Identiﬁcation of naturalized and cultivated Berberis species in South Africa J.H. Keeta,c, M. Jacksonb, D. Cindic, P.J. Du Preezb, B. Visserb a University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 3477, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa b University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa c South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X101, Pretoria 0001, South Africa While Africa is home to three Berberis species (B. holstii Engl., B. hispanica Boiss. & Reut. and B. vulgaris L.), genera of the family Berberidaceae do not occur naturally in South Africa. However, due to the trade in ornamental plants, a total of 11 Berberis species, 11 cultivars and 8 hybrids were historically and/or are currently cultivated in the country. The current invasive status of most of these species is unknown, but two naturalized Berberis populations were recently discovered. B. julianae C.K. Schneid. was found in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park in eastern Free State Province, and B. aristata DC. was found in the Woodbush Forest Reserve in Limpopo Province. Since several Berberis species could act as alternate hosts for Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. and P. striiformis Westend., a phylogenetic study was conducted to identify both naturalized species, as well as several cultivated specimens. One of the cultivated specimens was identiﬁed as B. vulgaris, a species well known for its susceptibility to P. graminis. Knowledge gained from this study will be used to intensify the search for more naturalized Berberis populations, as well as to assess the potential threat to wheat cultivation in the country. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2016.02.059
Recovery of the herbaceous layer of Mopaneveld after strip-mining a
rehabilitation and tree cover were the major factors affecting the herbaceous layer recovery to pre-disturbance states. Tree-forb coexistence requires further investigation, but current ﬁndings suggest that tree plantings could enhance the recovery of the herbaceous layer of Mopaneveld after strip-mining.
The structure (and function) of green bark in some African plants E.L. Kotinaa, A.A. Oskolskia,b, P.M. Tilneya, B.-E. Van Wyka Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa b Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Prof. Popov Str. 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
The anatomy and morphology of green bark in African woody plants were studied. A selection of 11 species was studied: Adansonia digitata, Commiphora harveyi, C. marlothii, C. neglecta, Heteromorpha arborescens, H. involucrata, Polemannia montana, P. simplicior, Steganotaenia araliacea, Sesamothamnus lugardii and Vachellia xanthophloea. The species are all similar in having the following characters: a very thin, translucent phellem, the presence of chloroplasts in phelloderm and in other parenchyma cells situated close to the surface and the presence of secretory structures. Vachellia xanthophloea is unique in having a phellem cells with U-shaped scleriﬁcation that easily separates at maturity, resulting in a powdery surface. The presence of chloroplasts (green bark) allows these deciduous plants to photosynthesize when they are leaﬂess (typically in winter), perhaps resulting in lower rates of transpiration and an enhanced ability to survive or even ﬂourish under extreme conditions of heat and drought. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2016.02.061
D.M. Komape , S.J. Siebert , F. Siebert , A.M. Swemmer A.P. Goossens Herbarium, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa b SAEON Ofﬁce, Kruger National Park, Private Bag X1021, Phalaborwa 1390, South Africa a
Strip mining alters the natural ecosystem and is especially detrimental in semi-arid regions, such as Mopaneveld. We need to understand the dynamic nature of recovery after a major disturbance, to be able to inform mitigation measures to assist those ecological processes and functions which did not recover sufﬁciently. Recovery of these ecosystem processes (returning the land to some degree of its former state) is especially important in Mopaneveld bordering important conservation areas such as the Kruger National Park. A ﬁrst step to assess recovery is to compare transformed areas (silica strip mine) with untransformed (protected land) in terms of ﬂoristic composition (species richness), diversity, density, composition, vegetation cover, biomass and structure. The aim of the study was to quantify the differences between the treatments to assess the effect of unaided strip mining rehabilitation practices. A study area was chosen at Pompey, located near Phalaborwa in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Fixed frame quadrat method was used to gather species data of the herbaceous layer. Twenty quadrats were randomly placed in each treatment (two strip mines of different ages and one protected area). A total of sixty quadrats were sampled. All herbaceous species within the plots were identiﬁed up to species level and all individuals counted (total counts). A total of 154 herbaceous plant species were recorded. Strip mines displayed the most uneven plant communities and with high densities, dominated by pioneer Aristida L., Tragus Haller and Urochloa P.Beauv. species. Age after
Heavy metal contaminants from four major dump sites of Thabo Mofutsanyane district, Eastern Free State, South Africa S.Q.N. Lamula, T. Tsilo, A.O.T. Ashafa Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa Soil to plant transfer of trace metals is the major pathway of human exposure to metal contamination. Therefore, the present study conducted measurement of trace metal level (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co) and zinc (Zn)) in soil and plant samples collected from four major dumpsites in Thabo Mofutsanyane district, Eastern Free State. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0– 15 cm from each part and pooled to form a composite sample. Plant samples were pulled from the soil together with their roots using an ager. Four acid digest techniques (HCl, HNO3, HClO4 and HF) were used and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) to determine the concentrations of heavy metals. The concentrations of trace metals from the soil were in order, Mg N Mn N Zn N Cr N Cu N Ni N Pb N Co N As N Cd N Hg, with the ranges of 298.69–1181, 32.50–1055.82, 20.65–151.65, 11.07–61.46, 8.04.–56.99, 0.17–315, b 0.001–16.66, 2.12–6.09, 0.05–6.15 and b 0.001–0.32 mg/kg, respectively. Also a similar trend was observed in plant samples, Mg N Mn N Zn N Cr N Cu N Pb N Co N Se N Cd, with the ranges of 1536–4666, 53.4– 379.0, 57.8–134.6, 9.6–34.0, 4.0–34.7, 0.4–8.1, 0.4–5.3, 1.6–3.1 and 0.2– 0.8 mg/kg, respectively. All the trace metals in this study had higher