Is it ‘No pain, no gain or ‘Pain, no gain’? Reconsidering the impact of pain on movement and learning

Is it ‘No pain, no gain or ‘Pain, no gain’? Reconsidering the impact of pain on movement and learning

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18S (2014) e136–e162 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport jou...

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Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18S (2014) e136–e162

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsams

Saturday 18 October Papers

1 PA Guidelines Panel/Debate Npac A copy of this abstract may be made available at a later date (not available at time of printing).

may lead to the development of sub-standard physical qualities (or even de-training), and reductions in playing performance. Performance enhancement and injury prevention: A second, but equally important challenge facing coaches is the prevention of injuries. Studies of the risk factors for injury have shown that players with well-developed physical qualities are at reduced risk of injury. These findings have important implications for conditioning coaches:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.11.127 Keynote 2 Training load, injury, and fitness in team sports: Should we be training smarter and harder? T. Gabbett 1,2 1

School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Australia 2 School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Australia The training–performance relationship: The training– performance relationship is of particular importance to coaches to determine the optimum amount of training required to attain specific performance levels. Several studies have investigated the influence of training load on athletic performance, with performance generally improving with increases in training load. However, it has also been shown that negative adaptations (e.g. fatigue, overtraining) to exercise training are dose related, with the highest incidence of illness and injury occurring when training loads are highest. The challenge: Coaches of professional sports require as many of their best players physically fit (i.e. injury free and with welldeveloped physical qualities), and available for selection, as often as possible. High training loads, designed to develop physical qualities, are thought to be critical to prepare players for the physical demands of competition, as well as develop the mental durability to tolerate the ‘fatigue’ that presents during the intensity of weekto-week competition. Despite the likely benefits of high training loads, it has also been shown that excessive and rapid increases in training loads increase the risk of soft-tissue injury. Paradoxically, the high training loads designed to improve physical fitness and performance, may lead to injuries, reduced team cohesion, and subsequent reductions in performance. Conversely, the prescription of low training loads in an attempt to minimise soft-tissue injury risk, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.11.005 1440-2440/

1. Should training be focused on reducing training loads to prevent soft-tissue injuries, at the possible expense of developing physical qualities? or 2. Should training be focused on delivering high training loads in an attempt to develop physical qualities that not only enhance playing performance, but also reduce the risk of injury? Summary: This paper discusses a series of studies that explore the factors critical to performance in team sports; specifically addressing the relationship between physical qualities, training load, and injury risk. The potential of excessive and rapid increases in training loads contributing to soft-tissue injuries is discussed, along with the possibility of high training loads offering a protective effect against injuries due to its mediating effect on the development of physical qualities. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.11.128 Keynote 3 Is it ‘No pain, no gain or ‘Pain, no gain’? Reconsidering the impact of pain on movement and learning P. Hodges Topics to discuss would include the following and the answers are not always obvious and several issue require consideration for optimal exercise planning. • • • •

How does pain impact motor learning and retention? How does pain change the quality of movement? How does pain interact with strength and endurance training? Do we need to consider pain when a person trains?

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.11.129