is a strange and possibly ungrammatical name for a discipline or study. Nevertheless, it has come to be used to encompass all of those considerations that affect man at work. No form of work has been studied more closely in this regard than that of flying, yet the existing knowledge has not generally been available to pilots in a form designed especially for them. This handbook sets out to remedy this situation. It does not purport to deal with the subject exhaustively and in depth. Instead, it has two functions. The first is to provide an outline of the available human factors knowledge about flying in the hope that it will prove useful and interesting to any practising pilot. The second function is to provide this knowledge in a way that follows very closely the syllabus of the UK Civil Aviation Authority's (CAA) Human Performance and Limitations examinations for both professional and private pilots. Although the private pilots' syllabus requires a narrower range of subjects to be studied, and in less detail, than the professional syllabus, this handbook covers both requirements, with syllabus variations being indicated in the contents pages.

Proc Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting San Francisco, California, 2-6 September 1991. The Human Factors Society, Santa Monica, California, Vol 1 (1991) pp 501-504 (7 refs) Advances in technology may create additional problems for the user. The average consumer encounters difficulty when programming electronic products which require a series of steps to operate. The user interfaces of these products vary not only among different types of products, but also within the individual market itself. There are currently no interface guidelines in existence to assist designers in developing easy-to-use electronic programmable products. This research proposes user interface guidelines to improve the current poor interface designs of the video cassette recorder (VCR). Improving the interfaces of electronic products results in less frustration for users. This study demonstrates the advantages of incorporating human factors design criteria into the interface of electronic programmable devices. Research and testing performed on existing VCRs identified problems and the need to minimize them. The results of the research were used to develop and implement a new interface using HyperPAD TM, a prototyping tool for the IBM/PC. HyperPAD TM was also used to simulate an existing VCR. A data collection program captured the users' keystrokes and errors, and simplified the analysis of the raw data. Test results for the new VCR interface demonstrated a 50% reduction in the number of incorrect recordings and a 50% reduction in the time required to set the clock and program the VCR. 23.6.4 (126286) Tetzlaff, L and Schwartz, D R 'The use of guidelines in interface design' in Rnbertson, S P, Olson, G M and Olson, J S (eds) CHI '91 - Reaching

through Technology, Proc Conf on Human Factors in Computing Systems New Orleans, Louisiana, 27 April-2 May 1991. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts (1991) pp 329-333 (9 refs) The authors studied the use of an evolving interface style book to evaluate the role of such guidelines in the development of style-conforming interface designs. Although the designs were judged to be generally conforming, study participants had significant difficulty in interpreting the guidelines.