Interbrain: topographical anatomy of the human CNS

Interbrain: topographical anatomy of the human CNS

Pathology (1999) 31, pp. 300 ± 301 BOOK REVIEWS The pocket guide to: lymphoma classification. D AV ID M A SO N A N D K E V IN G AT T E R . Blackwell...

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Pathology (1999) 31, pp. 300 ± 301

BOOK REVIEWS

The pocket guide to: lymphoma classification. D AV ID M A SO N A N D K E V IN G AT T E R . Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1998. ISBN 0-632-05096-9, pp. iv + 100. AU$53.95. The authors of this almost pocket-sized paperback are members of the International Lymphoma Study Group which formulated the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification. Their book tackles the long-standing problem of lymphoma classification by providing an easy-to-read overview of REAL, with an emphasis on those features that are most helpful in distinguishing the different types of lymphoma from each other. The book is certainly not intended as an all-encompassing reference on lymphoma, but rather as a valuable aid to clinical hematologists and oncologists who are faced with a bewildering array of classification systems that have shown poor reproducibility even among world-renowned histopathologists. The book begins with a brief summary of the various lymphoma classifications, including two humoros examples which demonstrate that lymphoma nomenclature can often be more convoluted than the cells it attempts to describe. The bulk of the book then deals with neoplasms of B-cell, T-cell and NK-cell lineage, as well as Hodgkin’s disease. Concise descriptions, good quality representative snapshots and well laid out summary tables document the core clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic features of each type of lymphoma. The book contains very few references, which is a pity; one or two references to the most illuminating publications relevant to each subtype would have been useful and would not have taken any additional space. Despite this minor criticism, I found the book a useful adjunct, and a realistic alternative to continually re-reading the original REAL manuscript. As with all classifications, the REAL classification is itself less than perfect, and the soon-to-be-announced World Health Organisation classification of all hemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms is foreshadowed towards the end of the book as the next step in the pursuit of the ultimate panacea for practitioners of the science (or perhaps art) of hematopathology. In the interim, I recommend this book to all those with more than a passing interest in lymphoma, and indeed, I am hopeful that there will also be a second edition which addresses the WHO classification in an equally informative and aesthetic format. Harry J. Iland Kanematsu Laboratories Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW

Sterilization, disinfection and infection control, 3rd edition. J O A N F. G A R D N E R A N D M A R G A R E T M. P E E L . Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne, 1998. ISBN 0-443-05435-5, pp. xiii + 267. AU$57.95. Sterilization and disinfection are often taken for granted by those whose practice most relies on it. The maintenance of a safe, efficient and costeffective hospital sterile supply has become increasingly complex in recent years, leaving many hospital specialists ignorant of some of the newer processes coming into widespread use. Moreover, we have come to recognise the importance of involving staff, such as hospital engineers, architects and administrators, in major decisions regarding sterilization and disinfection systems. The publication of a revised version of this standard text is therefore a timely aid to infection control officers in their dealings with other hospital staff. The authors have updated their text to take account of such recent developments as novel pathogens, new decontamination technology and changes in infection control guidelines. The challenges posed by vancomycin-resistant enterococci, multidrug-resistant mycobacteria and prions are now addressed, as are peroxide and peracetic acid-based sterilization systems. The switch from universal blood and body fluid precautions to the wider ranging Standard and Additional Precautions is reflected in an appropriate change in terminology throughout the book. Infection control staff will find the referencing of Australian standards particularly helpful when formulating hospital guidelines and other policy documents. The quality of referencing is one of the strong features of this text, and will reward its regular users. However, I did note that the link

between Legionellae and free-living amoebae was incorrectly attributed to Skinner, when in fact it was first described by Rowbothara.1 I was particularly impressed by the way the authors coordinated their figures, diagrams and prose in order to succinctly explain complex physical and chemical processes. In doing so they help demystify sterilization and provide a more sound scientific foundation on which to build an understanding. It would not be all that surprising to find some of this material surface shortly in undergraduate curricula. First time users of this text should not be misled by the title; presumably an attempt by the publisher to widen the appeal of the book, and should neither assume that sterilization and disinfection can be easily separated from infection control, nor that this text deals with a much wider range of infection control issues. Issues such as hospital outbreak management and kitchen inspection do not sit comfortably alongside the existing contents and would make a book of this kind unwieldy. There are other sources for detail on those aspects of infection control. This is, first and foremost, a competent account of the application of sterilization and disinfection methods in hospital practice.

Reference 1. R owbotham TJ. Preliminary report on the pathogenicity of Legionella pneumophila for freshwater and soil amoebae. J C lin Pathol 1980; 33: 1179 ± 83. Timothy J. J. Inglis Division of Microbiology and Infections Diseases PathCentre, WA

Interbrain: topographical anatomy of the human CNS, CD-ROM . M A R T IN C. H IR S C H . Springer Electronic Media, B erlin, 1998. ISB N 3540-14651-2. US$79.9 5 A knowledge of neuroanatomy is an important requirement for the accurate localisation of disease processes in the nervous system. It is usually the unfortunate experience of most students of neuroanatomy that such knowledge is not easily gained without considerable effort and application. This introduction to the topographic anatomy of the nervous system considerably alleviates some of the intellectual pain associated with this process. The beautiful visual images are a pleasure to view and the capacity to manipulate these in an interactive manner means that complex spatial relationships are easily appreciated. For example, the connecting fibre pathways of the limbic system can be viewed and manipulated as an integrated 3D image or ªdissectedº into the component pathways and viewed in coronal, sagittal and horizontal sections, either in part or as a whole. Each component part of the computer image can be labelled with its neuroanatomical term, by appropriate movement of the mouse, and easily cross-referenced to the text describing the known function/s of the structure and its clinical importance. To aid the learning process, and as a check of accurate comprehension, ªself-quizzesº are available for most of the important neural circuitry. The information in this CD-ROM is organised into five main sections comprising: (1) gross anatomy (orientation, external and medial views, internal structure); (2) vessels and meninges (arteries, veins, vessels of the brain stem, vessels and meninges of the spinal cord, meninges, cisterns and cerebrospinal fluid); (3) brain slices (coronal, sagittal, horizontal, perpendicular to axis of brian stem); (4) microscopical sections (transverse sections through the basal section of the prosencephalon, coronal sections through the brain stem and spinal cord); and (5) functional system (total of 16 systems). M any of the computer images can be viewed in 3D and interactively manipulated, labelled and cross-referenced to general and clinical information regarding the particular neuroanatomical structure. The capacity to link visual information to text and then view and manipulate spatial relationships is an inherent strength in this type of system. The user is able to control the level of complexity of the interaction and has the ability to pursue a particular functional system from the macroscopic to the microscopic level.

ISSN 0031±3025 printed/ISSN 1465-3931 online/99/030300 ± 02  1999 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia

BOOK REVIEW S

Interested undergraduate and postgraduate trainees in neurology, neurosurgery and neuropathology would be the most likely consumers of this type of introductory neuroanatomical information. It does not provide the more detailed information required by specialist neuropathologists or neuroscientists. Peter C. Blumbergs Department of Neuropathology, Division of Tissue Pathology Institute of M edical and Veterinary Science, SA

Introduction to oncogenes and molecular cancer medicine. D E N N IS W. R O S S . Springer, New York, 1998. ISBN 0-387-98392-9, pp. xii + 168. US$29.95. This monograph is well written and provides a useful introduction to the area of molecular oncology. The book is presented in two parts. The first considers basic molecular principles in relation to cancer, and the second looks at specific examples, including future options by which molecular approaches to treatment (gene therapy) could be developed. Each chapter starts with a brief review and finishes with a summary which includes, at times, the author’s own personal opinions, eg; the chapter on breast cancer has these words of advice (with which I agree) ± ªI present breast cancer as an antidote to any smugness that may have resulted from the much clearer examples of the molecular lesions in colon and cervical cancerº. The references are few in number, but appear to be up to date and relevant. There was even a citation to that high profile publication Newsweek, which one would have to admit, has produced some nice summaries of very topical issues. To help those who are very unfamiliar with this field, a glossary is included. The diagrams are simple, but relevant and informative. I found chapters 2 and 3 particularly useful since they summarised succinctly the molecular events associated with cell growth and senescence, a topic which no doubt could occupy an entire book. I was a little disappointed with the very superficial review of carcinogenesis in terms of chemicals, radiation (Chapter 5), but then one cannot have a brief monograph and still want details. The specific clinical examples in section II included information on leukemia/lymphoma, colon, breast and cervical cancer. In each case, a brief but relevant overview was accurately presented. One chapter on `Molecular Diagnosticsº went into descriptions of some relevant techniques (eg; FISH and PCR) and illustrated them with examples. It would have been helpful in this chapter to see some discussion of DNA mutation testing in familial adenomatous polyposis (the APC gene) and perhaps DNA testing of the BRCA1 gene. These are topical and also good models of what can and cannot be done in terms of DNA presymptomatic testing. The final chapter on molecular therapies gives a useful review of what is being tried and what might be possible with gene therapy in cancer. I would recommend this book to all who are interested in the molecular aspects of cancer, but lack a strong background in molecular biology. The book will provide a very helpful introduction, and from this, specific topics can be more adequately addressed through journals. Medical students will find this book very helpful. Ron J. A. Trent Department of M olecular and Clinical Genetics Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW

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Molecular aspects of cancer and its therapy. A. M A C K IE W IC Z A N D P.B. S E H G A L , E D IT O R S . Birkh auser È Verlag, Basel, 1998. ISBN 37643-5724-X, pp. x + 238. DM 188.00 This monograph represents the proceedings of a UNESC O-related meeting in 1995 in Poland, and was produced in order to provide an overview of the molecular aspects of cancer and its therapy, as well as an insight into the contributions of Polish researchers to these areas. The ten chapters are mostly stand alone, and reflect broad themes which range from tumor immunology to DNA changes in metastatic disease, genetic instability, breast cancer and various gene therapy-related approaches to treatment of cancer. A summary of the chapters/themes follows, and shows that each provides an in depth analysis of the subject, although limited by the fact that some of the reports were written two to three years ago. A chapter dealing with the DNA aspects of metastasis is usually a good litmus test for any review of molecular carcinogenesis since this topic is still very much in its developmental phase. In this particular book, the topic ªGenetic control of metastasisº provided a comprehensive summary, although recent developments, eg; the apparent relationships between p53 and the tumor metastasis suppressor gene KAI1, were not mentioned. I was next attracted to the last chapter which had an innocuous sounding title (ªGenetic instability and tumor cell variationº) but ended up being packed full of information on a broad range of molecular mechanisms in cancer, including environmental and epigenetic phenomena. To relax after the heavy going, I thought that the two chapters on breast cancer might be a little more familiar, and so read these next. Of the two, the one on ªRecent advances in understanding function and mutations in breast cancer genesº was well written, it contained a lot of up-to-date information and provided an excellent overview of this topic for both the pathologist and the clinician. The ªforgottenº but still number one cancer involves the lung, and a chapter describing the clinical relevance of genetic alterations in this neoplasm was next on my list. This chapter provided a lot of useful information detailing with genetic (DNA) changes in genes in this malignancy, including some insight into why individuals might have different sensitivities to environmental mutagens. Another useful section summarised ways in which molecular technology might be applied to screening sputum, bronchial brushings and other tissues for early signs that a tumor was developing. The three chapters which dealt with cytokines and other immunological changes observed in cancer would be relevant to the reader more interested in basic experimental observations, but less so if the direct clinical applications were being sought. Finally, there were three chapters on gene therapy in cancer. One of these (ªGene therapy in cancerº) gave an excellent overview of the technology particularly the different ways in which to get DNA into cells. The other two were more specialised and described antisense and olignucleotide technology. In summary, this is a useful book which might have limited appeal to any one individual, but would be a helpful addition to a library, particularly one focusing on cancer. Ron J. A. Trent Department of M olecular and Clinical Genetics Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW