Introduction and Book Structure

Introduction and Book Structure

CHAPTER Introduction and Book Structure 1 CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 Introduction ...

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Introduction and Book Structure

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CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Structure of the book............................................................................................ 5 Part I: The Internet of Things global context ...................................................5 Chapter 2: M2M to IoT the vision..................................................................... 6 Chapter 3: M2M to IoT a market perspective.................................................... 6 Chapter 4: M2M to IoT an architectural overview .............................................. 6 Part II: Nuts and bolts of M2M and IoT ..........................................................6 Chapter 5: M2M and IoT technology fundamentals .............................................. 6 Chapters 6, 7 & 8: IoT architecture ...................................................................... 6 Chapter 9: Real-world design constraints ............................................................. 6 Part III: Implementation examples .................................................................6 Chapter 10: Asset management........................................................................... 7 Chapter 11: Industrial automation........................................................................ 7 Chapter 12: The smart grid.................................................................................. 7 Chapter 13: Commercial building automation....................................................... 7 Chapter 14: Smart cities ...................................................................................... 7 Chapter 15: Participatory sensing ........................................................................ 7 Chapter 16: Conclusion and looking ahead .......................................................... 8 Part IV: Appendices ......................................................................................8

1.1 Introduction This book provides a thorough and high-level analysis for anyone wishing to learn about how Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are being implemented and deployed in various industries, and also cities. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the topics covered and the structure of the book. The number of “connected devices” (i.e. devices connected to the Internet) is growing and is expected to continue to grow exponentially as people From Machine-to-Machine to the Internet of Things: Introduction to a New Age of Intelligence. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407684-6.00001-2 © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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increase the numbers of devices they purchase. Worldwide, mobile phone subscriptions have already exceeded 3 billion. End-users are also starting to use multiple devices (e.g. iPads, Kindles, mobile handsets, digital TVs, etc.). In addition, however, millions of new types of devices are emerging that allow machines to be connected to one another. These devices will communicate and offer services via the Internet, creating a new wave of innovation from both a technical and societal perspective. This explosive growth is unprecedented within not just the communications industries, but also the wider global economy. This growth in the use of connected devices, M2M, and the IoT is expected to rapidly disrupt several business sectors in the next 5 10 years (Figure 1.1). In addition, the traffic generated for M2M devices is predicted to grow 22-fold from 2011 2016. In addition to all this, M2M solutions and services have a wider role to play in the future of our world. The year 2007 was a landmark year for the world: for the first time in history, more than 50% of the world’s population was living in cities rather than rural areas (UN-HABITAT, 2011). This trend sees no signs of reversing. The infrastructure of cities and nations must therefore adapt accordingly, from roads, lighting, metro/commuter trains, and pipelines, to name just a few (HM Treasury 2011). Much of this infrastructure will be instrumented with sensors and actuators for more efficient management, and all these devices associated with infrastructure will be connected to large-scale data analysis and management systems, the data of which needs effective capture, analysis, and visualization in order to be applied effectively in the development of smart, sustainable societies and cities. In the UK alone, this market represents a significant investment by both the government and private sector alike. The use of M2M and IoT in assisting the delivery of economic, social, and environmental outcomes for nations and regions is rapidly becoming an area of concern for professionals working in this space (Broadband Commission 2012). The unprecedented numbers of devices foreseen, in combination with the vertical nature of many M2M applications, create an interesting set of barriers to success for anyone wishing to implement a solution based on these technologies. The deployment and operation costs of traditional telecom platforms adapted to handle the traffic load from tens of billions of additional connected devices would be a prohibitively high investment. Moreover, due to the specialized nature of the cases where M2M technologies will be applied, a fragmented ecosystem is emerging in each of the

1.2 Structure of the book

Speed of uptake High

Transport/ automotive

Retail

Government Healthcare

Education

Utilities

Security Consumer goods Construction

Banking/financial services

Med Med

High Disruptive potential of ICT

FIGURE 1.1 M2M disrupts several business sectors. (Ericsson 2012)

solution “silos.” Such industrial dynamics create barriers to entry for individuals and companies wanting to develop M2M applications or services, from supporting a mix of diverse devices and billing, to handling settlement and commission across the value chain. Understanding how corporations and governments should respond to these changes is therefore a critical need for corporations, cities, and governments. The following section outlines the structure of the book as it covers these issues.

1.2 Structure of the book Part I: The Internet of Things global context Part I outlines the global context of M2M and the move towards IoT, including technology and business drivers.

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Chapter 2: M2M to IoT the vision Chapter 2 provides an overview of how M2M solutions will move towards IoT, including the reasons that this is now occurring on the market. Chapter 3: M2M to IoT a market perspective Chapter 3 provides an overview of the market drivers and industrial structures for the move from M2M to IoT. Chapter 4: M2M to IoT an architectural overview Chapter 4 provides an overview of the architecture for IoT, including the overall design principles that sit behind the various architectures put forward by different standards bodies.

Part II: Nuts and bolts of M2M and IoT In Part II, the technology building blocks of M2M and IoT solutions are presented, as well as the architecture. Chapter 5: M2M and IoT technology fundamentals This chapter provides an overview of relevant technologies for building M2M service solutions with a focus on the technologies that can be deployed widely, including: Devices and Device Gateways, Data Management, Business Process Engineering, and Cloud Technologies. Chapters 6, 7 & 8: IoT architecture These chapters together investigate how the different technologies introduced in Chapter 5 fit together in overall architectures, with reference to relevant system-level standards, including ETSI M2M and IoT-A. Chapter 9: Real-world design constraints Chapter 9 outlines design constraints that need to be taken into account when developing real-world technical solutions.

Part III: Implementation examples Part III covers real-world implementation examples of M2M and IoT solutions.

1.2 Structure of the book

Chapter 10: Asset management Chapter 10 discusses Asset Monitoring, which enables the remote tracking and management of inventory in the field. Typically such functionality involves the collection of the exact location and state of assets at regular intervals for the purposes of improving the business (e.g. preventing stockouts) or reducing risks (e.g. of getting lost). Chapter 11: Industrial automation Chapter 11 covers the emerging approach in industrial environments, which is to create system intelligence by a large population of intelligent, small, networked, embedded devices at a high level of granularity, as opposed to the traditional approach of focusing intelligence on a few large and monolithic applications within industrial solutions. Chapter 12: The smart grid Chapter 12 covers the Smart Grid, a revolution currently transforming the electricity system. Rapid advances in IT are increasingly being integrated in several infrastructure layers of the electricity grid and its associated operations. M2M interactions create new capabilities in the monitoring and management of the electricity grid, and the interaction between its stakeholders. Chapter 13: Commercial building automation Chapter 13 covers commercial buildings and the use of IoT. The purpose of a building automation systems is typically to reduce energy and maintenance costs, as well as to increase control, comfort, reliability, and ease of use for maintenance staff and tenants. M2M and IoT are starting to play an increasingly important role within Commercial Building Automation. Chapter 14: Smart cities Chapter 14 covers Smart Cities, an emerging and increasingly important field of application for IoT. This includes how sensors and associated IoT systems are being applied and linked to other paradigms (e.g. open data initiatives). Chapter 15: Participatory sensing Chapter 15 covers Participatory Sensing (PS), or Urban, Citizen, or People-Centric Sensing. This is a form of citizen engagement for the

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purposes of capturing the city surrounding environment and daily life. This chapter covers a few examples of such scenarios. Chapter 16: Conclusion and looking ahead Chapter 16 provides a brief overview of the future for IoT.

Part IV: Appendices Part IV lists the abbreviations and references for the book.